1894 and 1895 United States Senate elections

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1894 and 1895 United States Senate elections

← 1892/93 Dates vary by state 1896/97 →

30 of the 88 seats in the United States Senate (as well as special elections)
45 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 37 44
Seats won 18 10
Seats after 39 40
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 4
Seats up 16 14

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Populist Silver
Seats before 3 1
Seats won 1 0
Seats after 4 1
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Seats up 0 0

Majority Party before election


Democratic

Elected Majority Party


Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1894 and 1895 were a slight Republican victory. It was a different story in the House where Democrats suffered massive losses. The senators elected went on to serve in the 54th Congress.

As these elections were prior to the ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 54th Congress (1895–1897)

  • Plurality: Republican: 42
  • Minority: Democrats: 39
  • Other parties: Populist: 4, Silver: 2
  • Total: 88
  • Vacant: 1, due to failure to elect. Later filled by a Democrat

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

At the beginning of 1894, including early elections in Mississippi and Virginia.

D1 D2 D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34
Ky.
Ran
D33
Ga.
Ran
D32
Ark.
Ran
D31
Ala.
Ran
D30 D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35
La.
Ran
D36
N.C.
Ran
D37
S.C.
Ran
D38
Tenn.
Ran
D39
W.Va.
Ran
D40
Kan.
Unknown
D41
N.J.
Unknown
D42
Miss.
Retired
D43
Texas
Retired
D44
Va.
Retired
Majority with vacancies →
R35
Iowa
Retired
R36
Mont.
Retired
R37
R.I.
Retired
S1 P1 P2 P3 V3 V2 V1
R34
Neb.
Unknown
R33
Wyo.
Ran
R32
S.D.
Ran
R31
Ore.
Ran
R30
N.H.
Ran
R29
Minn.
Ran
R28
Mich.
Ran
R27
Mass.
Ran
R26
Maine
Ran
R25
Ill.
Ran
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
Colo.
Ran
R23
Del.
Ran
R24
Idaho
Ran
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1 R2 R3 R4

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34
La.
Appointee elected[a]
D33
Ky.
Re-elected
D32
Ark.
Re-elected
D31
Ala.
Re-elected
D30 D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35
Tenn.
Re-elected
D36
Ga.
Hold
D37
Miss.
Hold[b]
D38
S.C.
Hold
D39
Texas
Hold
D40
Va.
Hold[b]
P4
N.C.
Gain
P3 V1 V2
No majority
R35
R.I.
Hold
R36
Wyo.
Hold
R37
Kan.
Gain
R38
N.J.
Gain
R39
W.Va.
Gain
S1 P1 P2 V4
Del.
R Loss
V3
R34
Ore.
Hold
R33
Neb.
Hold
R32
Mont.
Hold
R31
Minn.
Hold
R30
Iowa
Hold
R29
S.D.
Re-elected
R28
N.H.
Re-elected
R27
Mich.
Re-elected
R26
Mass.
Re-elected
R25
Maine
Re-elected
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
Colo.
Re-elected
R23
Idaho
Re-elected
R24
Ill.
Re-elected
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1 R2 R3 R4

Result of the special elections and party change[edit]

D1
Calif.
Appointee elected
D2
La.
Appointee elected
D3 D4
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
D34
La.
Appointee elected[a]
D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27 D26 D25
D35 D36
Ga.
Appointee elected
D37
Miss.
Hold
D38 D39 P4 P3 P2 P1 V1
↓ Republican plurality (majority with Silver support →) S1
R35 R36 R37 R38 R39
Mont.
Gain
from V
R40
Wash.
Gain
from V
R41
Wyo.
Gain
from V
R42
N.C.
Gain
from D
S2
Nev.
Changed from R
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
R1
Mich.
Hold
R2 R3 R4
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Populist
R# Republican
S# Silver
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 53rd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1894 or in 1895 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Edward C. Walthall Democratic 1885 (Appointed)
1886 (Special)
1889
1892 (Early)
Incumbent resigned due to ill health.
New senator elected February 7, 1894.
Democratic hold.
Walthall, however, had already been re-elected to next term.[1]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Donelson Caffery Democratic 1892 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected May 23, 1894.[2]
Winner was had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Newton C. Blanchard Democratic 1894 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected May 23, 1894.[3]
Georgia
(Class 2)
Patrick Walsh Democratic 1894 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 7, 1894.[4]
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Thomas Jarvis Democratic 1894 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected November 7, 1894.
Republican gain.
New senator qualified January 23, 1895.
Montana
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected January 16, 1895.
Wyoming
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected January 23, 1895.
California
(Class 3)
George C. Perkins Republican 1893 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1895.[5]
Michigan
(Class 1)
John Patton Jr. Republican 1894 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected January 24, 1895.
Republican hold.
Washington
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected February 1, 1895.

Elections leading to the 54th Congress[edit]

In these regular elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1895; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John Tyler Morgan Democratic 1876
1882
1888
Incumbent re-elected in 1894.
Arkansas James Berry Democratic 1885 (Special)
1889
Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Colorado Edward O. Wolcott Republican 1889 Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Delaware Anthony C. Higgins Republican 1888 or 1889 Incumbent lost re-election.
Failure to elect.
Republican loss.
Anthony C. Higgins (Republican)
[data unknown/missing]
Georgia Patrick Walsh Democratic 1894 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected in 1894.
Democratic hold.
Idaho George Shoup Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican 1882
1888
Incumbent re-elected in 1894.
Iowa James F. Wilson Republican 1888 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1894.[6]
Republican hold.
Kansas John Martin Democratic 1893 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in January 1895.
Republican gain.
Kentucky William Lindsay Democratic 1893 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1894.[7]
Louisiana Donelson Caffery Democratic 1891 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected May 14, 1894.[8]
Winner would later be elected to finish the current term, see below.
Maine William P. Frye Republican 1881 (Special)
1883
1889
Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Massachusetts George Frisbie Hoar Republican 1877
1883
1889
Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Michigan James McMillan Republican 1889 Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Minnesota William D. Washburn Republican 1888 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1895.
Republican hold.
Mississippi Anselm J. McLaurin Democratic 1894 Incumbent retired as predecessor had already been elected to the next term.
Predecessor was already elected early January 20, 1892.[1]
Democratic hold.
Montana Thomas C. Power Republican 1890 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in January 1895.[9]
Republican hold.
Nebraska Charles F. Manderson Republican 1883
1888
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected January 15, 1895.
Republican hold.
New Hampshire William E. Chandler Republican 1887 (Special)
1889 (Failure to elect)
1889 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
New Jersey John R. McPherson Democratic 1877
1883
1889
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1895.
Republican gain.
North Carolina Matt W. Ransom Democratic 1872 (Special)
1876
1883
1889
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1894.
Populist gain.
Oregon Joseph N. Dolph Republican 1882
1888
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 23, 1895.[10]
Republican hold.
Rhode Island Nathan F. Dixon III Republican 1889 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1894.
Republican hold.
South Carolina Matthew Butler Democratic 1876
1882
1888
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected in 1894.
Democratic hold.
South Dakota Richard F. Pettigrew Republican 1889 Incumbent re-elected in 1894.
Tennessee Isham G. Harris Democratic 1877
1883
1889
Incumbent re-elected in 1895.
Texas Richard Coke Democratic 1876
1882
1888
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1894.
Democratic hold.
Virginia Eppa Hunton Democratic 1892 (Appointed)
1893 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator was already elected early December 19, 1893.[11]
Democratic hold.
West Virginia Johnson N. Camden Democratic 1893 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 23, 1895.[12]
Republican gain.
Wyoming Joseph M. Carey Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1895.
Republican hold.

Elections during the 54th Congress[edit]

There were no elections in 1895 after March 4.

Alabama[edit]

Arkansas[edit]

California (Special)[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia (Special)[edit]

Idaho[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Iowa[edit]

Kansas[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Interim appointee Donelson Caffery (D) was elected May 14, 1894 to the next term. He was later (May 23, 1894) elected to finish the current term.

Louisiana (Special, class 2)[edit]

Randall L. Gibson (D) had been re-elected in 1889, but died December 15, 1892. Donelson Caffery (D) was appointed by the Governor of Louisiana December 31, 1892 to continue the term, pending a special election. On May 14, 1894 Caffery was elected to the next term, and on May 23, 1894 Caffery was elected to finish the current term.

Louisiana (Special, class 3)[edit]

Edward Douglass White (D) had been elected in 1891, but resigned March 12, 1894 when appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Newton C. Blanchard (D) was appointed by the Governor of Louisiana March 12, 1894 to continue the term, pending a special election. On May 23, 1894 Blanchard was elected to finish the current term, which would end March 3, 1897.

Maine[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Michigan[edit]

Michigan (Special)[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

Mississippi (Special)[edit]

Montana[edit]

Montana (Special)[edit]

Nebraska[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

North Carolina (Special)[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Dakota[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Washington (Special)[edit]

John B. Allen (R) had been elected in 1889 as one of the first senators from Washington. In 1893, however, the Washington State Legislature failed to elect a senator for the term beginning March 4, 1893. The governor appointed Allen to serve until March 20, 1893, but the Senate rejected his credentials.

John L. Wilson (R) was elected February 1, 1895 to finish the term, that would end March 3, 1899, taking his seat February 19, 1895.

West Virginia[edit]

Wyoming[edit]

Wyoming (Special)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Same result for this seat in general and special elections
  2. ^ a b Elected early
  1. ^ a b c "GEORGE AND WALTHALL ELECTED". The New York Times. January 20, 1892. p. 1.
  2. ^ Byrd, p. 114.
  3. ^ Byrd, p. 115.
  4. ^ Byrd, p. 96.
  5. ^ Byrd, p. 83.
  6. ^ Clark, p. 234.
  7. ^ Kleber, John E. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. p. 558.
  8. ^ a b "MR. CAFFERY HIS OWN SUCCESSOR". The New York Times. May 15, 1894. p. 1.
  9. ^ Goodspeed, p. 457.
  10. ^ "George Wycliffe McBride". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  11. ^ ""TWO VIRGINIA SENATORS ELECTED"". The New York Times. December 20, 1893.
  12. ^ a b "Elkins Elected in West Virginia". The New York Times. January 24, 1895. p. 5.

References[edit]