Special elections for the 7th and 15th congressional districts in Pennsylvania were held on November 6, 2018, following the resignations of Republican U.S. RepresentativesPat Meehan (7th district) and Charlie Dent (15th district).
These were the last elections held in either district under their configurations made in 2011 by the Pennsylvania Legislature, as new districts drawn in accordance will the ruling of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in League of Women Voters v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania were in effect for the main 2018 congressional elections in November. The bulk of the old 7th became the new 5th District and the bulk of the old 15th became the new 7th District. In both cases, the two candidates on the ballot for these special elections were also on the ballot for the regular election held on the same day in their respective successor districts.
In January 2018, following revelation that he used taxpayers' money to settle a sexual harassment claim brought by a female staff member, Meehan announced that he would retire from Congress at the end of his current term and not seek reelection in 2018. On April 27, 2018, Meehan resigned and said he would pay back the taxpayer funds used for the settlement.
In September 2017, Dent announced that he would retire from Congress and not seek re-election to another term in 2018. In April 2018, Dent announced that he would resign in May 2018, not serving out the remainder of his term. He resigned on May 12, 2018, leaving the seat vacant.
In Pennsylvania, primaries are not held for special congressional elections. Instead, nominees are chosen by party members from each of the counties represented in the district.