|1898 in topic|
Archaeology – Architecture – Art
Literature – Music
|Australia – Brazil – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela|
|Rail transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2651|
|Balinese saka calendar||1819–1820|
|British Regnal year||61 Vict. 1 – 62 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)|
4594 or 4534
— to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
4595 or 4535
|- Vikram Samvat||1954–1955|
|- Shaka Samvat||1819–1820|
|- Kali Yuga||4998–4999|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 31|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||14 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2440–2441|
2024 or 1643 or 871
— to —
2025 or 1644 or 872
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1898.|
1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1898th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 898th year of the 2nd millennium, the 98th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1898, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York as the world's second largest. The city is geographically divided into five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Staten Island.
- January 13 – Novelist Émile Zola's open letter to the President of the French Republic on the Dreyfus affair, J'accuse…!, is published on the front page of the Paris daily newspaper L'Aurore, accusing the government of wrongfully imprisoning Alfred Dreyfus and of antisemitism.
- February 12 – The electric car belonging to Henry Lindfield of Brighton rolls out of control down a hill in Purley, London, England, and hits a tree; thus he becomes the world's first fatality from an automobile accident on a public highway.
- February 15 – Spanish–American War: The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana Harbor, Cuba, for reasons never fully established, killing 266 men. The event precipitates the United States' declaration of war on Spain, two months later.
- February 23 – Émile Zola is imprisoned in France, after writing "J'accuse".
- March 16 – In Melbourne the representatives of five colonies adopted a constitution, which would become the basis of the Commonwealth of Australia.
- March 24 – Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Pennsylvania becomes the first person to buy an American-built automobile, when he buys a Winton automobile that has been advertised in Scientific American.
- March 26 – The Sabie Game Reserve in South Africa is created, as the first officially designated game reserve.
- April 5 – Annie Oakley promotes the service of women in combat situations, with the United States military. On this day, she writes a letter to President McKinley "offering the government the services of a company of 50 'lady sharpshooters' who would provide their own arms and ammunition should war break out with Spain." In the history of women in the military, there are records of female U.S. Revolutionary and Civil War soldiers who enlisted using male pseudonyms, but Oakley's letter represents possibly the earliest political move towards women's rights for combat service, in the United States military.
- April 22 – Spanish–American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports, and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
- April 23 – Spanish–American War: A conference of senior Spanish Navy officers led by naval minister Segismundo Bermejo decide to send Admiral Pascual Cervera's squadron to Cuba and Puerto Rico.
- April 25 – Spanish–American War: The United States declares war on Spain; the U.S. Congress announces that a state of war has existed since April 21 (later backdating this one more day to April 20).
- April 25 – In Essen, German company Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk RWE is founded.
- April 26 – An explosion in Santa Cruz, California kills 13 workers, at the California Powder Works.
- May 1 – Spanish–American War – Battle of Manila Bay: Commodore Dewey destroys the Spanish squadron, in the first battle of the war, as well as the first battle in the Philippines Campaign.
- May 2 – Thousands of Chinese scholars, and Beijing citizens seeking reforms, protest in front of the capital control yuan.
- May 7 –May 9 – Bava-Beccaris massacre: Hundreds of demonstrators are killed, when General Fiorenzo Bava-Beccaris orders troops to fire on a rally in Milan, Italy.
- May 8 – The first games of the Italian Football League are played.
- May 12 – Spanish–American War: The Puerto Rican Campaign begins, with the Bombardment of San Juan.
- May 27 – The territory of Kwang-Chou-Wan is leased by China to France, according to the Treaty of 12 April 1892, as the Territoire de Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, forming part of French Indochina.
- May 28 – Secondo Pia takes the first photographs of the Shroud of Turin, and discovers that the image on the Shroud itself appears to be a photographic negative.
- June 1 – The Trans-Mississippi Exposition World's Fair opens, in Omaha, Nebraska.
- June 7 – William Ramsay and Morris Travers discover neon at their laboratory at University College London, after extracting it from liquid nitrogen.
- June 9 – The British government arranges a 99-year rent of Hong Kong from China.
- June 12 – After more than 377 years of Spanish dominance, Philippine Declaration of Independence: General Emilio Aguinaldo declares the Philippines' independence from Spain.
- June 13 – Yukon Territory is formed in Canada, with Dawson chosen as its capital.
- June 21 – Spanish–American War: The United States captures Guam, making it the first U.S. overseas territory.
- June 28 – Effective date of the Curtis Act of 1898 which would lead to the dissolution of tribal and communal lands in Indian Territory and ultimately the creation of the State of Oklahoma in 1907.
- July 1 – Spanish–American War – Battle of San Juan Hill: United States troops (including Buffalo Soldiers and Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders) take a strategic position close to Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
- July 3
- July 4 – En route from New York to Le Havre, the ocean liner SS La Bourgogne collides with another ship, and sinks off the coast of Sable Island, with the loss of 549 lives.
- July 7 – The United States annexes the Hawaiian Islands.
- July 17 – Spanish–American War – Battle of Santiago Bay: Troops under United States General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
- July 18 – "The Adventures of Louis de Rougemont" first appear in The Wide World Magazine, as its August 1898 issue goes on sale.
- July 25 – Spanish–American War: The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins, with a landing at Guánica Bay.
- August 12 – Spanish–American War: Hostilities end between American and Spanish forces in Cuba.
- August 13 – Spanish–American War – Battle of Manila: By prior agreement, the Spanish commander surrenders the city of Manila to the United States, in order to keep it out of the hands of Filipino rebels, ending hostilities in the Philippines.
- August 20 – The Gornergrat railway opens, connecting Zermatt to the Gornergrat in Switzerland.
- August 21 – Clube de Regatas Vasco da Gama is founded in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- August 23 – The Southern Cross Expedition, the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, sets sail from London.
- August 24 – Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes sign the Atoka Agreement, a requirement of the Curtis Act of 1898.
- August 25 – 700 Greeks and 15 Englishmen are slaughtered by the Turks in Heraklion, Greece, leading to the establishment of the autonomous Cretan State.
- August 28 – American pharmacist Caleb Bradham names his soft drink Pepsi-Cola.
- September 2 – Battle of Omdurman: British and Egyptian troops led by Horatio Kitchener defeat Sudanese tribesmen led by Khalifa Abdullah al-Taashi, thus establishing British dominance in the Sudan.
- September 10 – Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni assassinates Empress Elisabeth of Austria in Geneva, as an act of propaganda of the deed.
- September 18 – Fashoda Incident: A powerful flotilla of British gunboats arrives at the French-occupied fort of Fashoda on the White Nile, leading to a diplomatic stalemate, until French troops are ordered to withdraw on November 3.
- September 21 – Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested.
- October 1 – The Vienna University of Economics and Business is founded, under the name K.U.K. Exportakademie.
- October 3 – Battle of Sugar Point: Ojibwe tribesmen defeat U.S. government troops, in northern Minnesota.
- October 3–8 – The Stuttgart Congress of the Social Democratic Party of Germany is held in Stuttgart.
- October 6 – The Sinfonia Club, later to become the Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity, is founded at the New England Conservatory in Boston, Massachusetts.
- October 12 – The first town council is established in Mateur, Tunisia.
- October 15 The Fork Union Military Academy is founded, in Fork Union, Virginia.
- October 31 – The Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem, is dedicated.
- November 5 – Negros Revolution: Filipinos on the island of Negros revolt against Spanish rule, and establish the short-lived Republic of Negros.
- November 10 – The Wilmington insurrection of 1898, a coup d'état by the white Democratic Party of North Carolina, begins.
- November 26 – A two-day blizzard known as the Portland Gale piles snow in Boston, severely impacting the Massachusetts fishing industry, and several coastal New England towns.
- December 9 – The first of the two Tsavo Man-Eaters is shot by John Henry Patterson; the second is killed 3 weeks later, after 135 workers have been killed by the lions.
- December 10 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish–American War.
- December 18 – Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat sets the first official land speed record in an automobile, averaging 63.15 km/h (39.24 mph) over 1 km (0.62 mi) in France.
- December 26 – Marie and Pierre Curie announce the discovery of an element that they name radium.
- December 29 (December 17 Old Style) – The Moscow Art Theatre production of The Seagull by Anton Chekhov opens.
- December 31 – French serial killer Joseph Vacher is executed.
- North Petherton becomes the first town in England to install Acetylene lighting.
- Wakita is founded in the Cherokee Strip, Oklahoma.
- As a result of the merger of several small oil companies, John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company controls 84% of the USA's oil, and most American pipelines.
- Henry Adams Consulting Engineers founded by Henry Adams (mechanical engineer) in Baltimore, Maryland (the firm is still in business to this day).
- January 1
- January 3 – John Loder, British actor (d. 1988)
- January 7 – Art Baker, American actor (d. 1966)
- January 9 – Gracie Fields, British singer, actress and comedian (d. 1979)
- January 16
- January 18 – Margaret Irving, American actress (d. 1988)
- January 20
- January 21
- January 22
- January 23
- January 24 – Karl Hermann Frank, German Nazi official, war criminal (d. 1946)
- January 25 – Hymie Weiss, American gangster (d. 1926)
- January 26 – Katarzyna Kobro, Russian sculptor (d. 1951)
- February 1 – Leila Denmark, American pediatrician, supercentenarian (d. 2012)
- February 2 – William "Billy" Costello, American voice actor, the original voice of Popeye (d. 1971)
- February 3 – Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect (d. 1976)
- February 5
- February 10
- February 11
- February 12
- February 14
- February 15
- February 18
- February 20 – Semyon Davidovich Kirlian, Russian inventor (d. 1978)
- February 25 – William Astbury, English physicist, molecular biologist (d. 1961)
- February 24 – Kurt Tank, German aeronautical engineer (d. 1983)
- February 27 – Otto Hulett, American actor (d. 1983)
- February 28
- March 3 – Emil Artin, Austrian mathematician (d. 1962)
- March 4 – Georges Dumézil, French philologist (d. 1986)
- March 5
- March 6 – Therese Giehse, German actress (d. 1975)
- March 8 – Eben Dönges, acting Prime Minister of South Africa and elected President of South Africa (d. 1968)
- March 10 – Cy Kendall, American actor (d. 1953)
- March 11 – Dorothy Gish, American actress (d. 1968)
- March 13 – Henry Hathaway, American film director, producer (d. 1985)
- March 14 – Arnold Chikobava, Georgian linguist (d. 1985)
- March 21 – Paul Alfred Weiss, Austrian biologist (d. 1989)
- March 23
- March 25 – Marcelle Narbonne, French supercentenarian, oldest European living person (d. 2012)
- March 30 – Joyce Carey, English actress (d. 1993)
- March 31 – Hermann van Pels, German-Dutch father of Peter van Pels, housemate of Anne Frank (d. 1944)
- April 1 – William James Sidis, American mathematician (d. 1944)
- April 2 – Harindranath Chattopadhyay, Indian poet, actor and politician (d. 1990)
- April 3 – George Jessel, American comedian (d. 1981)
- April 4 – Agnes Ayres, American actress (d. 1940)
- April 6 – Jeanne Hébuterne, French painter (d. 1920)
- April 9 – Paul Robeson, African-American actor, singer and political activist (d. 1976)
- April 12 – Lily Pons, French-American opera singer, actress (d. 1976)
- April 14 – Lee Tracy, American actor (d. 1968)
- April 15 – Marian Driscoll Jordan, American actress (d. 1961)
- April 19 – Constance Talmadge, American actress (d. 1973)
- April 20 – Sidney Lanfield, American film director (d. 1972)
- April 21 – Walter Forde, British actor, screenwriter and film director (d. 1984)
- April 23 – Ernest Laszlo, Hungarian-American cinematographer (d. 1984)
- April 26
- May 2 – Henry Hall, British bandleader (d. 1989)
- May 3 – Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1978)
- May 5
- May 6 – Konrad Henlein, Sudeten German Nazi leader (d. 1945)
- May 13
- May 14
- May 15 – Arletty, French model, actress (d. 1992)
- May 16
- May 17 – Alfred Joseph Casson, Canadian painter (d. 1992)
- May 19 – Julius Evola, Italian philosopher (d. 1974)
- May 21 – Armand Hammer, American entrepreneur, art collector (d. 1990)
- May 23
- May 24 – Helen B. Taussig, American cardiologist (d. 1986)
- May 25 – Bennett Cerf, American publisher (d. 1971)
- May 27 – Lee Garmes, American cinematographer (d. 1978)
- May 31
- June 2 – Marie-Thérèse Bardet, French supercentenarian, oldest living European person at time of death (d. 2012)
- June 3 – Stuart H. Ingersoll, American admiral (d. 1983)
- June 4 – Harry Crosby, American publisher, poet (d. 1929)
- June 5
- June 6
- June 10
- June 11 – Lionel Penrose, English geneticist (d. 1972)
- June 12 – Charley Foy, American actor (d. 1984)
- June 17
- June 18
- June 22
- June 23 – Lillian Hall-Davis, English actress (d. 1933)
- June 25 – Buddy Roosevelt, American actor, stunt performer (d. 1973)
- June 26
- June 28 – Louis King, American film director (d. 1962)
- June 30
- July 1 – Charles Hartmann, American jazz trombonist (d. 1982)
- July 2
- July 3
- July 4
- July 5 – Richard P. Condie, American conductor of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir (d. 1985)
- July 6
- July 7
- Maria Nunes da Silva, Portuguese supercentenarian (d. 2011)
- Teresa Hsu Chih, Chinese-born Singaporean social worker, supercentenarian (d. 2011)
- Arnold Horween, American Harvard Crimson, NFL football player (d. 1985)
- Hugh Llewellyn Keenleyside, Canadian university professor, diplomat, and civil servant (d. 1992)
- July 9
- July 10 – Theodore Miller Edison, American businessman, inventor, and environmentalist (d. 1992)
- July 13 – Ivan Triesault, Estonian-born American actor (d. 1980)
- July 14
- July 15
- July 17
- July 18 – John Stuart, Scottish actor (d. 1979)
- July 19 – Gustavo Machado Morales, Venezuelan politician and journalist (d. 1983)
- July 21 – Sara Carter, American country music singer, musician, and songwriter (d. 1979)
- July 22
- July 23 – Walter L. Morgan, American banker (d. 1998)
- July 25 – Arthur Lubin, American film director (d. 1995)
- July 28 – Lawrence Gray, American actor (d. 1970)
- July 29 – Isidor Isaac Rabi, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988)
- July 30 – Henry Moore, English sculptor (d. 1986)
- July 31 – Ken Harris, American animator (d. 1982)
- August 2 – Glenn Tryon, American actor, screenwriter, and film director (d. 1970)
- August 5
- August 11 – Peter Mohr Dam, 2-time Prime Minister of the Faroe Islands (d. 1968)
- August 12
- August 13
- August 15 – Jan Brzechwa, Polish poet (d. 1966)
- August 17 – Dewey Robinson, American actor (d. 1950)
- August 18
- August 19 – Eleanor Boardman, American actress (d. 1991)
- August 20
- August 21 – Herbert Mundin, English actor (d. 1939)
- August 23 – W. E. Butler, British occultist (d. 1978)
- August 25 – Van Nest Polglase, American art director, design department head at RKO Pictures (d. 1968)
- August 26 – Peggy Guggenheim, American art collector (d. 1979)
- August 27 – John Hamilton, Canadian criminal, bank robber (d. 1934)
- August 29 – Preston Sturges, American director, writer (d. 1959)
- August 30 – Shirley Booth, American actress (d. 1992)
- September 1
- September 2
- September 8 – Queenie Smith, American actress (d. 1978)
- September 10
- September 13 – Roger Désormière, French conductor (d. 1963)
- September 16 – Baruch Lumet, Polish-born American actor (d. 1992)
- September 19 – Giuseppe Saragat, President of Italy (d. 1988)
- September 22 – Katharine Alexander, American actress (d. 1981)
- September 24 – Howard Florey, Australian-born pharmacologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1968)
- September 25 – Robert Brackman, American artist (d. 1980)
- September 26 – George Gershwin, American composer (d. 1937)
- September 29 – Trofim Lysenko, Russian biologist (d. 1976)
- September 30
- October 3 – Morgan Farley, American actor (d. 1988)
- October 6
- October 7 – Joe Giard, American baseball player (d. 1956)
- October 10
- October 15 – Boughera El Ouafi, Algerian athlete (d. 1959)
- October 16 – William O. Douglas, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1980)
- October 17 – Shinichi Suzuki, Japanese musician, educator (d. 1998)
- October 18
- October 22 – Dámaso Alonso, Spanish poet (d. 1990)
- October 28 – Abdul Khalek Hassouna, Egyptian diplomat, 2nd Secretary-General of the Arab League (d. 1992)
- November 1 – Philip Ray, British actor (d. 1978)
- November 4 – Joe Dougherty, first voice of Porky Pig (d. 1978)
- November 8 – Marie Prevost, Canadian actress (d. 1937)
- November 11 – René Clair, French filmmaker, novelist, and non-fiction writer (d. 1981)
- November 12 – Leon Štukelj, Slovene gymnast (d. 1999)
- November 14 – Benjamin Fondane (née Wechsler), Romanian-French Symbolist poet, critic and existentialist philosopher (d. 1944)
- November 17
- November 18
- November 19 – Arthur R. von Hippel, German-born physicist (d. 2003)
- November 21 – René Magritte, Belgian artist (d. 1967)
- November 22 – Gabriel González Videla, Chilean politician (d. 1980)
- November 23– Bess Flowers, American actress (d. 1984)
- November 24 – Liu Shaoqi, President of the People's Republic of China (d. 1969)
- November 25 – Debaki Bose, Indian actor, director and writer (d. 1971)
- November 26 – Karl Ziegler, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
- November 29
- November 30 – Firpo Marberry, American baseball pitcher (d. 1976)
- December 2 – Indra Lal Roy, Indian World War I pilot (d. 1918)
- December 3 – Monte Collins, American actor and screenwriter (d. 1951)
- December 5 – Grace Moore, American opera singer, actress (d. 1947)
- December 6
- December 9
- December 11 – Benno Mengele, Austrian electrical engineer (d. 1971)
- December 14 – Lillian Randolph, American actress, singer (d. 1980)
- December 19 – Zheng Zhenduo, Chinese author, translator (d. 1958)
- December 20 – Irene Dunne, American actress (d. 1990)
- December 24 – Baby Dodds, American jazz drummer (d. 1959)
- December 27 – Hilda Vaughn, American actress (d. 1957)
- December 30
- December 31 – István Dobi, Hungarian leader (d. 1968)
- January 3 – Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate brigadier general, Texas governor, and president of Texas A&M University (b. 1838)
- January 14 – Lewis Carroll, British writer, mathematician (Alice in Wonderland) (b. 1832)
- January 16 – Charles Pelham Villiers, longest-serving MP in the British House of Commons (b. 1802)
- January 18 – Henry George Liddell, English Dean of Christ Church, Oxford (b. 1811)
- February 1 – Tsuboi Kōzō, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
- February 16 – Thomas Bracken, author of the official national anthem of New Zealand (God Defend New Zealand) (b. 1843)
- March 1 – George Bruce Malleson, Indian officer, author (b. 1825)
- March 6 – Andrei Alexandrovich Popov, Russian admiral (b. 1821)
- March 10
- March 15 – Henry Bessemer, British engineer, inventor (b. 1813)
- March 16 – Aubrey Beardsley, British artist (b. 1872)
- March 18 – Matilda Joslyn Gage, American feminist (b. 1826)
- March 27 – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Indian university founder (b. 1817)
- April 15 – Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui, Maori military leader
- April 18 – Gustave Moreau, French painter (b. 1826)
- May 19 – William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1809)
- May 29 – Theodor Eimer, German zoologist (b. 1843)
- June 10 – Tuone Udaina, Croatian-Italian last speaker of the Dalmatian language (b. 1821)
- June 25 – Ferdinand Cohn, German biologist, bacteriologist and microbiologist (b. 1828)
- July 1 – Siegfried Marcus, Austrian automobile pioneer (b. 1831)
- July 5 – Richard Pankhurst, English lawyer, radical and supporter of women's rights (b. 1834)
- July 12 – Louis-François Richer Laflèche, Roman Catholic Bishop of Trois-Rivières, Native American missionary (b. 1818)
- July 30 – Otto von Bismarck, German statesman (b. 1815)
- August 8 – Eugène Boudin, French painter (b. 1824)
- September 2 – Wilford Woodruff, fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1807)
- September 5 – Sarah Emma Edmonds, Canadian nurse, spy (b. 1841)
- September 9 – Stéphane Mallarmé, French poet (b. 1842)
- September 10 – Empress Elisabeth of Austria, empress consort of Austria, queen consort of Hungary (assassinated) (b. 1837)
- September 16 – Ramón Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician, medical doctor and diplomat (b. 1827)
- September 19 – George Grey, 11th Premier of New Zealand (b. 1812)
- September 20 – Theodor Fontane, German writer (b. 1819)
- September 26 – Fanny Davenport, American actress (b. 1850)
- September 28 – Tan Sitong, Chinese revolutionary (executed) (b. 1865)
- September 29 – Louise of Hesse-Kassel, German princess, queen consort of Christian IX of Denmark (b. 1817)
- October 24 – Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, French painter (b. 1824)
- November 2 – George Goyder, surveyor-general of South Australia (b. 1826)
- November 20 – Sir John Fowler, British civil engineer (b. 1817)
- December 24 – Charbel Makhluf, Lebanese Maronite, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic monk, priest and saint (b. 1828)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Linfield, Malcolm (1999). "In Memory of Henry Lindfield – First Victim of the Motor Car". Lin(d)field One Name Group. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- "Henry Lindfield". Grace’s Guide. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- J.A. LaNauze. The Making of the Australian Constitution. Melbourne University Press, 1972.
- The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). "Letter to President William McKinley from Annie Oakley" Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- Camillo J. Asriel, Das R.W.E., Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk A.-G., Essen a.d. Ruhr (Girsberger & Company, 1930) p1
- "The California Powder Works". Santa Cruz Public Library Local History Articles. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
- Choveaux, A. (1925). "Situation économique du territoire de Kouang-Tchéou-Wan en 1923". Annales de Géographie. 34 (187): 74–77.
- Christoph Ribbat, Flickering Light: A History of Neon (Reaktion Books, 2011) p23
- Stratmann, Linda (2010). Fraudsters and Charlatans: A Peek at Some of History's Greatest Rogues. Stroud: The History Press.
- John S. Salmon, A Guidebook to Virginia's Historical Markers (University of Virginia Press, 1994) p48
- Benedetti, Jean (1999). Stanislavski: His Life and Art (Revised ed.). London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-52520-1.
- The forensic mind of the original Dr Death
- Morro Castle, Havana Harbor. 00694250. Thomas Edison. Archived from the original on May 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
Filmed ca. March 17 to April 1, 1898Morro Castle (fortress) downloadable videos. (1898 Morro Castle, Havana Harbor, YouTube stream. Thomas Edison. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-07. needs Flash)
- 1898 U S Battleship Indiana. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07. view of USS Indiana (BB-1) (needs Flash)
- 1898 Transport Ship Whitney Leaving Dock. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- 1898 10th U.S. Infantry, 2nd Battalion leaving Train. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
1898-05-20view of 10th U.S. Infantry, 2nd Battalion (needs Flash)
- 1898 U.S. Cavalry Supplies Unloading at Tampa, Florida. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
1898-05-20view of Tampa, Florida (needs Flash)
- 1898 Military Camp at Tampa, taken from train. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
1898-05-20view of Tampa, Florida (needs Flash)
- 1898 Cuban Refugees Waiting for Rations. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- 1898 Colored Troops Disembarking. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- 1898 Troops Ship for the Philippines. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
June 1898(needs Flash)
- 1898 U.S. troops landing at Daiquirí, Cuba. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
1898-08-05view of Daiquirí after the United States invasion of Cuba in the Spanish–American War (needs Flash)
- 1898 Major General Shafter. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
1898-08-05view of Major General Shafter (needs Flash)
- 1898 Troops making road in front of Santiago. Thomas Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
1898-09-03view of Santiago (needs Flash)