1894 United States House of Representatives elections

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1894 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1892 November 6, 1894[a] 1896 →

All 356[b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg CharlesFrederickCrisp.jpg
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed Charles Frederick Crisp
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 1st Georgia 3rd
Seats before 143 seats[c] 200 seats[d]
Seats won 253[e][f] 93[e][f]
Seat change Increase 110 Decrease 107

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Populist Silver
Seats before 13 0
Seats won 9[e][f] 1[e]
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 1

Speaker before election

Charles Crisp
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.[2][3] The Democrats ultimately lost 127 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 130 seats (after the resolution of several contested elections). This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States. (A political party would not suffer triple-digit losses again until 1932.)

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP.[4]

Special elections[edit]

Sorted first by election date, then by state and district.

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Candidates
Representative Party First elected
Virginia 7 Charles T. O'Ferrall Democratic 1884 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 28, 1893, after being elected Governor of Virginia.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Winner later re-elected in November, see below.
New York 14 John R. Fellows Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned December 31, 1893 to become District Attorney of New York City.
New member elected January 30, 1894.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania at-large William Lilly Republican 1892 Incumbent died December 1, 1893.
New member elected February 26, 1894.
Republican hold.
South Carolina 1 William H. Brawley Democratic 1890 Incumbent resigned February 12, 1894 to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina.
New member elected April 12, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Maryland 1 Robert F. Bratton Democratic 1892 Incumbent died May 10, 1894.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 3 George W. Houk Democratic 1890 Incumbent died February 9, 1894.
New member elected May 21, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 7 George B. Shaw Republican 1892 Incumbent died August 27, 1894.
New member elected November 5, 1894.
Republican hold.
Alabama 3 William C. Oates Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned November 5, 1894, after being elected Governor of Alabama.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Kentucky 9 Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1888 Incumbent resigned January 5, 1895 having been elected to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
New member elected November 6, 1894, but didn't take his seat until March 4, 1895.
Republican gain.
Maryland 5 Barnes Compton Democratic 1884
1890 (Lost election contest)
1890
Incumbent resigned May 15, 1894, to become a naval officer.
New member elected November 6, 1894.
Republican gain.
Arkansas 2 Clifton R. Breckinridge Democratic 1882 Incumbent resigned August 14, 1894, to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Kentucky 10 Marcus C. Lisle Democratic 1892 Incumbent died July 7, 1894.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana 4 Newton C. Blanchard Democratic 1880 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1894 to become the U.S. Senate.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 2 John A. Caldwell Republican 1888 Incumbent resigned April 4, 1894 to become Mayor of Cincinnati.
New member elected December 3, 1894.
Republican hold.
New York 15 Ashbel P. Fitch Democratic 1886 Incumbent resigned December 26, 1893 to become New York City Comptroller.
New member elected December 30, 1894.
Democratic hold.

Election summaries[edit]

93 10 254
Democratic [g] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Populist Republican Silver
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 5 Decrease 4 2 Increase 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Arkansas District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 7 1 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 6 Increase 3 0 Steady
Colorado District 2 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 4 Increase 3 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 22 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 22 Increase 11 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 0 Decrease 11 0 Steady 13 Increase 11 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 11 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kansas District
+at-large
8 0 Steady 1 Decrease 4 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 5 Decrease 5 0 Steady 6 Increase 5 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[h] District 4 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 3 Decrease 3 0 Steady 3 Increase 3 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 13 1 Decrease 3 0 Steady 12 Increase 3 0 Steady
Michigan District 12 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 12 Increase 5 0 Steady
Minnesota District 7 0 Decrease 2 0 Decrease 1 7 Increase 3 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 15 4 Decrease 9 0 Steady 11 Increase 9 0 Steady
Montana At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 0 Decrease 1 1 Decrease 1 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
New Hampshire District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 8 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 8 Increase 6 0 Steady
New York District 34 4 Decrease 16 0 Steady 30 Increase 16 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 2 Decrease 6 4 Increase 4 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 2 Decrease 9 0 Steady 19 Increase 9 0 Steady
Oregon[h] District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 2 Decrease 8 0 Steady 28 Increase 8 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 6 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 4 Increase 2 0 Steady
Texas District 13 12 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont[h] District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 8 Decrease 2 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Washington At-large 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady 4 Increase 4 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 10 0 Decrease 6 0 Steady 10 Increase 6 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total[b] 356 93[e]
26.1%
Decrease 107 9[e]
2.5%
Decrease 4 253[e]
71.1%
Increase 110 1[e]
0.3%
Increase 1
House seats
Democratic
26.1%
Populist
2.5%
Republican
71.1%
Silver
0.3%
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Populist
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3 to 5 Democratic gain
 
  3 to 5 Republican gain
  1 to 2 Democratic gain
  1 to 2 Populist gain
  1 to 2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates[edit]

In 1894, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

Alabama[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Thomas J. Geary Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 2 Anthony Caminetti Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 3 Warren B. English Democratic 1892 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 36.8%
  • Joseph P. Kelly (Democratic) 23.0%
  • James T. Rogers (Populist) 21.5%
  • James Denman (Prohibition) 18.7%
California 6 Marion Cannon Populist 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William W. Bowers (Republican) 42.9%
  • W. H. Alford (Democratic) 28.2%
  • J. L. Gilbert (Populist) 25.0%
  • W. H. Somers (Prohibition) 3.9%

Colorado[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen R. Mallory Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia[edit]

Idaho[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Indiana[edit]

Iowa[edit]

Kansas[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maine[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Michigan[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

Missouri[edit]

Montana[edit]

Nebraska[edit]

Nevada[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Mexico[edit]

New York[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

North Dakota[edit]

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[6]
Ohio 1 Bellamy Storer Republican 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 5 Dennis D. Donovan Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Byron F. Ritchie Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 Hezekiah S. Bundy Republican 1893 (s) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 13 Darius D. Hare Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 14 Michael D. Harter Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 16 Albert J. Pearson Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 17 James A. D. Richards Democratic 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 George P. Ikirt Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 William J. White Republican 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 Tom L. Johnson Democratic 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Oregon[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 James F. Izlar Democratic 1894 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Democratic loss.
George W. Murray
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Murray successfully challenged Elliott's election and was awarded the seat on June 4, 1896.[8]
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Asbury Latimer (Democratic) 81.3%
  • Robert Moorman (Republican) 13.9%
  • Others 4.8%
South Carolina 4 George W. Shell Democratic 1890 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY Stanyarne Wilson (Democratic) 75.1%
  • Lawson D. Melton (Republican) 24.7%
  • Others 0.2%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Thomas J. Strait (Democratic) 67.6%
  • G. G. Alexander (Republican) 17.0%
  • W. R. Davie (Independent) 12.8%
  • Others 2.6%
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 None (Open seat due to redistricting) New member elected.
Democratic gain.
The election was voided on June 1, 1896 due to electoral fraud.

South Dakota[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Washington[edit]

West Virginia[edit]

Wisconsin[edit]

Wyoming[edit]

Non-voting delegates[edit]

Oklahoma Territory[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Oklahoma Territory at-large Dennis T. Flynn Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 4 and September 10.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Includes two vacancies
  4. ^ Includes five vacancies
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Martis's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.[1]
  6. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 312) counts 244 Republicans, 105 Democrats, 7 Populists, and 1 Silver at the opening of the 54th Congress, before the results of several contested elections were overturned in favor of Republican (and a few Populist) candidates. Dubin counts 253 Republicans, 93 Democrats, 9 Populists, and 1 Silver at the start of the 2nd session of the 54th Congress, which closely matches Martis' figure (pp. 148–49). Dubin's figure includes Utah, which held its election in 1895 and is therefore not covered in this article.
  7. ^ Populists won 9 seats and Silver won 1.
  8. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  9. ^ Full name unavailable

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, pp. 148–49.
  2. ^ "Senate and House Secured; Republican Control in the Next Congress Assured". The New York Times. November 9, 1894. p. 5.
  3. ^ "African-Americans and Populism". Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
  4. ^ Jensen (1971), Chap. 9.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 07 Special Election Race - Jan 30, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 656–57.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 01 Race - Nov 06, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 01 Race - Nov 06, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - OK Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 06, 1894". www.ourcampaigns.com.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]