1973 in science
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Astronomy and space exploration
- March 7 – Comet Kohoutek is discovered
- April 6 – Launch of Pioneer 11 spacecraft
- May 14 – Skylab, the United States' first space station, is launched.
- Solar eclipse of June 30, 1973 – Very long total solar eclipse visible in NE South America, the Atlantic, and central Africa. During the entire Second Millennium, only seven total solar eclipses exceed seven minutes of totality; this is the last. Observers aboard a Concorde jet are able to stretch totality to about 74 minutes by flying along the path of the moon's umbra.
- July 25 – Soviet Mars 5 space probe launched.
- November 3 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury (on March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet); it will be the first space flight to use gravity assist.
- December 3 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
- December 7 – The "Big Ear" at the Ohio State University Radio Observatory begins a full-time search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) radio survey, running continuously until 1995.
- A successful method of Vitamin B12 total synthesis is reported by the groups of Robert Burns Woodward and Albert Eschenmoser.
- March 1 - Xerox PARC releases the Xerox Alto. The first computer designed to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface.
- September - The TV Typewriter appears on the cover of Radio-Electronics. Designed by Don Lancaster, it was a video terminal that could display two pages of 16 lines of 32 upper case characters on a standard television set.
- November 21 – The sci-fi movie Westworld is the first feature film to use digital image processing.
- October – Asymmetric key algorithms for public-key cryptography developed by James H. Ellis, Clifford Cocks and Malcolm J. Williamson at the United Kingdom Government Communications Headquarters.
- Derek Ager publishes The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record.
History of science
- May 5 – July 28 – BBC Television series The Ascent of Man, written and presented by Jacob Bronowski, first airs; there is also an accompanying bestselling book.
- Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first articulate the Black–Scholes mathematical model of a financial market containing certain derivative investment instruments.
Physiology and medicine
- The term "dendritic cell" is coined by Ralph M. Steinman working with Zanvil A. Cohn.
- The term "Norrmalmstorgssyndromet", translated as Stockholm syndrome, is coined by Nils Bejerot.
- David Rosenhan publishes the results of his experiment into the validity of psychiatric diagnosis.
- The American Psychiatric Association officially declares that homosexuality is not a mental disorder.
- April 3 – The first handheld mobile phone call is made by Martin Cooper of Motorola in New York City.
- June 4 – A United States patent for the Docutel automated teller machine is granted to Donald Wetzel, Tom Barnes and George Chastain.
- Ichiro Kato, Waseda University, develops the world's first full-scale humanoid robot, Wabot-1.
- March 6 – The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded as the Montenegrin Society for Science and Arts (Crnogorsko društvo za nauku i umjetnost), elects its first members.
- Nobel Prizes
- Turing Award – Charles W. Bachman
- May 19 – Alice Roberts, English evolutionary biologist, biological anthropologist and science and archaeology popularizer
- October 5 – Cédric Villani, French mathematician
- November 19 – Nim Chimpsky (d. 2000), chimpanzee
- December 5 – Luboš Motl, Czech theoretical physicist
- February 11 – J. Hans D. Jensen (b. 1907), German nuclear physicist
- March 12 – David Lack (b. 1910), English ornithologist
- March 14 – Howard H. Aiken (b. 1900), American computing pioneer
- March 28 – C. Doris Hellman (b. 1910), American historian of science
- March 30 – William Justin Kroll (b. 1889), Luxembourgish metallurgist
- July 3 – Laurens Hammond (b. 1895), American inventor
- August 9 – Preben von Magnus (b. 1912), Danish virologist
- November 25 – Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu (b. 1887), Romanian engineer
- December 10 – Wolf V. Vishniac (b. 1922), American microbiologist
- December 17 – Charles Greeley Abbot (b. 1872), American astrophysicist
- Woodward, R. B. (1973). "The Total Synthesis of Vitamin B12". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 33 (1): 145–178. doi:10.1351/pac197333010145. PMID 4684454. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- Nicolaou, K. C.; Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in Total Synthesis: Targets, Strategies, Methods. Wiley. ISBN 978-3-527-29231-8.
- Disclosed 1997. https://web.archive.org/web/20100519084635/http://www.gchq.gov.uk/history/pke.html
- Black, Fischer; Scholes, Myron (May–June 1973). "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities". Journal of Political Economy. University of Chicago Press. 81 (3): 637–654. doi:10.1086/260062. JSTOR 1831029.
- Steinman, R. M.; Cohn, Z. A. (1973). "Identification of a Novel Cell Type in Peripheral Lymphoid Organs of Mice: I. Morphology, Quantitation, Tissue Distribution". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 137 (5): 1142–62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237. PMID 4573839.
- Rosenhan, D. L. (January 1973). "On being sane in insane places". Science. New York. 179 (4070): 250–8. Bibcode:1973Sci...179..250R. doi:10.1126/science.179.4070.250. PMID 4683124. Archived from the original on 2004-11-17.
- "First Mobile Phone Call Was Placed Exactly 40 Years Ago". Mashable. 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "History of Industrial Robots" (PDF). International Federation of Robotics. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA)". IAP. 2013. Retrieved 2015-01-09.