18th New Zealand Parliament
|18th Parliament of New Zealand|
|Term||15 February 1912 – 5 November 1914|
|Election||1911 New Zealand general election|
|Government||Reform Government |
––Liberal Government until 10 July 1912
|House of Representatives|
|Speaker of the House||Frederic Lang |
––Arthur Guinness until 10 June 1913†
|Prime Minister||William Massey |
––Thomas Mackenzie until 10 July 1912
Joseph Ward until 12 March 1912
|Leader of the Opposition||Joseph Ward from 11 September 1913|
––William Massey until 10 July 1912
|Members||37 (at start)|
39 (at end)
|Speaker of the Council||Charles Bowen|
|Monarch||HM George V|
|Governor||HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Liverpool|
1911 general election
The Second Ballot Act 1908 was used for the 1911 general election. The first ballot was held on Thursday, 7 December in the general electorates. The second ballots were held one week later on 14 December. The Second Ballot Act did not apply to the four Māori electorates and the election was held on Tuesday, 19 December. A total of 80 MPs were elected; 42 represented North Island electorates, 34 represented South Island electorates, and the remaining four represented Māori electorates. 590,042 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 83.5%.
The 18th Parliament sat for four sessions (there were two sessions in 1912), and was prorogued on 20 November 1914.
|first||15 June 1912||1 March 1912|
|second||27 June 1912||7 November 1912|
|third||26 June 1913||16 December 1913|
|fourth||25 June 1914||5 November 1914|
Start of Parliament
|Party||Leader(s)||Seats at start|
|Reform Party||William Massey||37|
|Liberal Party||Joseph Ward||33|
|Labour Party||Alfred Hindmarsh||4|
End of Parliament
|Party||Leader(s)||Seats at end|
|Reform Party||William Massey||38|
|Liberal Party||Joseph Ward||31|
|United Labour Party||Alfred Hindmarsh||3|
|Social Democrat Party||James McCombs||2|
The Liberal Government of New Zealand had taken office on 24 January 1891. Joseph Ward formed the Ward Ministry on 6 August 1906. The Ward Ministry remained in power until Ward's resignation as Prime Minister in March 1912. The Liberal Party remained in power only on the casting vote of the Speaker, Arthur Guinness, selected Thomas Mackenzie as Prime Minister and he formed the Mackenzie Ministry on 28 March 1912. In July 1912, Mackenzie lost a vote of no confidence, resigned as Prime Minister and handed over to William Massey of the Reform Party, bringing to an end the long reign of the Liberal Party. The Massey Ministry lasted for the remainder of the parliamentary term.
Initial composition of the 18th Parliament
The following are the results of the 1911 general election:
|Reform||Liberal||Labour||Independent Liberal||Independent Labour|
- † in Majority column depicts electorates in which a second ballot was held.
- The affiliation of many of the Maori candidates is unknown or uncertain; note that the Second Ballot Act 1908 did not apply to Maori constituencies.
By-elections during 18th Parliament
There were a number of changes during the term of the 18th Parliament.
|Electorate and by-election||Date||Incumbent||Cause||Winner|
|Egmont||1912||17 September||Thomas Mackenzie||Resignation||Charles Wilkinson|
|Grey||1913||17 & 24 July||Arthur Guinness||Death||Paddy Webb|
|Lyttelton||1913||9 & 16 December||George Laurenson||Death||James McCombs|
|MP who changed allegiance||Year||Seat||From||To|
|John Payne||1912||Grey Lynn|
- "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 90.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 69.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 40.
- Scholefield 1950, pp. 42–43.
- Hall-Jones, John. "Hall-Jones, William 1851–1936". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Bassett, Michael. "Ward, Joseph George 1856–1930". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 43.
- Brooking, Tom. "Mackenzie, Thomas Noble 1853–1930". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Scholefield 1950, pp. 43–44.
- "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. pp. 1–14. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Political Gossip". The Marlborough Express. C (266). 16 November 1914. p. 3. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Matthews, Kay Morris. "Henry Hill". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Declaration of Result of Poll and Notification of Second Ballot". Grey River Argus. 24 July 1913. p. 1. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Mr McCombs Returned". Northern Advocate. 17 December 1913. p. 4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.