1812 and 1813 United States Senate elections

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1812 and 1813 United States Senate elections

← 1810/11 Dates vary by state 1814/15 →

12 of the 36 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
19 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 seats 7 seats
Seats before 30 6
Seats won 8 4
Seats after 28 8
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 2
Seats up 10 2

Majority Party before election


Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority Party


Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1812 and 1813 were elections that, coinciding with President James Madison's re-election, had the Democratic-Republican Party lose two seats but still retain an overwhelming majority in the United States Senate. As in recent elections, the minority Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 36, or 16.7%) that if they had won every one of the elections, they would still not have controlled a majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Composition after September 1812 elections in the new state of Louisiana.

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
DR28
Pa.
Retired
DR27
Ohio
Retired
DR26
N.C.
Retired
DR25
Ky.
Retired
DR24
Md.
Unknown
DR23
La.
Unknown
DR22
S.C.
Ran
DR21
N.Y.
Ran
DR20
Ga.
Ran
DR29
Vt.
Retired
F7
N.H.
Ran
F6
Conn.
Ran
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the general elections[edit]

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
V1
Md.
DR Loss
DR27
S.C.
Re-elected
DR26
Ga.
Re-elected
DR25
Vt.
Hold
DR24
Pa.
Hold
DR23
Ohio
Hold
DR22
N.C.
Hold
DR21
La.
Hold
DR20
Ky.
Hold
V2
N.H.
F Loss
F6
N.Y.
Gain
F5
Conn.
Re-elected
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 12th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1812 or before March 4, 1813; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 2)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural senator elected September 3, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Louisiana
(Class 3)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural senator elected September 3, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Thomas Posey Democratic-
Republican
1812 (Appointed) Jean Destréhan had resigned October 1, 1812 without having qualified.
Interim successor appointed October 8, 1812.
Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected February 4, 1813 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the 13th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1813 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1813.
Georgia Charles Tait Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1813.
Kentucky John Pope Democratic-
Republican
1806 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 12, 1813 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Louisiana Allan B. Magruder Democratic-
Republican
1812 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland Philip Reed Democratic-
Republican
1806 (Special)
1806
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
[data unknown/missing]
New Hampshire Charles Cutts Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect after 12 ballots.
Federalist loss.
Jedediah Kilburn Smith 89
John Goddard 83
Charles Cutts (Federalist) 3
David L. Morril 1[5]
New York John Smith Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
1807
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 2, 1813.
Federalist gain.
North Carolina Jesse Franklin Democratic-
Republican
1799
1804 (Lost)
1806
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio Alexander Campbell Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 6, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania Andrew Gregg Democratic-
Republican
1806 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 8, 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina John Gaillard Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
1806
Incumbent re-elected in late 1812.[10]
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Democratic-
Republican
1791
1795 (Lost)
1801 (Special)
1806
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected October 21, 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Special elections during the 13th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1813 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
James Lloyd (F) Federalist 1808 (Special)
1808
Resigned May 1, 1813.
New senator elected May 5, 1813.
Federalist hold.
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1807 (Special)
1812
Incumbent resigned May 13, 1813 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
New senator elected May 13, 1813.
Federalist hold.
Maryland
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected May 21, 1813.
Federalist gain.
Delaware
(Class 2)
James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special)
1805
1811
Resigned March 3, 1813.
New senator elected May 21, 1813.
Federalist hold.
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Charles Cutts Federalist 1810 (Special)
1813 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected June 10, 1813 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Georgia
(Class 2)
William Bulloch Democratic-
Republican
1813 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 6, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut (General)[edit]

Connecticut (Special)[edit]

Delaware (Special)[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia (General)[edit]

Georgia (Special)[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Maryland (General)[edit]

Maryland (Special)[edit]

Massachusetts (Special)[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire (General)[edit]

New Hampshire (Special)[edit]

New York[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Ohio[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

Vermont[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing American Watchman; and Delaware Republican (Wilmington, DE). October 14, 1812.
  2. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing The Louisiana Gazette and New-Orleans Advertiser (New Orleans, LA). December 3, 1812.
  3. ^ "Kentucky 1813 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing Muskingum Messenger (Zanesville, OH). January 27, 1813.
  4. ^ "Louisiana 1813 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Courrier de la Louisiane (New Orleans, LA). January 22, 1813.
  5. ^ "New Hampshire 1812 U.S. Senate, Ballot 12". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Concord Gazette (Concord, NH). December 29, 1812.
  6. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. August 8, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  7. ^ "North Carolina 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing The Star (Raleigh, NC). December 11, 1812.
  8. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901 with Notes and Sketches of Senators and Representatives and Other Historical Data and Incidents. Columbus, Ohio: The XX. Century Publishing Co. p. 98 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ "Pennsylvania 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Journal of the Pennsylvania State Senate, 1812. 41–43.
  10. ^ a b "South Carolina 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing City Gazette and Commercial Advertiser (Charleston, SC). December 10, 1812.
  11. ^ "Vermont 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Columbian Phenix: or, Providence Patriot (Providence, RI). October 31, 1812.
  12. ^ "Massachusetts 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing The Virginia Patriot (Richmond, VA). June 11, 1813.
  13. ^ "Maryland 1813 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). May 25, 1813.
  14. ^ "Delaware 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1813. 12.
  15. ^ "New Hampshire 1813 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Portsmouth Oracle (Portsmouth, NH). June 12, 1813.
  16. ^ "Georgia 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Liberty Hall (Cincinnati, OH). December 14, 1813.

External links[edit]