1943–1944 Iranian legislative election

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Iranian legislative election, 1943–1944
State flag of Iran (1933–1964).svg
← 1941 November 1943/February 1944 1947 →

All 136 seats to the National Consultative Assembly
  First party Second party Third party
  Sadegh Tabatabaʾi.jpg Zia'eddin Tabatabaee.jpg Ali Dashti.jpg
Leader Sadegh Tabatabai Ziaeddin Tabatabai Ali Dashti
Party National Union Party Fatherland Party Justice Party
Leader's seat Tehran Yazd Tehran
Seats won 30 26 15

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Soleiman Eskandari.jpg Portrait of Mohammad Mosaddegh - circa 1952 (B&W).jpg Mostafa Fateh.png
Leader Soleiman Eskandari Mohammad Mosaddegh[a] Mostafa Fateh
Party Tudeh Party Iran Party Comrades Party
Leader's seat Did not stand Tehran Did not stand
Seats won 9 6 2

Prime Minister before election

Ali Soheili

Elected Prime Minister

Mohammad Sa'ed

The elections for the 14th Parliament of Iran was held in November 1943–February 1944 and more than 800 candidates ran for 136 seats.

Ervand Abrahamian wrote in 1982 that the elections were "the most prolonged, most competitive and most meaningful of all elections in modern Iran".[1]

Timeline[edit]

Tehran[edit]

  • 24 November 1943: Start of the election[2]:263
  • 27 November 1943: End of the election[2]:270
  • 30 December 1943: Beginning of reading of votes[2]:271
  • 10 February 1944: Declaration of 11 Members-elect of parliament from Tehran. The twelfth was postponed.[2]:275

Results[edit]

Tudeh Party put forward fifteen candidates, nine of whom won seats. The number of the total votes cast for the candidates of the party is estimated at 1.5 million, one-eight of the total votes cast.[3]

Out of the 41,000 total votes cast in Tehran, Mohammad Mossadegh finished first with some 15,000 votes.[4] All Tudeh Party candidates were defeated in the constituency.[3]

In Isfahan, official results showed that Taghi Fadakar became the first deputy with 30,499 votes, and Hessameddin Dowlatabadi and Heidar-Ali Emami were elected for the second and third seats with 29,740 and 28,730 votes respectively.[4]

The top two seats for Tabriz went to Kho'i and Pishevari (Soviet-supported) with 15,883 and 15,780 votes out of 47,780 respectively, but credentials of both were rejected later. The rest of the seven seats in the constituency went to Eskandari, Sadeqi, Seqat ol-Eslam, Ipakchiyan (Soviet-supported), Panahi, Mojtahedi and Sartippur.[5]

The parties that won seats were:

Party Seats Ref
National Union Party 30 [6]
Fatherland Party 26 [7]
Justice Party 15 [8]
Tudeh Party 9[b] [3]
Iran Party 6[c] [9]
Comrades Party 2

In the final composition of the parliament, deputies scattered into seven fractions:

Fraction Leader Line Seats
National Unionists M. Tabatabaei Royalist[10] 30[6]
Patriots Z. Tabatabaei Anti-royalist,[10] Pro-British[11] 26[7]
Liberals Farmanfarma Anti-royalist,[10] Pro-Soviet[11] 20[12]
Individuals Mossadegh Anti-royalist,[10] Neutralist 16[9]
Independents Dashti Pro-American[11] 15[8]
Democrats Farrokh Anti-royalist,[10] Pro-British[11] 11[13]
Tudeh Radmanesh Pro-Soviet[11] 8[14]
Vacant seats 10[15]
Total 136

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Mosaddegh took pride of being an Independent politician at the time and was not a member of Iran Party. However his views often coincided with the party which campaigned on his behalf.
  2. ^ Including Jafar Pishevari, who was not a member but was closely associated with the party endorsed him. Pishevari did not take seat since his credentials were rejected.
  3. ^ Including Mohammad Mossadegh, who was not a member but was closely associated with the party endorsed him.
  1. ^ Abrahamian 1982, p. 186
  2. ^ a b c d گاهنامه پنجاه سال شاهنشاهی پهلوی [Chronology of the fifty-year Pahlavi Kingship] (in Persian). 1. Paris: Soheil Press. 1986.
  3. ^ a b c Ladjevardi 1985, p. 45: The total number of the votes cast for Tudeh candidates was estimated to be one-eight of the total votes cast, estimated at 1,500,000... In all, nine of the party's fifteen candidates were elected, although none were elected for the twelve seats for Tehran. Of the Central Council and Tudeh Party leaders who stood for election in Tehran, Dr. Morteza Yazdi received 4,719 votes, Ebrahim Mahzari 2,831, and Hossein Jahani 2,796 out of the 41,000 total votes cast.
  4. ^ a b Ladjevardi 1985, p. 159: The "official" slate was, in fact, elected: Taghi Fadakar finished first with 30,499 votes (twice the number of votes cast for Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, the top candidate in the Tehran elections), Hesameddin Dowlatabadi was second with 29,740 votes and Heidar-Ali Emami third with 28,730.
  5. ^ Atabaki 2000, p. 73
  6. ^ a b Abrahamian 1982, p. 200: The National Union Caucus mustered at most thirty deputies.
  7. ^ a b Abrahamian 1982, p. 202: The Patriotic Caucus, on the other hand, included twenty-six deputies, many of whom represented constituencies in the British zone... The views of the fraksiun were publicized outside the Majles not only by the Fatherland party and its successor, the National Will party, but also by a number of newspapers...
  8. ^ a b Abrahamian 1982, p. 202: Heirs to the Justice fraksiun of the Thirteenth Majles, the fifteen members of the Independent Caucus changed their parliamentary label for two major reasons. Headed by Dashti... Outside the Majles, the Independent Caucus was helped by the Justice party and its impressive array of well-financed newspapers.
  9. ^ a b Abrahamian 1982, p. 202: Finally, the Individuals' Caucus was a loose coalition of some sixteen deputies who usually followed the lead of Mossadeq, especially on foreign and constitutional issues. Closest to Mossadeq were the five representatives of the Iran party and the two leaders of the Comrades party. The others were nonporty deputies elected mainly from the northern constituencies.
  10. ^ a b c d e Abrahamian 1978, p. 37: ...four main anti-royalist groups - Liberals, Patriots, Democrats, and Individuals - allying to initiate a collective offensive against the royalists in the National Union Faction
  11. ^ a b c d e Abrahamian 1978, pp. 37, 43: The Tudeh and the Liberals, seeing Britain as the main enemy, intended to ally with the Soviet Union. The Patriots and the Democrats, fearing Russia as the chief threat, hoped to work closely with Britain. The Independents, distrusting both, planned to rely on the United States. The Individuals, on the other hand, proposed to save the country's independence through a policy of 'negative equilibrium'... Bayat took office in November with a slim majority formed of National Unionists and pro-British Democrats-Patriots. But he left office six months later having lost the votes of all Democrats-Patriots and of some dissident National Unionists, and instead having gained a significant minority composed of loyal National Unionists, neutralist Individuals, and pro-Soviet Tudeh-Liberal
  12. ^ Abrahamian 1982, p. 202: During the Fourteenth Majles, Umid functioned as the unofficial organ of the Liberal Caucus. Of the twenty deputies in the Caucus...
  13. ^ Abrahamian 1982, p. 202: The Patriots worked closely with the eleven deputies of the Democratic Caucus. Known by their opponents as the "tribal group" (fraksiun-i 'ashayir), the Democrats were led by the two Bakhtiyari deputies...
  14. ^ Abrahamian 1982, p. 201: Of the eight representatives in the Tudeh Caucus, all came from the ranks of the young intelligentsia, although two were from aristocratic families.
  15. ^ Abrahamian 1978, p. 36: ...ten were inactive - five had their credentials rejected, two died early in the session, another two resigned, and the last was in a British prison for his German connections.

Sources[edit]