8.8 cm Flak 16
|8.8 cm Flak 16|
8.8 cm Flak 16 cannon
|Place of origin||German Empire|
|Used by||German Empire|
|Wars||World War I|
|Mass||Transport: 7,300 kg (16,100 lb)|
Combat: 3,100 kg (6,800 lb)
|Barrel length||3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) L/45|
|Shell weight||9.4 kg (20 lb 12 oz)|
|Caliber||88 mm (3.46 in)|
|Carriage||Four-wheeled cruciform outriggers|
|Elevation||0° to +70°|
|Rate of fire||10 rpm|
|Muzzle velocity||785 m/s (2,575 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||Horizontal: 10.8 km (6.7 mi)|
Vertical: 6,850 m (22,470 ft)
Early anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were primarily adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to enable fire at higher angles. By 1915, the German military command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft. With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity – allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. The first such German gun, the Flak 16, was introduced in 1917, using the 88 mm caliber, common in the Kaiserliche Marine.
The barrel for the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel and was 45 calibers in length. The gun had a semi-automatic Krupp horizontal sliding-wedge breech to boost its rate of fire. There was a hydro-pneumatic recoil system located above and below the barrel, along with an equilibriator to balance the gun. The gun was capable of 360° of traverse and 0° to +70° of elevation.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 8.8 Kw Flak 1916.|
- Fleischer, Wolfgang (February 2015). German Artillery:1914-1918. Barnsley. p. 94. ISBN 9781473823983. OCLC 893163385.
- Westermann, Edward B. (2005–2009) . Flak: German Anti-aircraft Defenses 1914-1945. Modern War Studies. University Press of Kansas. pp. 19, 36–38, 44, 53, 58, 83, 90, 108, 128–129. ISBN 9780700614202.