1870 and 1871 United States House of Representatives elections

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1870 and 1871 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1868 & 1869 June 6, 1870 –
October 6, 1871[a]
1872 & 1873 →

All 243 seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Fernando Wood - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James G. Blaine Fernando Wood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 3rd New York 9th
Last election 171 seats 61 seats
Seats won 138 94[b]
Seat change Decrease 33 Increase 33
Popular vote 2,719,276 2,441,956
Percentage 49.59% 44.53%
Swing Decrease 2.22% Increase 0.40%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Conservative Liberal Republican
Last election 6 seats New Party
Seats won 10 2
Seat change Increase 4 Increase 2
Popular vote 160,295 55,551
Percentage 2.92% 1.01%
Swing Decrease 0.27% Pre-creation

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1[c]
Seat change Increase 1
Popular vote 98,591
Percentage 1.80%
Swing Decrease 0.81%

House042ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1870 elections for 42nd Congress

Speaker before election

James G. Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James G. Blaine
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1870 and 1871 to elect Representatives for the 42nd Congress, and were held in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's first term.

With Grant's administration rocked by a number of scandals (including a shady deal for gold speculation that led to a crash in the market and several business deals that saw high-ranking governmental officials gain kickbacks) and Reconstruction winding down, his Republican Party lost seats to the opposition Democratic Party but retained an overall majority. Also, since the Democratic Party controlled governments were reestablishing themselves in some portions of the South, the Democrats were able to make huge gains in this election.

Election summaries[edit]

104 139
Democratic Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Mississippi[d][e] District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Alabama District 6 3 Increase 1 3 Decrease 1
Arkansas District 3 1 Steady 2 Steady
California[f] District 3 0 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2
Connecticut[f] District 4 1 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Georgia District 7 4 Steady 3 Steady
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 6 Increase 2 8 Decrease 2
Indiana[d] District 11 5 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1
Iowa[d] District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Kentucky District 9 9 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Maine[d] District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Maryland District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 10 0 Steady 10 Steady
Michigan District 6 1 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1
Minnesota District 2 0 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Missouri District 9 4 Increase 2 5[g] Decrease 2
Nebraska[d] At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
New Hampshire[f] District 3 3 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3
New Jersey District 5 2 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 31 16 Increase 3 15 Decrease 3
North Carolina[d] District 7 5 Increase 4 2 Decrease 4
Ohio[d] District 19 5 Decrease 1 14 Increase 1
Oregon[d] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania[d] District 24 11 Increase 3 13[h] Decrease 3
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina[d] District 4 0 Steady 4 Steady
Tennessee District 8 6 Increase 6 2 Decrease 6
Texas[f] District 4 4 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3
Vermont[d] District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Virginia District 8 5 Increase 5[i] 3 Steady
West Virginia[d] District 3 2 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2
Wisconsin District 6 2 Increase 1 4 Decrease 1
Total 243 104
42.8%
Increase 37 139[j]
57.2%
Decrease 32
Popular vote
Conservative
2.92%
Democratic
44.53%
Independent
1.80%
Lib. Republican
1.01%
Republican
49.59%
Others
0.15%
House seats
Conservative
4.08%
Democratic
38.37%
Independent
0.41%
Lib. Republican
0.82%
Republican
56.33%

The previous election included 5 Conservatives

Election dates[edit]

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[1] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1870, there remained 12 States that held elections before Election Day, and 4 that held it after at this time:

Special elections[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 2
South Carolina 1
Wisconsin 2 Benjamin F. Hopkins Republican 1866 Incumbent died January 1, 1870.
New member elected February 15, 1870.
Republican hold.

Arizona Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

California[edit]

California elections

← 1868 September 6, 1871 1872 →

3 seats
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 1 2
Seats won 3 0
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Popular vote 62,539 57,065
Percentage 52.3% 47.7%

CA1871House.svg
  Republican hold
  Republican gain
District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1867 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican Gain.
California 2 Aaron Sargent Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Aaron Sargent (Republican) 54%
  • James W. Coffroth (Democratic) 46%
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1867 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican Gain.

Colorado Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Dakota Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

District of Columbia[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Florida[edit]

Florida election

← 1868 November 8, 1870 (Election Day) 1872 →

1 seat
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 1 0
Seats won 1[3] 0[3]
Seat change Steady Steady
Popular vote 12,439 11,812
Percentage 51.3% 48.7%
District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Niblack subsequently successfully challenged Walls's election and was seated from Florida's at-large district on January 29, 1873.[4]

Idaho Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Montana Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New Mexico Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Peter W. Strader Democratic 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 James J. Winans Republican 1868 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Edward F. Dickinson Democratic 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Erasmus D. Peck (Republican) 52.5%
  • William F. Lockwood (Democratic) 47.5%
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 George W. Morgan Democratic 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 15 Eliakim H. Moore Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Bingham (Republican) 52.4%
  • Robert A. Chambers (Democratic) 47.6%
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.

Utah Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Washington Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Wisconsin[edit]

Wisconsin elected six members of congress on Election Day, November 8, 1870.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Halbert E. Paine Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 David Atwood Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 3 Amasa Cobb Republican 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 Charles A. Eldredge Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Philetus Sawyer Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 6 Cadwallader C. Washburn Republican 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Wyoming Territory[edit]

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Non-voting delegates[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large
Colorado Territory at-large Allen A. Bradford Republican 1868 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New delegate elected.
Republican hold.
Dakota Territory at-large Solomon L. Spink Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election as a Democrat.
New delegate elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
District of Columbia at-large New district New seat.
New delegate elected in 1871.
Republican gain.
Idaho Territory at-large
Montana Territory at-large James M. Cavanaugh Democratic 1859 (Minnesota)
1861 (Lost)
1868
Incumbent lost renomination.
New delegate elected delegate August 7, 1871.
Republican hold.
New Mexico Territory at-large
Utah Territory at-large
Washington Territory at-large Selucius Garfielde Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected June 6, 1870.
Wyoming Territory at-large

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Majority of states held elections on November 8, 1870 (i.e. Election Day).
  2. ^ Note that Dubin (p. 221) records 9–10 "Conservatives", and approximately 94 Democrats, as being elected to the 42nd Congress. This contrasts with Martis (pp. 124–125) which offers no separate accounting of "Conservatives" from Democrats and thus records a total of 104 Democratic members of the 42nd Congress.
  3. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elections held early.
  5. ^ Elections held at the same time as elections for 41st Congress.
  6. ^ a b c d Elections held late.
  7. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans: Gustavus A. Finkelnburg elected to Missouri's 2nd district, and James G. Blair elected to Missouri's 8th district.
  8. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican, John V. Creely, elected to Pennsylvania's 2nd district.
  9. ^ Previous election had 5 Conservatives.
  10. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans and 1 Independent Republican.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  2. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Initial result, Democratic candidate successfully challenged Republican victory
  4. ^ "Forty-Second Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 277, 278.
  6. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=264145
  7. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=277533
  8. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=300437
  9. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=300355
  10. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=281709

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]