1846 and 1847 United States House of Representatives elections

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1846 and 1847 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1844 / 45 August 2, 1846 – November 2, 1847[a] 1848 / 49 →

All 230[b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
116 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Robert Charles Winthrop.jpg LinnBoyd.jpg
Leader Robert Winthrop Linn Boyd
Party Whig Democratic
Leader's seat Massachusetts 1st Kentucky 1st
Last election 81 seats 140 seats
Seats won 116 109[b][c]
Seat change Increase 35 Decrease 31
Popular vote 1,033,506 1,124,080
Percentage 44.52% 48.43%
Swing Decrease 0.27% Decrease 1.59%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Know Nothing Independent
Last election 6 seats 0 seats
Seats won 1 2[d]
Seat change Decrease 5 Increase 2
Popular vote 28,198 63,690
Percentage 1.21% 2.74%
Swing Decrease 0.88% Increase 1.49%

Speaker before election

John Davis
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Robert Winthrop
Whig

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 30th Congress were held during President James K. Polk's term at various dates in different states from August 1846 to November 1847.

The Whigs gained 37 seats to win 116 and a change in partisan control, while the rival Democrats lost 30, falling to 112.[e] The Whigs gained seats in the Mid-Atlantic and the South. The nativist and anti-Catholic American Party was reduced to one seat. One Independent, Amos Tuck, was elected from New Hampshire.

The Mexican–American War was the main issue before voters. The incumbent House had voted overwhelmingly for war, but Polk had won the Presidency only by plurality in 1844 over his more famous opponent Henry Clay. Voters west of the Appalachian Mountains enthusiastically supported war, but voters in northeastern, more urban regions widely opposed it.

It was widely, accurately believed that war with Mexico would be won and would include large territorial gains. The Wilmot Proviso was the first Congressional attempt to deal with the political question of slavery in these projected new territories, by proposing to ban it. Congress rejected the Wilmot Proviso, but not quickly or smoothly. Protracted debate highlighted the issue, aggravating sectional tensions. The repeated failure of Congress, and later also the President and Supreme Court, over the next decade to resolve this issue conclusively was a major cause of the Civil War.

Notable freshmen included Abraham Lincoln, elected as a Whig to his only term. This was the last time the Whig Party won a House majority, though candidates opposed to the Democratic Party would win a large majority in the realigning 1854 election.

Election summaries[edit]

The trend toward single-member districts culminated as no multi-member districts featured.

In 1845, Congress established a uniform date for choosing Presidential electors. Gradually, states aligned nearly all other elections with this date, though as of this election, only three states had done so.

Two seats were added for the new State of Wisconsin.[1] Wisconsin was unrepresented for most of the 1st session.

110 2 116
Democratic [f] Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Whig Other
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Elections for new states (Not included in totals below)
Texas District March 30, 1846 2 2 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa At-large October 26, 1846 2 2 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
General elections
Missouri District[g] August 2, 1846 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas At-large August 3, 1846 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District August 3, 1846 7 6[h] Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 1, 1846 4 1 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 14, 1846 7 6 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 5, 1846 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Georgia District October 5, 1846 8 4 Decrease1 4 Increase1 0 Steady
South Carolina District October 12–13, 1846 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District October 13, 1846 21 10 Decrease3 11 Increase3 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 13, 1846 24 7 Decrease5 16 Increase6 1[i] Decrease1
Texas District November 2, 1846 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District November 3, 1846
(Election Day)
3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 1 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 11[j] Decrease10 23 Increase14 0 Decrease4
Massachusetts District November 9, 1846 10 0 Steady 10 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 10, 1846 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire District[g] March 9, 1847 4[k] 2 Decrease1 1 Increase1 1[l] Increase1
Connecticut District April 5, 1847 4 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 7, 1847 2 1 Increase1 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Virginia District April 22, 1847 15 9 Decrease5 6 Increase5 0 Steady
Alabama District August 2, 1847 7 5 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Indiana District August 2, 1847 10 6 Decrease2 4 Increase2 0 Steady
Iowa District[g] August 2, 1847 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 2, 1847 10 4 Increase1 6 Decrease1 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 2, 1847 11 6 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 5, 1847 9 3 Decrease3 6 Increase3 0 Steady
Maryland District October 6, 1847 6 2 Decrease2 4 Increase2 0 Steady
Mississippi District[g] November 1–2, 1847 4 3 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Louisiana District November 2, 1847 4 3 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total[b] 228 110[e]
48.7%
Decrease35 116
50.4%
Increase38 2
0.9%
Decrease4
House seats
Democratic
48.2%
Know Nothing
0.4%
Independent
0.4%
Whig
50.9%

Special elections[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri at-large Sterling Price Democratic 1844 Incumbent resigned August 12, 1846 to serve in the Mexican-American War.
New member elected in 1846 and seated December 7, 1846.
Democratic hold.
Successor had not been elected to the next term, see below.
Arkansas at-large Archibald Yell Democratic 1836
1840 (Retired)
1844
Incumbent resigned July 1, 1846 to serve in the United States Volunteers.
New member elected December 14, 1846.
Whig gain.
Successor seated February 6, 1847.
Successor had not been elected to the next term, see below.
Illinois 7 Edward D. Baker Whig 1844 Incumbent resigned January 15, 1847 to join the Illinois Volunteer Infantry.
New member elected January 20, 1847 to finish the term.
Whig hold.
Successor had not been a candidate to the next term, see below.
Mississippi 1

Alabama[edit]

Elections were held August 2, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
Alabama 2
Alabama 3
Alabama 4
Alabama 5
Alabama 6
Alabama 7

Arkansas[edit]

Arkansas elected its sole member August 3, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large Archibald Yell Democratic 1836
1840 (Retired)
1844
Incumbent resigned July 1, 1846 to serve in the United States Volunteers.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the current term.

Connecticut[edit]

Elections were held April 5, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1
Connecticut 2
Connecticut 3
Connecticut 4

Delaware[edit]

The election was held November 10, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large

Florida[edit]

The election was held October 5, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large William H. Brockenbrough Democratic 1845 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.

Georgia[edit]

Elections were held October 5, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia 1
Georgia 2
Georgia 3
Georgia 4
Georgia 5
Georgia 6
Georgia 7
Georgia 8

Illinois[edit]

Elections were held August 3, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7 Edward D. Baker Whig 1844 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Incumbent then resigned early, leading to a special election.

Indiana[edit]

Elections were held August 2, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10

Iowa[edit]

Elections to the 29th Congress[edit]

Elections for the new state were held October 26, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa at-large
(2 seats)
New state New seat.
New member elected October 26, 1846.
Democratic gain.
Winner (Leffler) was later elected in the 2nd district to the next term, see below.
New state New seat.
New member elected October 26, 1846.
Democratic gain.
Winner (Hastings) would not be a candidate for the next term, see below.

Elections to the 30th Congress[edit]

Elections were held August 2, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 1 New seat New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Iowa 2 Shepherd Leffler
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected.
S. Clinton Hastings
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1846 Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.

Kentucky[edit]

Elections were held August 2, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

Louisiana[edit]

Elections were held November 2, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4

Maine[edit]

Elections were held September 14, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7

Maryland[edit]

Elections were held October 6, 1847 elections were after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the new term, but still before the Congress convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6

Massachusetts[edit]

Elections were held November 9, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7 Julius Rockwell Whig 1844 (Late) Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 8 John Quincy Adams Whig 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10

Michigan[edit]

Elections were held November 3, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3

Mississippi[edit]

Elections were held November 1–2, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1
Mississippi 2
Mississippi 3
Mississippi 4

Missouri[edit]

Elections were held August 2, 1846. All five seats remained Democratic. Three of the members retired.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1 James B. Bowlin
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1842 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 2 William McDaniel
Redistricted from the at-large district[m]
Democratic 1846 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James Hugh Relfe
Redistricted from the at-large district[m]
Democratic 1842 Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.
Missouri 3 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 4 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 5 John S. Phelps
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1844 Incumbent re-elected.
Leonard H. Sims
Redistricted from the at-large district[m]
Democratic 1844 Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.

New Hampshire[edit]

Elections were held March 9, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847. Two of the districts had a run-off elections in July 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1 Vacant seat due to the failure to elect. New seat.
New member elected on the second ballot.
Independent gain.
First ballot (March 9, 1847):

Second ballot (July 8, 1847):
New Hampshire 2 Moses Norris Jr. Democratic 1843 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
New Hampshire 3 Mace Moulton
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1845 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the second ballot.
Democratic hold.
First ballot (March 9, 1847):

Second ballot (July 8, 1847):
New Hampshire 4 James Hutchins Johnson
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic 1845 Incumbent re-elected.

New Jersey[edit]

Elections were held November 3, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
New Jersey 2
New Jersey 3
New Jersey 4
New Jersey 5

New York[edit]

Elections were held November 3, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34

North Carolina[edit]

Elections were held August 5, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9

Ohio[edit]

Elections were held October 13, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19
Ohio 20
Ohio 21

Pennsylvania[edit]

Elections were held October 13, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24

Rhode Island[edit]

Elections were held April 7, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1
Rhode Island 2

South Carolina[edit]

Elections were held October 12–13, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7

Tennessee[edit]

Elections were held August 2, 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
Tennessee 9
Tennessee 10
Tennessee 11

Texas[edit]

29th Congress[edit]

Elections were held in March 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Texas 1 New state New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Texas 2 New state New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.

30th Congress[edit]

Elections were held November 2, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Texas 1 David S. Kaufman Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected.
Texas 2 Timothy Pilsbury Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected.

Vermont[edit]

Elections were held September 1, 1846.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4

Virginia[edit]

Elections were held April 22, 1847, after the March 4, 1847 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1847.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15

Non-voting delegates[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin Territory Morgan Lewis Martin Democratic 1844 or 1845[21] Incumbent was not renominated.
New member elected.
Whig gain.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 30th Congress.
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ Includes a Congressman elected as a "Locofoco Democrat": William Collins from the 18th District of New York.
  4. ^ Includes two Independent Democrats.
  5. ^ a b Includes 2 Independent Democrats elected to Illinois's 1st congressional district and New York's 17th congressional district – see: Martis, p. 100-101.
  6. ^ There was 1 Know Nothing and 1 Independent.
  7. ^ a b c d Changed from at-large
  8. ^ Includes Robert Smith, who was elected to IL-01 as an Independent Democrat.
  9. ^ 1 Know Nothing
  10. ^ Includes George Petrie, who was elected to NY-17 as an Independent Democrat.
  11. ^ One seat had been vacant during the entire 29th Congress.
  12. ^ Amos Tuck was elected to NH-01 as an Independent.
  13. ^ a b c Redistricting location speculative[speculation?]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 58
  2. ^ "Our Campaigns - AR At-Large Race - Dec 14, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  3. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=618143
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - AR At-Large Race - Aug 03, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
  5. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=50692
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - IA - At Large Race - Oct 26, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - IA - District 01 Race - Aug 02, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - IA - District 02 Race - Aug 02, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 7 Race - Nov 09, 1846". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 8 Race - Nov 09, 1849". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 1 Race - Aug 02, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 2 Race - Aug 02, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 3 Race - Aug 02, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 4 Race - Aug 02, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 5 Race - Aug 02, 1846". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - NH District 1 Race - Mar 09, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - NH District 1 - Runoff Race - Jul 08, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - NH District 2 Race - Mar 09, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - NH District 3 Race - Mar 09, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. ^ "Our Campaigns - NH District 3 - Runoff Race - Jul 08, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  21. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI Territorial Delegate Race - Aug 05, 1845". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI Territorial Delegate Race - Aug 05, 1847". www.ourcampaigns.com.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]