1878 and 1879 United States House of Representatives elections

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1878 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1876 & 1877 June 3, 1878 – September 3, 1879 1880 →

All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives elections
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Samuel J. Randall James A. Garfield
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 3rd Ohio 19th
Last election 155 seats 136 seats
Seats won 141[1][a] 132[1][a]
Seat change Decrease 14 Decrease 4
Popular vote 3,108,496 2,782,404
Percentage 44.20% 39.56%
Swing Decrease 7.07% Decrease 6.91%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Greenback Independent
Last election 0 seats 2 seats[b]
Seats won 13[1] 7[c]
Seat change Increase 13 Increase 5
Popular vote 864,325 193,666
Percentage 12.29% 2.75%
Swing Increase 11.38% Increase 1.58%

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1878 and 1879[d] for Representatives to the 46th United States Congress. These elections occurred in the middle of President Rutherford B. Hayes's term.

With a sour economy as the nation's pressing issue, both major parties lost seats to the new Greenback Party, which was established to promote the long-term use of paper money as a solution to stop enormous economic fluctuations. The Democratic Party remained the largest party, but lost its majority. However, it allied with several independent politicians and was able to remain in power. This was the fourth and last recorded House election where both major parties lost seats at the same time.

Election summaries[edit]

141 7 13 132
Democratic [e] [f] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Independent Democratic Greenback Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 7 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Arkansas District 4 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 4 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
Colorado At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Connecticut District 4 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 2
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Georgia District 9 6 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 19 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 12 Increase 1
Indiana District 13 6 Increase 2 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 6 Decrease 3
Iowa District 9 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 7 Decrease 2
Kansas District 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Kentucky District 10 9 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Maine District 5 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 3 Decrease 2
Maryland District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Massachusetts District 11 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase 1
Michigan District 9 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Increase 1
Minnesota District 3 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1
Mississippi District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 13 11 Increase 2 1 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 4
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire District 3 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
New Jersey District 7 3 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Increase 1
New York District 33 6 Decrease 9 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 25 Increase 7
North Carolina District 8 7 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Ohio District 20 11 Increase 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Decrease 3
Oregon At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Pennsylvania District 27 8 Decrease 2 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 17 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District 5 5 Increase 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 3
Tennessee District 10 9 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1
Texas District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont District 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
West Virginia District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 5 Steady
Total 293 141[1]
48.1%
Decrease 14 7[1]
2.4%
Increase 5 13[1]
4.4%
Increase 13 132[1]
45.1%
Decrease 5
House seats
Democratic
48.12%
Ind. Democratic
2.39%
Greenback
4.44%
Republican
45.05%
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
 
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election dates[edit]

In most states, the elections were held November 5, 1878.

In 1845, Congress set a uniform nationwide date for choosing presidential electors.[2] This Act of Congress did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of state governments, but over time, the states moved their congressional elections to this date as well. In this cycle, there were still 7 states with earlier election dates, and 1 with a later election date:

California's elections were the last time a state held congressional general elections after November.

Special elections[edit]

Elections are listed by date and district.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 5 John E. Leonard Republican 1876 Incumbent died March 15, 1878.
New member elected elected November 5, 1878.
Democratic hold.
Nebraska at-large Frank Welch Republican 1876 Incumbent died September 4, 1878.
New member elected elected November 5, 1878.
Republican hold.
New York 16 Terence J. Quinn Democratic 1876 Incumbent died June 18, 1878.
New member elected November 5, 1878.
Republican gain.
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Virginia 1 Beverly B. Douglas Democratic 1874 Incumbent died December 22, 1878.
New member elected elected January 23, 1879.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 1 Julian Hartridge Democratic 1874 Incumbent died January 8, 1879.
New member elected elected February 10, 1879.
Democratic hold.
Successor seated February 10, 1879.
Texas 6 Gustav Schleicher Democratic 1874 Incumbent died January 10, 1879.
New member elected April 15, 1879.
Democratic hold.
Successor seated April 15, 1879.
Iowa 5 Rush Clark Republican 1876 Incumbent died April 29, 1879.
New member elected elected October 14, 1879.
Republican hold.
New York 12 Alexander Smith Republican 1878 Member-elect died November 5, 1878.
New member elected November 4, 1879.
Democratic gain.

Alabama[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1 James T. Jones Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 2 Hilary A. Herbert Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 3 Jeremiah N. Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY William J. Samford (Democratic) 88.43%
  • French Strange (Independent) 9.64%
  • William M. Russell (Republican) 1.93%
Alabama 4 Charles M. Shelley Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 5 Robert F. Ligon Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 6 Goldsmith W. Hewitt Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 7 William H. Forney Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 8 William W. Garth Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.

Arkansas[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas 1 Lucien C. Gause Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Arkansas 2 William F. Slemons Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 3 Jordan E. Cravens Independent Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
as a Democrat
Democratic gain.
Arkansas 4 Thomas M. Gunter Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

California[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Colorado[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado at-large None New state.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Patterson successfully contested the election and was seated March 4, 1877.

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1 George M. Landers Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Connecticut 2 James Phelps Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 3 John T. Wait Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 4 Levi Warner Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large James Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

In the 2nd district the difference between the two candidates, in the initial returns, was just 22 votes. Bisbee challenged Hull's election, and Bisbee challenged Hull's electionwas eventually awarded the seat on January 22, 1881.

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia 1 Julian Hartridge Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 2 William E. Smith Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 3 Philip Cook Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 4 Henry R. Harris Democratic 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
Georgia 5 Milton A. Candler Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 6 James H. Blount Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 7 William H. Felton Independent Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 8 Alexander H. Stephens Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 9 Hiram P. Bell Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Independent Democratic gain.

Illinois[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1 William Aldrich Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 2 Carter Harrison, Sr. Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
to run for Mayor
Republican gain.
  • Green tickY George R. Davis (Republican) 49.59%
  • Miles Kehoe (Democratic) 29.29%
  • George A. Schilling (Socialist) 11.85%
  • James Felch (Greenback) 7.67%
  • J. H. Condon (Independent) 1.25%
  • John Sebolski (Independent) 0.35%
Illinois 3 Lorenzo Brentano Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Hiram Barber, Jr. (Republican) 53.06%
  • Lambert Tree (Democratic) 29.26%
  • Benjamin Sebley (Independent) 12.78%
  • A. B. Cornell (Greenback) 4.90%
Illinois 4 William Lathrop Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Illinois 5 Horatio C. Burchard Republican 1869 (Special) Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Illinois 6 Thomas J. Henderson Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 7 Philip C. Hayes Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 8 Greenbury L. Fort Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 9 Thomas A. Boyd Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 10 Benjamin F. Marsh Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 11 Robert M. Knapp Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Illinois 12 William M. Springer Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 13 Thomas F. Tipton Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Illinois 14 Joseph G. Cannon Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 15 John R. Eden Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Greenback gain.
Illinois 16 William A. J. Sparks Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 17 William R. Morrison Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 18 William Hartzell Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Illinois 19 Richard W. Townshend Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Indiana[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1 Benoni S. Fuller Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Indiana 2 Thomas R. Cobb Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 3 George A. Bicknell Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 4 Leonidas Sexton Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Indiana 5 Thomas M. Browne Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 6 Milton S. Robinson Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Indiana 7 John Hanna Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Indiana 8 Morton C. Hunter Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Indiana 9 Michael D. White Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Indiana 10 William H. Calkins Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 11 James L. Evans Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Indiana 12 Andrew H. Hamilton Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Indiana 13 John H. Baker Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

Iowa[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 1 Joseph C. Stone Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Iowa 2 Hiram Price Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 3 Theodore W. Burdick Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Iowa 4 Nathaniel C. Deering Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 5 Rush Clark Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Rush Clark (Republican) 52.78%
  • George Carter (Democratic) 44.63%
  • Timothy Brown (Greenback) 2.59%
Iowa 6 Ezekiel S. Sampson Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Iowa 7 Henry J. B. Cummings Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Iowa 8 William F. Sapp Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 9 S. Addison Oliver Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Kansas[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kansas 1 William A. Phillips Republican 1872 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Kansas 2 Dudley C. Haskell Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 3 Thomas Ryan Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1 Andrew Boone Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
Kentucky 2 James A. McKenzie Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 3 John W. Caldwell Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 4 J. Proctor Knott Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 5 Albert S. Willis Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Albert S. Willis (Democratic) 40.51%
  • J. Watts Kearney (Democratic) 33.30%
  • Horace Scott (Republican) 24.48%
  • Blanton Duncan (Greenback) 1.70%
Kentucky 6 John G. Carlisle Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 7 Joseph C. S. Blackburn Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Joseph C. S. Blackburn (Democratic) 69.78%
  • George C. Drane (Republican) 28.68%
  • John L. Scott (Independent) 1.54%
Kentucky 8 Milton J. Durham Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Kentucky 9 Thomas Turner Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 10 John B. Clarke Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Louisiana[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1 Randall L. Gibson Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 2 E. John Ellis Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 3 Joseph H. Acklen Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 4 Joseph B. Elam Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 5 J. Smith Young Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY J. Floyd King (Democratic) 77.87%
  • J. T. Ludling (Republican) 22.13%
Louisiana 6 Edward W. Robertson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Maine[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1 Thomas B. Reed Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 2 William P. Frye Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 3 Stephen Lindsey Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 4 Llewellyn Powers Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Maine 5 Eugene Hale Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1 Daniel M. Henry Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 2 Charles B. Roberts Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Maryland 3 William Kimmel Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 4 Thomas Swann Democratic 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Maryland 5 Eli J. Henkle Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 6 William Walsh Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Massachusetts[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 William W. Crapo Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin W. Harris Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 3 Benjamin Dean Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts 4 Leopold Morse Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Leopold Morse (Democratic) 60.34%
  • Martin Brimmer (Democratic) 39.66%
Massachusetts 5 Nathaniel P. Banks Republican 1874 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Massachusetts 6 George B. Loring Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 7 Benjamin Butler Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
to run for Governor
Republican hold.
Massachusetts 8 William Claflin Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9 William W. Rice Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 10 Amasa Norcross Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 11 George D. Robinson Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY George D. Robinson (Republican) 51.75%
  • Edward H. Lathrop (Democratic)[h] 37.86%
  • Jarvis N. Dunham (Democratic) 9.80%
  • Albert C. Woodworth (Independent) 0.60%

Michigan[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1 Alpheus S. Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Michigan 2 Edwin Willits Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 3 Jonas H. McGowan Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 4 Edwin W. Keightley Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Michigan 5 John W. Stone Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 6 Mark S. Brewer Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 7 Omar D. Conger Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 8 Charles C. Ellsworth Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Michigan 9 Jay A. Hubbell Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.

Minnesota[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota 1 Mark H. Dunnell Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Minnesota 2 Horace B. Strait Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Minnesota 3 Jacob H. Stewart Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Mississippi[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 Henry L. Muldrow Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Van H. Manning Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Van H. Manning (Democratic) 52.02%
  • J. H. Amacker (Republican) 44.94%
  • C. H. Allen (Independent) 2.88%
  • Daniel B. Wright (Greenback) 0.16%
Mississippi 3 Hernando Money Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 5 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 6 James R. Chalmers Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Missouri[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1 Anthony F. Ittner Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 2 Nathan Cole Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 3 Lyne Metcalfe Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 4 Robert A. Hatcher Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Missouri 5 Richard P. Bland Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 6 Charles H. Morgan Democratic 1874 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Missouri 7 Thomas T. Crittenden Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Missouri 8 Benjamin J. Franklin Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
Missouri 9 David Rea Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Missouri 10 Henry M. Pollard Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 11 John B. Clark, Jr. Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 12 John M. Glover Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Missouri 13 Aylett H. Buckner Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.

Nebraska[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska at-large Frank Welch Republican 1876 Died September 4, 1878
Republican hold.

Nevada[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nevada at-large Thomas Wren Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

New Hampshire[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1 Frank Jones Democratic 1875 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New Hampshire 2 James F. Briggs Republican 1877 Incumbent re-elected.
New Hampshire 3 Henry W. Blair Republican 1877 Elected to the U.S. Senate
Republican hold.

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1 Clement H. Sinnickson Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New Jersey 2 John H. Pugh Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 3 Miles Ross Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey 4 Alvah A. Clark Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey 5 Augustus W. Cutler Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New Jersey 6 Thomas B. Peddie Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New Jersey 7 Augustus A. Hardenbergh Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

New York[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1 James W. Covert Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 2 William D. Veeder Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
New York 3 Simeon B. Chittenden Republican 1874 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New York 4 Archibald M. Bliss Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 5 Nicholas Muller Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 6 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1873 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New York 7 Anthony Eickhoff Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 8 Anson G. McCook Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 9 Fernando Wood Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Fernando Wood (Tammany Hall Democratic) 37.12%
  • John Hardy (Anti-Tammany Democratic) 33.05%
  • Wilson Berryman (Republican) 29.21%
  • Joseph Kunze (Greenback) 0.62%
New York 10 Abram Hewitt Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
New York 11 Benjamin A. Willis Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 12 Clarkson Nott Potter Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 13 John H. Ketcham Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John H. Ketcham (Republican) 62.78%
  • Orlando D. Baker (Democratic) 33.39%
  • John V. Doty (Greenback) 2.73%
  • George Potter (Prohibition) 0.85%
  • Aaron J. Stevens (Independent) 0.26%
New York 14 George M. Beebe Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 15 Stephen L. Mayham Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
New York 16 Terence J. Quinn Democratic 1876 Incumbent Terence J. Quinn died June 18, 1878.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the term.
New York 17 Martin I. Townsend Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Walter A. Wood (Republican) 55.34%
  • Charles E. Patterson (Democratic) 31.86%
  • Richard H. Ferguson (Greenback) 12.80%
New York 18 Andrew Williams Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 19 Amaziah B. James Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 20 John H. Starin Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 21 Solomon Bundy Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 22 George A. Bagley Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 23 William J. Bacon Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 24 William H. Baker Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 25 Frank Hiscock Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 26 John H. Camp Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 27 Elbridge G. Lapham Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 28 Jeremiah W. Dwight Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 29 John N. Hungerford Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 30 Elizur K. Hart Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 31 Charles B. Benedict Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Richard Crowley (Republican) 56.33%
  • Cyrus E. Davis (Democratic) 39.17%
  • Galen Miller (Greenback) 2.51%
  • Joseph W. Grosvenor (Prohibition) 1.03%
  • James F. Gordon (Independent) 0.96%
New York 32 Daniel N. Lockwood Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 33 George W. Patterson Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina was rampant with voter fraud, particularly through the use of tissue ballots, thin ballots hidden in the normal ballot, typically 10 to 20 at a time. The almost statewide exclusion of Republicans as Commissioners of Elections, and the ensuing appointment of nearly all Democratic Managers of Elections, allowed to Democratic Managers to perpetrate this scheme. When the votes were counted and more votes than voters were found, the Managers removed and destroyed the Republican ballots resulting in the complete takeover of the state.[3][4][5]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 2 Richard H. Cain Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Virginia[edit]

West Virginia[edit]

Wisconsin[edit]

Non-voting delegates[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large
Dakota Territory at-large
Idaho Territory at-large
Montana Territory at-large
New Mexico Territory at-large
Utah Territory at-large
Washington Territory at-large
Wyoming Territory at-large

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dubin (p. 249) counts 140 Democrats, 6 Independent Democrats, 130 Republicans (incl. 1 Independent Republican), and 11 Greenbacks at the start of the 46th United States Congress.
  2. ^ Included 2 Independent Democrats.
  3. ^ Includes 7 Independent Democrats.
  4. ^ In 1879, California held its last regular Congressional election in an odd-numbered year.
  5. ^ There were 7 Independent Democrats
  6. ^ There were 13 Greenbacks
  7. ^ a b c d also endorsed by the Democrats
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Also endorsed by the Greenbacks
  9. ^ a b c Also endorsed by the Republicans
  10. ^ a b Also endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" Democrats
  11. ^ For the purposes of simplicity he is listed as having been elected an Independent Democrat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 132–133
  2. ^ Stat. 721
  3. ^ "NY Times Free Archive" (PDF). The New York Times. November 16, 1878.
  4. ^ "NY Times Free Archive" (PDF). The New York Times. February 5, 1879.
  5. ^ William Ralston Balch (1881). The Life of James Abram Garfield.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]