Đồng Khánh

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Emperor Đồng Khánh
Emperor of Đại Nam under French protectorate of Annam and Tonkin
DongKhanh.jpg
Emperor Đồng Khánh
Emperor of Đại Nam
Reign19 September 1885–28 January 1889
PredecessorHàm Nghi
SuccessorThành Thái
Emperor of Nguyễn Dynasty
Reign19 September 1885–28 January 1889
PredecessorHàm Nghi
SuccessorThành Thái
Born19 February 1864
Imperial City, Huế, Đại Nam
DiedJanuary 28, 1889(1889-01-28) (aged 24)
Imperial City, Huế, Annam, French Indochina
Burial
Spouse11 concubines
Issue9 including 6 sons and 3 daughter
prince Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo
Full name
Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Thị ()
Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ ()
Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đường ()
Nguyễn Phúc Biện ()
Era name and dates
Đồng Khánh (): 1885–1889
Posthumous name
Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝)
Phối Thiên Minh Vận Hiếu Đức Nhân Vũ Vĩ Công Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (配天明運孝德仁武偉功弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝) (1916)
Temple name
Cảnh Tông ()
HouseNguyễn
FatherNguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai (son of Thiệu Trị)
MotherConcubine Bùi Thị Thanh
ReligionRuism, Buddhism
SignatureEmperor Đồng Khánh's signature

Đồng Khánh (Hanoi: [ɗəwŋ͡m˨˩ xajŋ̟˧˦], Hán tự: , lit. "collective celebration"; 19 February 1864 – 28 January 1889), born Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (阮福膺祺) or Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đường (阮福膺禟), also known as Chánh Mông (正蒙), was the ninth emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. He reigned three years between 1885 and 1889. His royal temple name was Cảnh Tông (景宗).

Biography[edit]

Đồng Khánh was given birth in 19 December 1864 at Imperial city of Huế. He got the childhood name Chánh Mông when he was brought up in Chánh Mông palace. Đồng Khánh was the eldest son of Prince Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai (son of emperor Thiệu Trị) and Concubine Bùi Thị Thanh.

As his uncle, Emperor Tự Đức, had no children, Đồng Khánh was adopted and made the title Kiên Giang quận công (Duke of Kiên Giang).

Rule[edit]

Imperial examination at Nam Định during Đồng Khánh's era in (1888).

After the French armies captured the city of Huế and the Purple Forbidden City fell to the French, hen court regents Nguyễn Văn Tường and Tôn Thất Thuyết took the young Emperor Hàm Nghi escaped from the Purple Forbidden City of Huế, and took him to the mountains as the figurehead of a revolutionary movement against the French. To take away the legitimacy of Hàm Nghi, general de Courcy and résident de Champeaux of France asked the empress dowager Nghi Thiên to enthrone prince Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (Hàm Nghi's elder half brother). In 19 September 1885, Prince Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ had to go to the governor of Annam to attend his cornoration, he became the ninth emperor of Đại Nam with the era name of Đồng Khánh.

The emperor showed himself as the Pro-French ruler and this thing was also mentioned in Diary of Trần Trọng Kim:

"Emperor Đồng Khánh had a gentle personality, loved to wear luxurious jewelry and adopted French culture therefore French colonial government gave favor to him. After the dethroned emperor Hàm Nghi fled to Quảng Bình, Đồng Khánh accepted the French request of travelling to Quảng Bình to persuade Hàm Nghi and his loyal subjects surrender but unsuccessful. After that, Hàm Nghi was betrayed by his loyal subject Trương Quang Ngọc, then he was captured by French and exiled in Algérie."

Death[edit]

In 28/01/1889, Đồng Khánh died at aged 24 after reigning in 3 years.he was granted the Posthumous name as Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝), with temple name Cảnh Tông (景宗).

In 1916, his son (Emperor Khải Định) granted him as Phối Thiên Minh Vận Hiếu Đức Nhân Vũ Vĩ Công Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (配天明運孝德仁武偉功弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝). He was buried in Tư Lăng mausoleum (思陵) which is located at Dương Xuân Thượng village, Hương Thuỷm commune, Thừa Thiên Province.

Relatives[edit]

Madame Nhu, the First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955–63, was a great-granddaughter of Đồng Khánh.[1][2][3]

  • Father: Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai (阮福洪侅), title Thuần Nghị Kiên Thái Vương (純毅堅太王).
  • Mother: Bùi Thị Thanh (裴氏清), title Thuần Nghị Kiên Thái Vương Phi (純毅堅太王妃).
  • Concubine:
  1. Empress Phụ Thiên Thuần of Nguyễn Hữu family(輔天純皇后阮有氏; 22/12/1870 - 09/11/1935), courtesy name Học Khương (學姜); historical book record as Đức Thánh Cung (德聖宮). Daughter of Vĩnh Lai Quận công (Duke of Vĩnh Lai), House of secret council mandarin Nguyễn Hữu Độ. She was the first one who becomes the Imperial Noble consort (equivalent to the empress of Nguyen dynasty) and never been a title of concubine before. When her husband died and his son was young, the new Emperor stripped all her title, Khai Dinh became the Emperor then she became The Empress dowager, after The imperial consort dowager of Dương family became the Khôn Nghi Empress Dowager she has been became Khôn Nguyên Empress Dowager.
  2. Empress Hựu Thiên Thuần of Dương family(佑天純皇后楊氏; 18/04/1868 - 17/09/1944), hometown in Phú Lộc commune, Thừa Thiên province, Daughter of Phú Lộc Quận công (Duke of Phú Lộc) Dương Quang Hướng. She is the mother of Emperor Khải Định. She was the Sixth rank lady, and the Emperor promoted her to the Forth rank concubine Hòa, and then the third rank concubine Nghi, Khai Dinh Emperor gave her the title of The imperial consort dowager in 1916, The Empress dowager Khôn Nghi in 1923 and Bao Dai become the Emperor, she now was the great empress dowager Khôn Nghi in 1933. She was the last Great Empress Dowager of VietNam.
  3. First rank consort Quý of Nguyễn family (The first official wife of the Emperor, she died before her husband becomes Emperor. She was the Concubine Nghĩa and Khai Dinh Emperor gave her the title of the First rank consort but not the Empress.
  4. Second rank Consort Quan of Trần Đăng family (关妃陈登氏). (She was the highest rank consort of the Emperor harem, because of her vulgar behavior, the emperor stripped her first rank title of consort and demoted her to the fifth rank concubine Tùy. Emperor Khai Dinh gave her back the title first rank consort Quan.)
  5. Second rank Consort Giai of Phan Văn family (佳妃潘文氏). (She was the first rank consort Giai and she had a right to support the Imperial noble consort of Nguyễn Hữu family in control the harem's life. due to her dismiss of her duty and she loses the jewel of the palace so the Emperor demoted her to the eight rank lady. Like Consort Quan, Khai Dinh Emperor gave her back the first rank title consort Giai.)
  6. Concubine Chính of Hồ Văn family (正嫔胡文氏). (She was the Concubine Chính but she was be demoted to the eighth rank lady due to her laziness)
  7. Third rank Concubine Nghi of Nguyễn Văn family (宜嫔阮文氏). (she was the Concubine Chính, due to her cruel and she harm the other concubine of the Emperor, he demoted her to the shortest rank of the harem.)
  8. Concubine Dự of Trần Văn family (裕嫔陈文氏).
  9. Sixth Rank lady of Hồ family (婕妤胡氏). (she born 3 princesses)
  10. Sixth rank lady of Mai Văn family.
  11. Seventh rank lady of Nguyễn Văn family.
  12. Eighth rank lady of Nguyễn Hữu family.
  13. Ninth rank lady of Trịnh Văn family.
  14. Palace maid of Mai family
  15. Palace maid Thị Điền of Nguyễn family (she stole the emperor's imperial robe so he ordered her to be hanged.)
  16. Palace maid Bá Hiệp (mother of Hân Hân princes)
  17. palace maid Lưu Ngân.
  • Successors:
  • Princes:
  1. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo (阮福寶嶹): emperor Khải Định
  2. An Hóa Quận vương (Duke of An Hóa) Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Tung (安化郡王阮福寶𡾼)
  3. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Nguy (阮福宝巍).
  4. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Nga (阮福寶峨).
  5. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Cát (阮福寶嶱).
  6. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Quyền (阮福寶巏).
  • Princess:
  1. Ngọc Lâm princess "Nguyễn Phúc Hỷ Duyệt" (玉林公主阮福喜悦).
  2. Ngọc Sơn princess "Nguyễn Phúc Hỷ Hỷ" (玉山公主阮福喜喜).
  3. Princess Nguyễn Phúc Hân Hân.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Erica J. Peters - Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: 2011 "His dramatic embrace of Western grand cuisine met with the approval of his French overlords, though whether other Vietnamese saw Đồng Khánh as manipulating the French or as a puppet depended on their own political perspective."
  2. ^ Vietnamese Royal Exile in Japan - Page 27 "Meanwhile, Đồng Khánh assumed the throne after Hàm Nghi vas removed from power. To some degree Đồng Khánh benefited from French efforts to restore Some prestige to the Vietnamese monarchy, the demise of which was one of the ..."
  3. ^ Christian Culas, François Robinne Inter-Ethnic Dynamics in Asia: Considering the Other 2009 "EMPEROR ĐồNG KHÁNH'S DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY (1888) Another important source written in characters on the ethnic populations of northern Vietnam is the Emperor Đồng Khánh's Descriptive Geography (Ngô Duc Tho, Nguyên Văn .
Đồng Khánh
Born: 19 February 1864 Died: 28 January 1889
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hàm Nghi
Emperor of Vietnam
1885–1889
Succeeded by
Thành Thái