Alfredo Rocco

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Alfredo Rocco
Alfredo Rocco.gif
President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
In office
24 May 1924 – 5 January 1925
Preceded byEnrico De Nicola
Succeeded byAntonio Casertano
Italian Minister of Justice
In office
5 January 1925 – 20 July 1932
Prime MinisterBenito Mussolini
Preceded byAldo Oviglio
Succeeded byPietro De Francisci
Personal details
Born9 September 1875 (1875-09-09)
Napoli, Italy
Died28 August 1935 (1935-08-29) (aged 59)
Rome, Italy
Political partyRadical Party
(until 1910)
Italian Nationalist Association
National Fascist Party

Alfredo Rocco (born 9 September 1875 in Naples – died 28 August 1935) was an Italian politician and jurist. He was Professor of Commercial Law at the University of Urbino (1899–1902) and in Macerata (1902–1905), then Professor of Civil Procedure in Parma, of Business Law in Padua, and later of Economic Legislation at "La Sapienza" University of Rome, of which he was rector from 1932 to 1935.

Rocco, as an economics-minded politician, developed the early concept of the economic and political theory of corporatism,[1] which would later become part of the ideology of the National Fascist Party.


Rocco began his political career as a Marxist in the Radical Party, but eventually turned to the "proletarian nationalism" of the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), a political party on which he had major influence.[2][3] Rocco was critical of Italy's weak material and economic power, which he said was responsible for Italian dependence on the European "plutocracies" of France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.[4] Rocco also denounced the European powers for imposing foreign culture on Italy and criticized them for their endorsement of individualism.[5] In 1920 he became director of the newspaper L'Idea nazionale, official organ of the Nationalist Association.[6] He later joined the National Fascist Party, after they had merged with the Italian Nationalist Association.[7] In a 1925 speech Rocco interpreted the ideology of fascism as the means by which the individual is sacrificed for the good of society, declaring: "For Liberalism, the individual is the end and society the means. For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means, and its whole life consists in using individuals as instruments for its social ends."[8]

He was elected in 1921 to the Chamber of Deputies, and became its president in 1924. From 1925 to 1932 he was Minister of Justice and promoted the criminal codification, by signing in 1930 the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure (with the help of Vincenzo Manzini), and reconciling the Classical and Positivist schools with the system of so-called "double track". From 1925 to 1935, Rocco was the Italian representative on the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations.[9] From 1932 to 1935 Rocco was rector of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome.


  1. ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1996. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. Routledge. Pp. 64
  2. ^ Dylan Riley, The Civic Foundations for Fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain and Romania 1870-1945, London and New York, Verso, 2010, p. 227
  3. ^ Allan Todd, Sally Waller, Jean Bottaro, History for the IB Diploma, Paper 3: European States in the Inter-War Years, 1918-1939, Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 194
  4. ^ Gregor, James A. 2005. Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought.Princeton: Princeton University Press. p42
  5. ^ Gregor. p42-43
  6. ^ Fonzo, Erminio (2017). Storia dell'Associazione nazionalista italiana (1910–1923). Napoli: Edizioni scientifiche italiane. ISBN 978-88-495-3350-7.
  7. ^ Chilton, Stephen (22 April 2005). "Notes on Ball & Dagger reader; Alfredo Rocco (1925 [trans. 1926])"The Political Theory of Fascism"" (Web). Selections from The Political Doctrine of Fascism. The University of Minnesota. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  8. ^ Alfredo Rocco, “The Political Doctrine of Fascism,” speech delivered at Perugia, 30 August 1925. Speech printed in A Primer of Italian Fascism, Jeffrey T. Schnapp, edit., University of Nebraska Press, 2000, p. 112 [1]
  9. ^ Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period] (phdthesis) (in French). Lausanne: Université de Lausanne.
Political offices
Preceded by
Enrico De Nicola
President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Succeeded by
Antonio Casertano
Preceded by
Aldo Oviglio
Italian Minister of Justice
Succeeded by
Pietro De Francisci

External links[edit]