1790 and 1791 United States Senate elections

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1790 and 1791 United States Senate elections

← 1788/89 Dates vary by state 1792/93 →

9 of the 26 seats in the United States Senate, plus special elections
14 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 19 seats 7 seats
Seats before 18 6
Seats after 17 8
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Seats up 7 2
Races won 8 2

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Elected Majority faction

Pro-Administration

The United States Senate elections of 1790 and 1791 were the second series of elections of Senators in the United States. In these elections, terms were up for the nine Senators in Class 1. As of these elections, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported President George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party.

As these elections were prior to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Before the elections[edit]

After the June 25, 1790 elections in Rhode Island.

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6
Penn.
Ran
A7
Va.
Ran
P19
N.J.
Unknown
P18
R.I.
Ran
P17
N.Y.
Ran
P16
Mass.
Ran
P15
Md.
Ran
P14
Del.
Ran
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Conn.
Ran
P3 P2 P1

Results of the general elections[edit]

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5 A6
Va.
Re-elected
A7
N.Y.
Gain
V1
Penn.
A Loss
P18
N.J.
Hold
P17
Mass.
Hold
P16
R.I.
Re-elected
P15
Md.
Re-elected
P14
Del.
Re-elected
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13
Conn.
Re-elected
P3 P2 P1

Results of the special elections[edit]

A3 A2 A1
A4 A5
Va.
Gain
A6 A7 A8 V1 P17 P16 P15 P14
Majority →
P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12
N.J.
Hold
P13
P3 P2 P1
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

General and special elections during the 1st Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated before March 4, 1791; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
New senator elected June 7, 1790.
Pro-Administration gain.
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
New seat Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790.
New senator elected June 7, 1790.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia
(Special: Class 1)
John Walker Pro-Administration 1790 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
New senator elected November 9, 1790.
Anti-Administration gain.
New Jersey
(Special: Class 2)
William Paterson Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned November 13, 1790 to become Governor of New Jersey.
New senator elected November 13, 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.

Races leading to the 2nd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were seated March 4, 1791; ordered by state.

All of these elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Oliver Ellsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected on an unknown date.
Delaware George Read Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected October 23, 1790.
Maryland Charles Carroll Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1791.
Massachusetts Tristram Dalton Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1790 on the third ballot.
Pro-Administration hold.
New Jersey Jonathan Elmer Pro-Administration 1788 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
New York Philip Schuyler Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 19, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Pennsylvania William Maclay Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect a successor, leaving the seat vacant.
Anti-Administration loss.
None.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1791.
Virginia James Monroe Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1791.

Special and general elections in 1791 during the 2nd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated after March 4, 1791, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
William S. Johnson Pro-Administration 1788 Resigned March 4, 1791.
New senator elected June 13, 1791.
Pro-Administration hold.
Vermont
(Class 1)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
New senator elected October 17, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Vermont
(Class 3)
New seat Vermont was admitted to the Union March 4, 1791.
New senator elected October 17, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut (Special)[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey (Special)[edit]

New York[edit]

The election in New York was held January 19, 1791 by the New York State Legislature.

Incumbent Philip Schuyler's term would expire March 3, 1791.

At the State election in April 1790, nominal Federalist majorities were elected to both houses of the 14th New York State Legislature, but many Federalists were friendly to the Democratic-Republican Governor George Clinton, party lines not being drawn very strictly then.

The incumbent Philip Schuyler ran for re-election as the candidate of the Federalist Party. New York State Attorney General Aaron Burr was the candidate of the Democratic-Republican Party, but was at that time a rather moderate politician, opposing the ultras of both parties.

Burr was the choice of both the State Senate and the State Assembly, and was declared elected. Schuyler was defeated despite the nominal majority of his party. Many of the Federalists took the opportunity to show their disapproval of both Schuyler's haughtiness and the financial policies of Alexander Hamilton, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and Schuyler's son-in-law. Besides, the Livingston faction of the Federalist Party felt betrayed after the election of Rufus King over their candidate James Duane in 1789, and now allied themselves with Clinton and later became Democratic-Republicans.

Office House Democratic-Republican candidate Federalist candidate
U.S. Senator State Senate (23 members) 12 Philip Schuyler 4
State Assembly (65 members) Philip Schuyler

Obs.: Burr had a majority of 5 votes in the Assembly, but the exact number of votes is unclear.

Pennsylvania[edit]

In 1791, the legislature failed to elect due to a disagreement on procedure.[5] The seat would remain vacant until 1793.[5]

Rhode Island[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Stephen R. Bradley and Moses Robinson were elected by the Vermont House of Representatives and Governor and Council in January 1791, anticipating Vermont's admission to the union.[6] Vermont was admitted as the 14th state on March 4, 1791.[7] The Senate had adjourned on March 3, at the completion of the 1st United States Congress; the 2nd United States Congress held a one-day session on March 4, and was not scheduled to convene again until October 24.[8]

As a result of this Congressional schedule Bradley and Robinson had not been seated when the Vermont House of Representatives convened in early October, 1791.[7] At this legislative session, some members suggested that the January election of Bradley and Robinson had been premature, since Vermont had not yet been admitted to the union.[7] Bradley and Robinson volunteered to resign the credentials of their January elections; on October 17, the Governor and Council voted again, and selected Bradley and Robinson.[7] The House of Representatives then voted a second time, and also selected Bradley and Robinson.[7] No vote totals were recorded.[7]

Bradley was selected for the "short term" (Class 3), which expired on March 3, 1795.[9] Robinson received the "long term" (Class 1), which expired on March 3, 1797.[10]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia (Special)[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
  2. ^ "Delaware 1790 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018., citing General Advertiser (Philadelphia). October 30, 1790.
  3. ^ "Massachusetts 1790 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018., citing The Massachusetts Centinel (Boston, MA). June 23, 1790.
  4. ^ "New York 1791 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1791. 23-24. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1791. 12. The New-York Journal, and Patriotic Register (New York, NY). January 24, 1791.
  5. ^ a b http://staffweb.wilkes.edu/harold.cox/sen/PaSen1788.pdf
  6. ^ Walton, Eliakim Persons (1876). Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont. IV. Montpelier, VT: J. and J. M. Poland. pp. 4–6.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont.
  8. ^ De Puy, W. H. (1892). American Revisions and Additions to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. III. Chicago, IL: R. S. Peale Company. pp. 1547–1548.
  9. ^ Dodge, Prentiss Cutler (1912). Encyclopedia of Vermont Biography. Burlington, VT: Ullery Publishing Company. pp. 28–29.
  10. ^ Encyclopedia of Vermont Biography.

External links[edit]