116th United States Congress
|116th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2018)
|January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021|
|Senate President||Mike Pence (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Chuck Grassley (R)|
|House Speaker||Nancy Pelosi (D)|
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 3, 2019 – TBD|
2nd: TBD – TBD
The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.
In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th (2013–2015), and the first Republican Senate/Democrat House split since the 99th (1985–1987). This Congress is considered to be the most diverse ever elected, and the youngest in the past three cycles.
- 1 Major events
- 2 Major legislation
- 3 Party summary
- 4 Leadership
- 5 Demographics and other information
- 6 Members
- 6.1 Senate
- 6.1.1 Alabama
- 6.1.2 Alaska
- 6.1.3 Arizona
- 6.1.4 Arkansas
- 6.1.5 California
- 6.1.6 Colorado
- 6.1.7 Connecticut
- 6.1.8 Delaware
- 6.1.9 Florida
- 6.1.10 Georgia
- 6.1.11 Hawaii
- 6.1.12 Idaho
- 6.1.13 Illinois
- 6.1.14 Indiana
- 6.1.15 Iowa
- 6.1.16 Kansas
- 6.1.17 Kentucky
- 6.1.18 Louisiana
- 6.1.19 Maine
- 6.1.20 Maryland
- 6.1.21 Massachusetts
- 6.1.22 Michigan
- 6.1.23 Minnesota
- 6.1.24 Mississippi
- 6.1.25 Missouri
- 6.1.26 Montana
- 6.1.27 Nebraska
- 6.1.28 Nevada
- 6.1.29 New Hampshire
- 6.1.30 New Jersey
- 6.1.31 New Mexico
- 6.1.32 New York
- 6.1.33 North Carolina
- 6.1.34 North Dakota
- 6.1.35 Ohio
- 6.1.36 Oklahoma
- 6.1.37 Oregon
- 6.1.38 Pennsylvania
- 6.1.39 Rhode Island
- 6.1.40 South Carolina
- 6.1.41 South Dakota
- 6.1.42 Tennessee
- 6.1.43 Texas
- 6.1.44 Utah
- 6.1.45 Vermont
- 6.1.46 Virginia
- 6.1.47 Washington
- 6.1.48 West Virginia
- 6.1.49 Wisconsin
- 6.1.50 Wyoming
- 6.2 House of Representatives
- 6.2.1 Alabama
- 6.2.2 Alaska
- 6.2.3 Arizona
- 6.2.4 Arkansas
- 6.2.5 California
- 6.2.6 Colorado
- 6.2.7 Connecticut
- 6.2.8 Delaware
- 6.2.9 Florida
- 6.2.10 Georgia
- 6.2.11 Hawaii
- 6.2.12 Idaho
- 6.2.13 Illinois
- 6.2.14 Indiana
- 6.2.15 Iowa
- 6.2.16 Kansas
- 6.2.17 Kentucky
- 6.2.18 Louisiana
- 6.2.19 Maine
- 6.2.20 Maryland
- 6.2.21 Massachusetts
- 6.2.22 Michigan
- 6.2.23 Minnesota
- 6.2.24 Mississippi
- 6.2.25 Missouri
- 6.2.26 Montana
- 6.2.27 Nebraska
- 6.2.28 Nevada
- 6.2.29 New Hampshire
- 6.2.30 New Jersey
- 6.2.31 New Mexico
- 6.2.32 New York
- 6.2.33 North Carolina
- 6.2.34 North Dakota
- 6.2.35 Ohio
- 6.2.36 Oklahoma
- 6.2.37 Oregon
- 6.2.38 Pennsylvania
- 6.2.39 Rhode Island
- 6.2.40 South Carolina
- 6.2.41 South Dakota
- 6.2.42 Tennessee
- 6.2.43 Texas
- 6.2.44 Utah
- 6.2.45 Vermont
- 6.2.46 Virginia
- 6.2.47 Washington
- 6.2.48 West Virginia
- 6.2.49 Wisconsin
- 6.2.50 Wyoming
- 6.2.51 Non-voting members
- 6.1 Senate
- 7 Changes in membership
- 8 Committees
- 9 Employees and legislative agency directors
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown
- January 3, 2019: Nancy Pelosi elected Speaker of the House, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.
- February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address, after being delayed from January 29, 2019, due to the partial government shutdown.
- February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States.
- February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee, accusing Trump of several financial fraud crimes.
- March 15, 2019: President Trump issued his first veto.
- February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub.L. 116–6,H.J. 31
- March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act
- Pub.L. 116–9
- March 15, 2019: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a national emergency declaration at the southern border. (H.J.Res. 46)
- Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||47||2||50||99||1|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)||45||2||52||99||1|
|January 8, 2019[a]||53||100||0|
|Latest voting share||47.0%||53.0%|
House of Representatives
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||196||0||236||432||3|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)[b]||235||0||199||434||1|
|January 23, 2019[c]||198||433||2|
|February 10, 2019[d]||197||432||3|
|Latest voting share||54.4%||0.0%||45.6%|
- President: Mike Pence (R)
- President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley (R)
- President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy (D)
Majority (Republican) Leadership
- Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell
- Majority Whip: John Thune
- Conference Chair: John Barrasso
- Conference Vice Chair: Joni Ernst
- Policy Committee Chair: Roy Blunt
- Campaign Committee Chair: Todd Young
- Steering Committee Chair: Mike Lee
- Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo
- Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young
Minority (Democratic) Leadership
- Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer
- Minority Whip: Dick Durbin
- Assistant Leader: Patty Murray
- Policy Committee Chair: Debbie Stabenow
- Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren
- Steering Committee Chair: Amy Klobuchar
- Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders
- Policy Committee Vice Chair: Joe Manchin
- Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin
- Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto
- Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz
House of Representatives
Majority (Democratic) Leadership
- Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer
- Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn
- Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján
- Caucus Chair: Hakeem Jeffries
- Caucus Vice Chair: Katherine Clark
- Campaign Committee Chair: Cheri Bustos
- Policy and Communications Committee Chair: David Cicilline
- Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu
- Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell
- Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond
- Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky
- Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch
Minority (Republican) Leadership
- Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy
- Minority Whip: Steve Scalise
- Conference Chair: Liz Cheney
- Conference Vice Chair: Mark Walker
- Conference Secretary: Jason Smith
- Policy Committee Chair: Gary Palmer
- Campaign Committee Chair: Tom Emmer
- Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson
Demographics and other information
The Senate includes 75 men and 25 women, the greatest female Senate representation to date. Additionally, there are six states - California, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, Minnesota, and New Hampshire - where both senators are women. 13 states are represented by one male and one female senator, while 31 states are represented by two male senators.
11 senators have either previously or are currently running for president - 2012 GOP nominee Mitt Romney; 2016 candidates Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, Rand Paul, and Lindsey Graham; and 2020 declared candidates Bernie Sanders (who also ran in 2016), Elizabeth Warren, Amy Klobuchar, Cory Booker, Kirsten Gillibrand, and Kamala Harris.
House of Representatives
Men number 330 members and women number 102 in the House of Representatives, the largest number of women in history.
Non-Hispanic whites number 313, 56 members are black, 44 are Hispanic, 15 are Asian, and four are Native American. Identifying as LGBTQ+ are eight representatives.
Two women in the House - Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) at 29 and Donna Shalala (D-FL) at 77 - are the youngest and oldest female freshman representatives in history, respectively. Ocasio-Cortez is also the first member of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) - along with fellow freshman Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) - to be elected to congress. Tlaib and fellow freshman Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two Muslim women to serve in congress. Additionally, freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) were the first two female Native Americans to be elected into Congress.
Also among the House freshmen are two former National Football League (NFL) players - Colin Allred (D-TX), and Anthony Gonzalez (R-OH), and the brother of Vice President Mike Pence - Greg Pence (R-IN).
Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%, the highest percentage in American history. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.
House of Representatives
Changes in membership
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Vacant||Senator-elect delayed accession to office to finish term as Governor of Florida.||Rick Scott
|January 8, 2019|
House of Representatives
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|North Carolina 9||Vacant||Vacant since the January 3, 2019 beginning of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election will be held September 10, 2019.
|Pennsylvania 12||Tom Marino
|Resigned January 23, 2019 to take job in private sector.
A special election will be held May 21, 2019.
|North Carolina 3||Walter B. Jones Jr.
|Died February 10, 2019.
A special election will be held July 9, 2019.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chair and Ranking Member.
House of Representatives
|Committee||Chair||Vice Chair||Ranking Member||Vice Ranking Member|
|Economic||Mike Lee (R-UT)||Carolyn Maloney (D-NY)||TBD||Martin Heinrich (D-NM)|
|Library||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)|
|Printing||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)|
|Taxation||Rich Neal (D-MA)||Chuck Grassley (R-IA)||Ron Wyden (D-OR)||Kevin Brady (R-TX)|
Employees and legislative agency directors
This section needs to be updated.January 2019)(
Often called "Elected" leaders, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here.
- Chaplain: Barry C. Black
- Parliamentarian: Elizabeth MacDonough
- Secretary: Julie E. Adams
- Sergeant at Arms: Michael C. Stenger
- Secretary for the Majority: Laura Dove
- Secretary for the Minority: Gary B. Myrick
House of Representatives
- Chaplain: Patrick J. Conroy
- Chief Administrative Officer: Phil Kiko
- Clerk: Cheryl Johnson
- Historian: Matthew Wasniewski
- Parliamentarian: Thomas J. Wickham Jr.
- Sergeant at Arms: Paul D. Irving
Legislative branch agency directors
- Architect of the Capitol: Stephen T. Ayers
- Comptroller General of the United States: Eugene Louis Dodaro
- Director of the Congressional Budget Office: Keith Hall
- Librarian of Congress: Carla Diane Hayden
- Public Printer of the United States: Jim C. Bradley
- 2018 United States elections (elections leading to this Congress)
- 2020 United States elections (elections during this Congress, leading to the next Congress)
- Rick Scott (R-Florida) assumed office on January 8, 2019, after his term as Governor of Florida expired.
- In North Carolina's 9th district: the November 2018 election results were not initially certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities.
- In Pennsylvania's 12th district: Tom Marino (R) resigned January 23, 2019.
- In North Carolina's 3rd district: Walter Jones (R) died February 10, 2019.
- The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
- Although Sanders is running for President in the Democratic primary and will claim to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is currently and officially an Independent Senator.
- Jin, Beatrice (January 7, 2019) [First published November 23, 2018]. "Congress's incoming class is younger, bluer, and more diverse than ever". Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- Bresnahan, John; Caygle, Heather; Bade, Rachel (November 28, 2018). "Pelosi grabs momentum with big speaker vote". Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- DBonis, Mike; Sullivan, Sean (January 3, 2019). "Pelosi re-elected as House speaker as 116th Congress opens". The Mercury News. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- "PRESIDENT TRUMP STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS". Associated Press. February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Gay Stolberg, Sheryl (January 23, 2019). "Trump Say's He'll Delay Speech Until After Shutdown, as Democrats Draft Border Security Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- "Michael D. Cohen's Congressional Testimony". The New York Times. February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- "Leadership & Officers". Senate.gov. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
- Wagner, John; DeBonis, Mike (November 14, 2018). "Congressional leadership elections: House Republicans elect Kevin McCarthy as next leader; Pelosi seeks to shore up votes for speaker". The Washington Post PowerPost blog. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- Fandos, Nicholas (November 14, 2018). "House Republicans Pick Kevin McCarthy as Their Next Leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- Bolton, Alexander (November 14, 2018). "McConnell reelected as leader, Thune promoted to whip". The Hill. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Senator Lankford to Serve on Deputy Whip Team for 116th Congress
- Lesniewski, Niels (January 3, 2019). "Dick Durbin says he's running for Senate re-election in 2020, unofficially". Roll Call. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- Lesniewski, Niels (November 15, 2018). "Catherine Cortez Masto Becomes First Latina to Lead DSCC". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Schatz, Booker Elevated To Leadership Posts
- McPherson, Lindsey; McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Steny Hoyer Elected House Majority Leader". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "James Clyburn Elected Majority Whip". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Rep. Ben Ray Luján Elected Assistant Democratic Leader". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Hakeem Jeffries Wins Democratic Caucus Chair Race Against Barbara Lee". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- McPherson, Lindsey (November 29, 2018). "Katherine Clark Elected House Democratic Caucus Vice Chair". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- Pathé, Simone (November 29, 2018). "Cheri Bustos Elected DCCC Chair". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- McPherson, Lindsey (December 4, 2018). "House Democrats' New Elected Leadership Team Is More Progressive and Diverse". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- "DeGette dropped from chief deputy whip spot". 2018-12-13. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- "Here's the List of House Republican Leaders for the Next Congress". Roll Call. November 14, 2018. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- McPherson, Lindsey (November 27, 2018). "Scalise Appoints Rep. Drew Ferguson as House GOP's Chief Deputy Whip". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Edmondson, Catie; Lee, Jasmine C. (November 28, 2018). "Meet the New Freshmen in Congress: More Democrats, Diversity and Women". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Jin, Beatrice (November 23, 2018). "Congress's incoming class is younger, bluer, and more diverse than ever". Politico. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "A record number of women will be serving in the new Congress". Pew Research. December 18, 2018. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- Panetta, Grace; Lee, Samantha (December 16, 2018). "This one graphic shows how much more diverse the House of Representatives will become in January". Business Insider. Archived from the original on December 23, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Grow, Jason (January 18, 2019). "'We Call Ourselves the Badasses': Meet the New Women of Congress". POLITICO. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
- Democratic Socialists of America score wins in the midterms... NBC News
- "First Native American congresswomen hug after swearing-in". CNN. January 3, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- "Faith on the Hill". 2019-01-03. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- Women Elected at Historic Levels, But No Surprise Here: White Men Dominate 116th Congress Archived November 21, 2018, at the Wayback Machine November 7, 2018
- As Christians split over Trump, minority faiths make their mark Archived January 2, 2019, at the Wayback Machine November 7, 2018
- Sonmez, Felicia (January 8, 2019). "Rick Scott sworn in as Florida's newest senator". South Florida SunSentinel. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
- Indpendent Bernie Sanders to put in writing that he's a bona fide Democrat - WMUR.com
- Sullivan, Kate. "Walter Jones dies at 76". CNN. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- Burke, Michael. "GOP Rep. Tom Marino resigns from Congress". The Hill. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann. "New election ordered in North Carolina House district after possible illegal activities". NBC News. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- Tom Wolf [@GovernorTomWolf] (January 24, 2019). "Having heard the concerns of county officials, I am scheduling the special election to fill the remainder of Congressman Marino's term on May 21, 2019 to coincide with the primary election" (Tweet). Retrieved January 24, 2019 – via Twitter.
- Solender, Andrew [@AndrewSolender] (December 11, 2018). "The office of @SenSchumer has released an official list of Senate Democratic Ranking Members and Vice Chairmen" (Tweet). Retrieved December 11, 2018 – via Twitter.
- The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.
- "The Office of the Chaplain, United States House of Representatives". Chaplain.House.gov. Retrieved January 8, 2019.