2018 Brazilian general election

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2018 Brazilian general election

← 2014 7 October 2018 (2018-10-07) (first round)
28 October 2018 (2018-10-28) (second round)
2022 →
Opinion polls
Turnout79.67% (first round)
78.7% (second round)[1]
Presidential election
  Pronunciamento do Presidente da República, Jair Bolsonaro (cropped).jpg Fernando Haddad Prefeito 2016.jpg
Candidate Jair Bolsonaro Fernando Haddad[a]
Party PSL PT
Alliance Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone The People Happy Again
Home state Rio de Janeiro[b] São Paulo
Running mate Hamilton Mourão Manuela d'Ávila
States carried 15 + DF 11
Popular vote 57,797,847 47,040,906
Percentage 55.13% 44.87%

2018 Brazilian presidential election map (Round 2).svg
Map of results for each State and the Federal District.

President before election

Michel Temer

Elected President

Jair Bolsonaro

Parliamentary election

Party Leader % Seats ±
Chamber of Deputies
PSL Eduardo Bolsonaro 11.7% 52 +44
PT Paulo Pimenta 10.3% 56 -5
PSDB Carlos Sampaio 6.0% 29 -20
PSD Domingos Neto 5.8% 34 -3
PP Arthur Lira 5.6% 38 -12
PMDB Baleia Rossi 5.5% 34 -17
PSB Tadeu Alencar 5.5% 32 +6
PR José Rocha 5.3% 33 -7
PRB Jhonatan de Jesus 5.1% 30 +9
DEM Elmar Nascimento 4.7% 29 -14
PDT André Figueiredo 4.6% 28 +9
Federal Senate
PT Lindbergh Farias 14.5% 6 -6
PSDB Paulo Bauer 11.9% 8 -2
PMDB Simone Tebet 7.5% 12 -6
DEM Ronaldo Caiado 5.4% 6 +2
PSD Omar Aziz 4.8% 7 -4
PP Ana Amélia Lemos 4.4% 6 +1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Official 2018 elections logo

General elections were held in Brazil on 7 October 2018 to elect the President, Vice President and the National Congress. Elections for state governors and vice governors, state legislative assemblies and the Legislative Chamber of the Federal District were held at the same time.

On 7 October 2018, Rio de Janeiro congressman Jair Bolsonaro came first in the first round of the presidential election. A run-off between him and former São Paulo mayor Fernando Haddad[3] was held on 28 October 2018. At 22:06 GMT, with 88% reporting, Bolsonaro was declared the winner with over 55% of the popular vote.[4]


The 2014 elections saw Workers' Party candidate Dilma Rousseff reelected as President in the second round with 51.6% of the vote, defeating Aécio Neves of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party who received 48.4% of the vote.[5] Rousseff had first been elected in the 2010 elections, succeeding her political mentor, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who was in office from 2003 until 2011.[6]

However, on 3 December 2015, impeachment proceedings against Rousseff were officially accepted by the Chamber of Deputies.[7] On 12 May 2016, the Federal Senate temporarily suspended Rousseff's powers and duties for up to six months or until the Senate reached a verdict: to remove her from office if found guilty or to acquit her from the crimes charged.[8] Vice President Michel Temer, of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, assumed her powers and duties as Acting President of Brazil during the suspension.[9][10] On 31 August 2016, the Senate voted 61–20 in favor of impeachment, finding Rousseff guilty of breaking budgetary laws and removing her from office.[11][12] Critics of the impeachment saw it as a legislative coup d'état.[13] Vice President Temer succeeded Rousseff as the 37th President of Brazil. His government implemented policies that contradicted the platform on which Rousseff's Workers Party had been elected, in one of the most controversial and politically-heated periods of modern Brazilian history.[14]

Temer was barred from running for a full term in 2018. He had been convicted of campaign law violations in 2016, and was banned from holding any political office for eight years.[15] He was likely ineligible for a full term in any case due to the manner in which constitutional provisions on term limits are worded. The constitution stipulates that if the Vice President becomes Acting President for any reason, it counts toward the limit of two consecutive terms. This applies even when the Vice President becomes Acting President whenever the President is abroad.

Electoral system[edit]

Voters lined up waiting for their turn to vote in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

Voting in Brazil is allowed for citizens over 16 years of age, and mandatory for those between 18 and 70 years of age.[16] Those who do not vote in an election and do not later present an acceptable justification (such as being away from their voting location at the time) must pay a fine of 3.51 BRL (equivalent to 0.90 USD as of October 2018).[17][18] Brazilian citizens residing abroad only vote for president.[19]

Presidential elections[edit]

The President and the Vice President of Brazil are elected using the two-round system. Citizens may field their candidacies for the presidency, and participate in the general elections, which are held on the first Sunday in October (in this instance, 7 October 2018).[20] If the most-voted candidate takes more than 50% of the overall vote, he or she is declared elected. If the 50% threshold is not met by any candidate, a second round of voting is held on the last Sunday in October (in this instance, 28 October 2018). In the second round, only the two most-voted candidates from the first round may participate. The winner of the second round is elected President of Brazil. Candidates for President run for office jointly with a candidate for Vice-President, and the Vice-President is elected as a consequence of the election of the President.[21]

Gubernatorial elections[edit]

The Governors and Vice Governors of all states and of the Federal District were elected, in two rounds when needed, in the same way as the presidential election.[22]

Congressional elections[edit]

Federal Senate elections[edit]

Two-thirds of the 81 members of the Federal Senate will be elected for a term of 8 years in office, the other third having been elected in 2014. Two candidates will be elected from each of the states and Federal District using majority block voting, with voters able to cast two votes each.[23]

Chamber of Deputies elections[edit]

All 513 members of the Chamber of Deputies (federal deputies) will be elected, with candidates elected from 27 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the states and Federal District, varying in size from eight to 70 seats. The Chamber elections are held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.[24]

Legislative Assemblies elections[edit]

All members of the State Legislative Assemblies (state deputies) and of the Federal District Legislative Chamber (district deputies), varying in size from 24 to 94 seats, will be elected. These elections are also held using open list proportional representation, with seats allocated using the simple quotient.[25]

Presidential candidates[edit]

Candidates in runoff[edit]

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone
Jair Messias Bolsonaro e Eduardo Bolsonaro (cropped).jpg
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL)
Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (1991–2019)
Hamilton Mourão em 6 de abril de 2019.jpg
Gen. Hamilton Mourão (PRTB)
The People Happy Again
PT,[27] PROS,[28] PCdoB[29]
Fernando Haddad Prefeito 2016 (cropped).jpg
Fernando Haddad (PT)
51st Mayor of São Paulo (2013–17)
Manuela d'Ávila em setembro de 2018 (cropped).jpg
Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB)

Candidates failing to make runoff[edit]

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
Sovereign Brazil[30]
Ciro Gomes em 29-07-2010 (Agência Brasil) (cropped).jpg
Ciro Gomes (PDT)
Governor of Ceará (1991–94) and Federal Deputy for Ceará (2007–11)
Senadora Kátia Abreu Oficial.jpg
Kátia Abreu[31] (PDT)
This is the Solution
MDB, PHS[32]
Henrique Meirelles recebe o ministro das Finanças do Reino Unido - 35459912404 (cropped).jpg
Henrique Meirelles (MDB)
Minister of Finance (2016–2018) and former President of the Central Bank of Brazil (2003–11)
Germano Rigotto em 2015 (cropped).jpg
Germano Rigotto (MDB)
United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU)
Vera Lúcia no Dia Internacional da Mulher Trabalhadora 2018 - PSTU (cropped).jpg
Vera Lúcia (PSTU)
Labor organizer
Hertz Dias PSTU (cropped).jpg
Hertz Dias (PSTU)
United to Transform Brazil
Marina Silva em março de 2018 (2) (cropped).jpg
Marina Silva (REDE)
Senator for Acre (1995–2011)[33]
Eduardo Jorge em Convenção 2018 - Vice presidente (cropped).jpg
Eduardo Jorge (PV)
Real Change
Foto oficial de Álvaro Dias (cropped).jpg
Alvaro Dias
Senator for Paraná (1983–87, 1999–2018)[34][35]
Paulo Rabello de Castro.png
Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC)
Christian Democracy (DC)
José Maria Eymael no senado.jpg
José Maria Eymael (DC)
Federal Deputy for São Paulo (1986–95)[36]
Caricatura do Professor Helvio Costa.tif
Helvio Costa (DC)
New Party (NOVO)
João Amoêdo review ContabilidadeTv (cropped).jpg
João Amoêdo (NOVO)
President of NOVO (2015–17)[37]
Christian Lohbauer (NOVO)
To unite Brazil[38]
Governador Geraldo Alckmin Anuncia Duplicação da Euclides da Cunha em 2011 (cropped).jpg
Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB)
Governor of São Paulo (2001–06, 2011–18)[39]
Foto oficial de Ana Amélia Lemos.jpg
Ana Amélia (PP)
Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil[40]
Guilherme Boulos em São Paulo.jpg
Guilherme Boulos (PSOL)
Professor at University of São Paulo, coordinator of the Homeless Workers' Movement activist, and writer.
Sônia Guajajara (cropped).jpg
Sônia Guajajara (PSOL)
Patriota (PATRI)
Deputados cabo Daciolo (PSOL-RJ) e Marcos Reategui (PSC-AP) participam do programa Brasil em Debate (cropped).jpg
Cabo Daciolo (PATRI)
Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (2015–)[41]
Suelene Balduino Nascimento.jpg
Suelene Balduino Nascimento (PATRI)
Free Homeland Party (PPL)
João Vicente Goulart sobre exumação (cropped).jpg
João Vicente Goulart (PPL)
State Deputy of Rio Grande do Sul (1982–86)
Caricatura de Léo Alves PPL.png
Léo Alves (PPL)

Lost in primaries or conventions[edit]

Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)[edit]

Democrats (DEM)[edit]

Party of National Mobilization (PMN)[edit]

Social Democratic Party (PSD)[edit]

Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL)[edit]


Rejection of Lula's candidacy[edit]

On 1 September, the Superior Electoral Court voted 6–1 to reject Lula's candidacy based on the Lei da Ficha Limpa and his conviction on corruption charges, but approved the PT-PCdoB-PROS coalition "The People Happy Again" and the candidacy of Fernando Haddad.[96] The Workers' Party replaced Lula with Haddad and announced former presidential candidate Manuela d'Ávila as his running mate.[97]

Stabbing of Jair Bolsonaro[edit]

Bolsonaro being stabbed at a Juiz de Fora rally

Jair Bolsonaro was stabbed on 6 September 2018 while campaigning in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and interacting with supporters.[98] Bolsonaro's son, Flávio, has stated that his father's wounds were only superficial and he was recovering in hospital.[99] Police arrested and identified the attacker as Adelio Bispo de Oliveira, who claimed that he was "ordered by God to carry out the attack".[100] Flávio Bolsonaro later stated that the wounds inflicted seem worse than initially thought. He tweeted about his father's condition, explaining that the perforation reached part of the liver, the lung and part of the intestine. He also stated that Bolsonaro had lost a large amount of blood, arriving at the hospital with a pressure of 10/3, but had since stabilized.[98][101][102] Most of the other candidates in the presidential race (from both sides of the political spectrum), and the then-Brazilian president, Michel Temer, condemned the attack.[103] After being stabbed, Bolsonaro did not attend any further debates.[104]


Two debates were held on 9 August and 17 August, featuring eight presidential candidates: Bolsonaro, Alckmin, Silva, Gomes, Dias, Meirelles, Boulos, and Daciolo. Lula was unable to participate in the debates.[105] The 9 August debate was moderated by Ricardo Boechat,[106] and the 17 August debate was moderated by Amanda Klein, Boris Casoy and Mariana Godoy.[107]

A debate scheduled for 27 August[108] was canceled after Jair Bolsonaro expressed his uncertainty about participating in the debates and the Workers' Party insisted on the participation of Lula, prohibited by the Electoral Justice.[109] Bolsonaro did not participate in further debates after he was attacked on 6 September.[110]

After a debate on 9 September moderated by Maria Lydia Flândoli,[111] Fernando Haddad participated in all remaining debates. These occurred on 20 September (moderated by Joyce Ribeiro),[112] 26 September (moderated by Carlos Nascimento),[113] 30 September (moderated by Adriana Araújo and Celso Freitas),[114] and 4 October (moderated by William Bonner).[115]

A vice presidential debate was held on 5 September featuring four candidates; Fernando Haddad did not attend.[116]

While several debates were scheduled for the second round, none were held. Debates planned for 12 October,[117] 14 October,[118] and 15 October[119] were cancelled due to Bolsonaro's health issues. A debate scheduled for 21 October[120] was cancelled after the campaigns were unable to agree to terms.

Opinion polls[edit]



First place candidate on first round per state
Second round results by state
Candidate Party Running mate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Jair Bolsonaro PSL Hamilton Mourão PRTB 49,276,990 46.03 57,797,847 55.13
Fernando Haddad PT Manuela d'Ávila PCdoB 31,342,005 29.28 47,040,906 44.87
Ciro Gomes PDT Kátia Abreu PDT 13,344,366 12.47
Geraldo Alckmin PSDB Ana Amélia PP 5,096,349 4.76
João Amoêdo NOVO Christian Lohbauer NOVO 2,679,744 2.50
Cabo Daciolo PATRI Suelene Balduino PATRI 1,348,323 1.26
Henrique Meirelles MDB Germano Rigotto MDB 1,288,948 1.20
Marina Silva REDE Eduardo Jorge PV 1,069,577 1.00
Alvaro Dias PODE Paulo Rabello de Castro PSC 859,601 0.80
Guilherme Boulos PSOL Sônia Guajajara PSOL 617,122 0.58
Vera Lúcia PSTU Hertz Dias PSTU 55,762 0.05
José Maria Eymael DC Hélvio Costa DC 41,710 0.04
João Vicente Goulart PPL Léo Dias PPL 30,176 0.03
Invalid/blank votes 10,313,141 11,094,698
Total 117,364,560 100 115,933,451 100
Registered voters/turnout 147,305,825 79.67 147,305,155 78.70
Source: Globo
Popular vote (first round)
Popular vote (second round)

Voter demographics[edit]

Demographic group Bolsonaro Haddad % of
total vote
Total vote 55 45 100
Men 60 40 47
Women 50 50 53
16–24 years old 50 50 15
25–34 years old 56 44 21
35-44 years old 56 44 21
45-59 years old 54 46 24
60 and older 56 44 19
Less than high school 44 56 33
High school diploma 58 42 43
Bachelor’s degree or more 61 39 24
Family income
Under 2x min wage 42 58 40
2-5x min wage 61 39 38
5-10x min wage 69 31 12
Over 10x min wage 67 33 10
Southeast 63 37 44
South 65 35 15
Northeast 32 68 27
Central-West 66 34 7
North 55 45 7
Source: Datafolha


Chamber of Deputies
Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Elected Total +/–
Social Liberal Party 11,457,878 11.7 52 Increase44 19,413,869 11.3 4 4 Increase4
Workers' Party 10,126,611 10.3 56 Decrease13 24,785,670 14.5 4 6 Decrease6
Brazilian Social Democracy Party 5,905,541 6.0 29 Decrease25 20,310,558 11.9 4 8 Decrease2
Social Democratic Party 5,749,008 5.8 34 Decrease2 8,202,342 4.8 4 7 Increase4
Progressistas 5,480,067 5.6 37 Decrease1 7,529,901 4.4 5 6 Increase1
Brazilian Democratic Movement 5,439,167 5.5 34 Decrease32 12,800,290 7.5 7 12 Decrease6
Brazilian Socialist Party 5,386,400 5.5 32 Decrease2 8,234,195 4.8 2 2 Decrease5
Party of the Republic 5,224,591 5.3 33 Decrease1 3,130,082 1.8 1 2 Decrease2
Brazilian Republican Party 4,992,016 5.1 30 Increase9 1,505,607 0.9 1 1 Steady
Democrats 4,581,162 4.7 29 Increase8 9,218,658 5.4 4 6 Increase2
Democratic Labour Party 4,545,846 4.6 28 Increase9 7,737,982 4.5 2 5 Decrease3
Socialism and Liberty Party 2,783,669 2.8 10 Increase5 5,273,853 3.1 0 0 Decrease1
New Party 2,748,079 2.8 8 New 3,467,746 2.0 0 0 Steady
Podemos 2,243,320 2.3 11 Increase7 5,494,125 3.2 1 5 Increase5
Republican Party of the Social Order 2,042,610 2.1 8 Decrease3 1,370,513 0.8 1 1 Steady
Brazilian Labour Party 2,022,719 2.1 10 Decrease15 1,899,838 1.1 2 3 Steady
Solidariedade 1,953,067 2.0 13 Decrease2 4,001,903 2.3 1 1 Steady
Avante 1,844,048 1.9 7 Increase5 713,379 0.4 0 0 Steady
Social Christian Party 1,765,226 1.8 8 Decrease5 4,126,068 2.4 1 1 Increase1
Green Party 1,592,173 1.6 4 Decrease4 1,226,392 0.7 0 0 Decrease1
Popular Socialist Party 1,590,084 1.6 8 Decrease2 2,954,800 1.7 2 2 Increase2
Patriota 1,432,304 1.5 5 Increase3 60,589 0.0 0 0 Steady
Humanist Party of Solidarity 1,426,444 1.5 6 Increase1 4,228,973 2.5 2 2 Increase2
Communist Party of Brazil 1,329,575 1.4 9 Decrease1 1,673,190 1.0 0 0 Decrease1
Progressive Republican Party 851,368 0.9 4 Increase1 1,974,061 1.2 1 1 Increase1
Sustainability Network 816,784 0.8 1 New 7,166,003 4.2 5 5 New
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party 684,976 0.7 0 Decrease1 886,267 0.5 0 0 Steady
Party of National Mobilization 634,129 0.6 3 Steady 329,973 0.2 0 0 Steady
Christian Labour Party 601,814 0.6 2 Steady 222,931 0.1 0 1 Increase1
Free Fatherland Party 385,197 0.4 1 Increase1 504,209 0.3 0 0 Steady
Christian Democracy 369,386 0.4 1 Decrease1 154,068 0.1 0 0 Steady
Party of Brazilian Women 228,302 0.2 0 Steady 51,027 0.0 0 0 Steady
Brazilian Communist Party 61,343 0.1 0 Steady 256,655 0.1 0 0 Steady
United Socialist Workers Party 41,304 0.0 0 Steady 413,914 0.2 0 0 Steady
Workers Cause Party 2,785 0.0 0 Steady 38,691 0.0 0 0 Steady
Invalid/blank votes 18,771,737 61,995,824
Total 117,111,476 100.0 513 0 117,111,478 100.0 54 81 0
Registered voters/turnout 146,750,529 79.8 146,750,529 79.8
Source: Election Resources

Aftermath and reactions[edit]



  • President Mauricio Macri congratulated Bolsonaro on his election victory, stating that, "I hope we will work together soon for the relationship between our countries and the welfare of Argentines and Brazilians."[121]


  • President Evo Morales expressed his congratulations, "we greet the brother people of Brazil for their democratic participation in the second round of presidential elections in which Jair Bolsonaro was elected, to whom we extend our recognition. Bolivia and Brazil are brother peoples with deep integration ties."[122]


  • President Sebastián Piñera expressed his congratulations on Twitter, "congratulations to the Brazilian people for a clean and democratic election. I congratulate Jair Bolsonaro for your great electoral triumph."[122]


  • President Iván Duque praised Bolsonaro on Twitter. "Congratulations to Jair Bolsonaro, the new democratically elected president of Brazil. Our wish for this new stage of the neighboring country to be one of well-being and unity. We look forward to continuing our fellowship relationship to strengthen political, commercial and cultural ties."[123]

Costa Rica[edit]

  • President Carlos Alvarado using his official Twitter account expressed: "Costa Rica ratifies its willingness to work with Brazil in favor of inclusion, economic growth and respect for the rights of all people, as well as to achieve the sustainable development of the region."[124]


  • President Lenín Moreno expressed on Twitter, "More congratulations to the Brazilian people for this new democratic feat. Best wishes for new President Jair Bolsonaro."[125]


  • President Enrique Peña Nieto praised Bolsonaro on Twitter. "On behalf of the people and the Government of Mexico, I congratulate Jair Bolsonaro for his election as President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, on an exemplary day that reflects the democratic strength of that country."[122]


  • President Mario Abdo Benítez expressed on Twitter, "congratulations to the people of Brazil and their elected president Jair Bolsonaro for this election! We want to work together for stronger democracies in the region, with strengthened institutions and always looking for the prosperity of our peoples!"[122]


  • President Martín Vizcarra congratulated Bolsonaro on his election, "I congratulate Jair Bolsonaro for his election as president of Brazil and I wish him the greatest success in his administration. I express my willingness to work together to deepen our fraternal bilateral relationship."[122]

United States[edit]

  • President Donald Trump congratulated Bolsonaro on his election victory, Trump and Bolsonaro both agreed to work side-by-side to improve the lives of the people of the United States and Brazil, and as regional leaders, of the Americas.[126]



  • President Xi Jinping congratulated Bolsonaro on his election, and said that his country was willing to "respect the fundamental interests" of both nations. He also congratulated the statements made by Bolsonaro shortly after winning the elections, in which he assured that Brazil will maintain ties with China, its main trading partner, regardless of its ideological differences.[127]



  • President Emmanuel Macron congratulated Bolsonaro on his election victory, added that France would look to continue to cooperate with Brazil on areas including environmental issues. “France and Brazil have a strategic partnership based around common values of respect and the promotion of democratic principles,” added Macron in his statement.[128]
  • President of the National Rally Party Marine Le Pen praised Bolsonaro on his election victory, "Brazilians just punished the widespread corruption and terrifying crime that thrived during far left governments. Good luck to President Bolsonaro who will have to re-establish Brazil's very compromised economic, security and democratic situation."[125]


  • According to an official publication, the Chancellor Angela Merkel said she "hopes that their cooperation will continue to be based on democratic values and the rule of law. Two countries have long been linked by friendly relations and common interests."[129]


  • According to an official publication from the Kremlin, President Vladimir Putin: "praised the significant experience of mutually beneficial bilateral cooperation in various spheres that Russia and Brazil have acquired as part of their strategic collaboration" and "expressed confidence in the further promotion of the entire complex of Russian-Brazilian ties as well as constructive cooperation in the framework of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS and other multilateral organisations in the interests of the Russian and Brazilian people."[130]


  • Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini praised Bolsonaro on Twitter. "In Brazil citizens expelled the left! Good job for President Bolsonaro, the friendship between our peoples and government will be even stronger".[131]


  • Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez expressed on Twitter, "The Brazilian people have decided their future for years to come. The challenges will be huge. Brazil will always count on Spain to achieve a more egalitarian and fairer Latin America, the hope that will illuminate the decisions of any ruler."[125]

Middle East[edit]


  • Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu congratulated Bolsonaro on his election victory, stating that, "I am confident that your election will bring great friendship between the two peoples and strengthen the ties between Brazil and Israel."[132]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The original candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva was barred from running by the Superior Electoral Court on 31 August 2018, in accordance with the Clean Slate law.[2]
  2. ^ Born in São Paulo, electoral based in Rio de Janeiro


  1. ^ "Disclosure of Election Results". Superior Electoral Court. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  2. ^ News, ABC. "International News: Latest Headlines, Video and Photographs from Around the World -- People, Places, Crisis, Conflict, Culture, Change, Analysis and Trends". ABC News.
  3. ^ "Brazil right-wing presidential candidate wins vote but runoff likely".
  4. ^ Lyons, Kate; Phillips, Tom; Phillips, Tom (29 October 2018). "Far-right candidate Jair Bolsonaro wins presidential vote – as it happened" – via www.theguardian.com.
  5. ^ Brazil keen to open trade talks with UK Financial Times, 22 July 2016
  6. ^ "Brazil Stays With Rousseff as President After Turbulent Campaign".
  7. ^ Jonathan Watts. "Brazil opens impeachment proceedings against president Dilma Rousseff". The Guardian.
  8. ^ "Dilma Rousseff suspended as Senate votes to impeach". CNN. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  9. ^ "Brazil's Senate Votes to Impeach President Dilma Rousseff". NBC News. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Afastada, Dilma mantém salário, Alvorada, avião e assessores". Congresso em Foco (in Portuguese).
  11. ^ Catherine E. Shoichet; Euan McKirdy. "Brazil's Senate ousts Rousseff in impeachment vote". CNN. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  12. ^ "Brazil President Dilma Rousseff removed from office by Senate". BBC News. September 1, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
  13. ^ "All Impeachments Are Political. But Was Brazil's Something More Sinister?".
  14. ^ "Brazil's Rousseff ousted by Senate, Temer sworn in". Reuters. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  15. ^ Greenwald, Glenn (3 June 2016). "Credibility of Brazil's Interim President Collapses as He Receives 8-Year Ban on Running for Office". The Intercept. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  16. ^ Constitution of Brazil, art. 14. (in Portuguese)
  17. ^ Voting justification, Superior Electoral Court. (in Portuguese)
  18. ^ Answers to doubts from voters, Regional Electoral Court of São Paulo. (in Portuguese)
  19. ^ "Brasileiros votam no exterior".
  20. ^ "Brazil - The Electoral System". countrystudies.us.
  21. ^ "Quando, afinal, há segundo turno em uma eleição?". www.tse.jus.br.
  22. ^ "Treze estados e o DF têm eleição de governador; veja os candidatos". 28 October 2018.
  23. ^ Federal Senate electoral system, Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  24. ^ Chamber of Deputies electoral system, Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  25. ^ Farina, Erik (13 September 2018). "Senado, Câmara e assembleias: saiba como funcionam as casas do Legislativo". Gauchazh.clicrbs.com.br. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-10-29. Retrieved 2018-10-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "PT confirma Lula candidato; em mensagem, ex-presidente diz que 'querem fazer eleição de cartas marcadas'". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  28. ^ "Pros oficializa aliança com PT e apoio à candidatura de Lula a presidente". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  29. ^ a b Marreiro, Ricardo Della Coletta, Afonso Benites, Flávia (2018-08-06). "Haddad, vice e plano B de Lula, ganha reforço de Manuela D'Ávila no último minuto". EL PAÍS (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  30. ^ "Em diretrizes, Ciro propõe BNDES ativo, volta da TJLP e IDH de Portugal - ISTOÉ Independente". 10 August 2018.
  31. ^ "Ciro Gomes terá senadora Kátia Abreu como vice". O Globo (in Portuguese). 2018-08-05. Retrieved 2018-08-05.
  32. ^ "Divulgação de Candidaturas e Contas Eleitorais". divulgacandcontas.tse.jus.br.
  33. ^ "Rede confirma candidatura de Marina Silva à Presidência da República". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  34. ^ "Álvaro Dias quer disputa Presidência da República em 2018" (in Portuguese). Brasil 247. 2015-12-24. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
  35. ^ "Podemos confirma Alvaro Dias para disputa da Presidência". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  36. ^ a b Amendola, Gilberto (11 December 2017). "Eymael e Levy Fidelix querem ser o "novo" em mais uma eleição para presidente". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  37. ^ "Partido Novo anuncia João Amoêdo como pré-candidato a presidente em 2018" (in Portuguese). G1. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
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External links[edit]

Official campaign websites[edit]