1834 and 1835 United States Senate elections

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1834 and 1835 United States Senate elections

← 1832/33 Dates vary by state 1836/37 →

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Anti-Jacksonian Jacksonian Nullifier
Last election 23 seats 21 seats 2 seats
Seats before 26 20 2
Seats won 6 8 1
Seats after 24 22 2
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 1 Steady
Seats up 8 7 1

Majority Party before election


Anti–Jacksonian

Elected Majority Party


Anti–Jacksonian

The United States Senate elections of 1834 and 1835 were elections that had the Anti-Jackson coalition maintain control of the United States Senate. However, during the 24th Congress, the Jacksonian coalition gained control of the Senate.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 24th Congress (1835–1837)

  • Majority Party: Jacksonian (21–31)
  • Minority Party: Anti-Jackson (24–19)
  • Other Parties: Nullifier (2)
  • Total Seats: 48–52

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19
Del.
Ran
AJ20
Miss.
Ran
AJ21
R.I.
Ran
AJ22
Va.
Ran
AJ23
La.
Unknown
AJ24
N.J.
Unknown
Majority → AJ25
Mass.
Retired
J15
Ga.
Ran
J16
Ill.
Ran
J17
N.C.
Ran
J18
Tenn.
Ran
J19
Ky.
Unknown
N1 N2
S.C.
Ran
AJ27
Maine
Resigned
AJ26
N.H.
Retired
J14
Ala.
Ran
J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4

Result of the regular elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19
Del.
Re-elected
AJ20
R.I.
Re-elected
AJ21
Va.
Re-elected
AJ22
Mass.
Hold
AJ23
Ky.
Gain
AJ24
Tenn.
Re-elected to different party
Plurality →
J15
Ga.
Re-elected
J16
Ill.
Re-elected
J17
N.C.
Re-elected
J18
Maine
Gain
J19
Miss.
Gain
J20
N.H.
Gain
J21
N.J.
Gain
N1 N2
S.C.
Re-elected
V1
La.
AJ Loss[a]
J14
Ala.
Re-elected
J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4
Key:
AJ# = Anti-Jacksonian
J# = Jacksonian
N# = Nullfier
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 23rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1834 or before March 4, 1835; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
William Rives Jacksonian 1832 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 22, 1834.
Successor elected February 26, 1834.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
William Wilkins Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1834 to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
New senator elected December 6, 1834.
Jacksonian hold.
Georgia
(Class 3)
John Forsyth Jacksonian 1818 (Special)
1819 (Resigned)
1829 (Special)
1830 or 1831
Incumbent resigned June 27, 1834 to become U.S. Minister to Spain.
New senator elected January 12, 1835.
Jacksonian hold.
Maryland
(Class 3)
Ezekiel F. Chambers Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special)
1831
Incumbent resigned December 20, 1834 to become judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.
New senator elected January 13, 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Maine
(Class 2)
Peleg Sprague Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned January 1, 1835.
New senator elected January 20, 1835.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Jacksonian gain.

Races leading to the 24th Congress[edit]

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1835; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama William R. King Jacksonian 1819
1822
1828
Incumbent re-elected in 1834.
Delaware John M. Clayton Anti-Jacksonian 1827 (Special)
1829
Incumbent re-elected in 1835.
Georgia John Pendleton King Jacksonian 1833 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1834.
Illinois John M. Robinson Jacksonian 1830 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835.
Kentucky George M. Bibb Jacksonian 1829 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected in 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Louisiana George A. Waggaman Anti-Jacksonian 1831 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected in 1835, but due to ill-health, resigned without having been seated.
Anti-Jacksonian loss.
Maine Peleg Sprague Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned December 20, 1834 to become judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.
New senator elected January 19, 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
Successor was also elected the same day to finish the term, see above.
Massachusetts Nathaniel Silsbee Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special)
1828
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1835.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Mississippi George Poindexter Anti-Jacksonian 1830 (Appointed)
1830 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
New Hampshire Samuel Bell Anti-Jacksonian 1823 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
New Jersey Theodore Frelinghuysen Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected in 1835.
Jacksonian gain.
North Carolina Bedford Brown Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835.
Rhode Island Nehemiah R. Knight Anti-Jacksonian 1821 (Special)
1823
1829
Incumbent re-elected in 1835.
South Carolina John C. Calhoun Nullifier 1832 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1834.
Tennessee Hugh Lawson White Jacksonian 1825 (Special)
1829
Incumbent re-elected in 1835 as Anti-Jacksonian.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Virginia Benjamin W. Leigh Anti-Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1835.

Special election during the 24th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1835 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Nathan Smith Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent died December 6, 1835.
New senator elected December 21, 1835.
Jacksonian gain.

Early elections during the 24th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were not seated until 1837.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Michigan
(Class 1)
New seat New state.
New senator was elected in November 1835 but not seated until January 6, 1837 due to a territorial dispute with Ohio.
Jacksonian gain.
Michigan
(Class 2)
New seat New state.
New senator was elected in November 1835 but not seated until January 6, 1837 due to a territorial dispute with Ohio.
Jacksonian gain.

Alabama[edit]

Connecticut (Special)[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia had two elections this cycle: a regular election for the class 2 seat and a special election for the class 3 seat.

Georgia (Regular)[edit]

In the class 2 seat, incumbent Jacksonian John Pendleton King, who had served since winning an 1833 special election, was re-elected sometime in 1834.

Georgia (Special)[edit]

In the class 3 seat, incumbent Jacksonian John Forsyth, who had served since winning an 1829 special election, resigned June 27, 1834 to become U.S. Minister to Spain.

Jacksonian Alfred Cuthbert was elected January 12, 1835.

Illinois[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maine[edit]

Maine had two elections this cycle, both for the class 2 seat.

Incumbent Anti-Jacksonian Peleg Sprague, who was elected in 1829, resigned January 1, 1835.

Jacksonian John Ruggles won both elections.

Maine (Regular)[edit]

Jacksonian John Ruggles was elected January 19, 1835 to the next term. He was then elected to finish the current term, see below.

Maine (Special)[edit]

Jacksonian John Ruggles was elected January 20, 1835 to finish the term that would end March 3, 1835.

Maryland (Special)[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Michigan[edit]

The new state of Michigan elected its new senators in 1835, both Jacksonians: Lucius Lyon (Class 1) and John Norvell (Class 2). They were not seated until January 26, 1837 due to a territorial dispute with Ohio.

Mississippi[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Pennsylvania (Special)[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia had two elections this cycle, both for the class 2 seat.

Incumbent Jacksonian William Rives, who had just won the 1832 special election, resigned February 22, 1834.

Anti-Jacksonian Benjamin W. Leigh won both elections.

Virginia (Regular)[edit]

Anti-Jacksonian Benjamin W. Leigh was re-elected sometime in 1835 to the next term.

Virginia (Special)[edit]

Anti-Jacksonian Benjamin W. Leigh was elected February 26, 1834 to finish the term that would end March 3, 1835. He was then elected to the next term, see above.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Winner was elected but resigned without having been seated.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Senate Election - 6 December 1834" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  2. ^ "Our Campaigns - ME US Senate Race - Jan 19, 1835". www.ourcampaigns.com.

Sources[edit]