Individual numbers are often classified as abstract particulars because they are neither concrete objects nor universals — they are particular things which do not themselves occur in space or time. Tropes are another example of entities cited as abstract particulars.
- Campbell, Keith, 1981. "The Metaphysic of Abstract Particulars," Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6: 477–488.
- Stout, G. F., 1921. "The Nature of Universals and Propositions," The Problem of Universals, ed. Charles Landesman, New York: Basic Books, 1971: 154–166.
- Stout, G. F., 1923 "Are the Characteristics of Particular Things Universal or Particular?," The Problem of Universals, ed. Charles Landesman, New York: Basic Books, 1971: 178–183.
- Rosen, Gideon (2001-07-19). "Abstract objects". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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