Alumic languages

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Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo

The four scattered and poorly attested Alumic languages form a branch of the Plateau languages of central Nigeria.


The following classification is taken from Blench (2008). The languages are not closely related and are morphologically quite diverse due to different contact situations; given the poor state of their description, their relationship is provisional.


Alumu (incl. Akpondu/Tesu)

Toro (Turkwam)



Hasha (Yashi)

Ethnologue scatters these languages throughout Plateau: Hasha and Sambe with Eggon (Southern branch), and Alumu–Tesu and Toro as two independent branches.

Blench (2019) also includes Nigbo (extinct).[2]

Names and locations[edit]

Below is a list of language names, populations, and locations from Blench (2019).[2]

Language Cluster Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Speakers Location(s)
Akpondu (extinct) Akpondu 1 (2005). The last speaker was only a remember and can only recall fragmentary vocabulary Plateau State
Sambe Sambe Sambe 2 (2005) Kaduna State
Alumu-Tәsu cluster Alumu-Tәsu Arum–Chessu Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA
Alumu Alumu-Tәsu Arum Alumu Seven villages. ca. 5000 (Blench 1999)
Tәsu Alumu-Tәsu Chessu Two villages. ca. 1000 (Blench 1999)
Hasha Iyashi, Yashi 400 (SIL); 3000 (Blench est. 1999) Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA
Toro Tɔrɔ Turkwam 6,000 (1973 SIL). 2000 (Blench 1999). The Toro people live in one large village, Turkwam, some two km. southeast of Kanja on the Wamba-Fadan Karshi road Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA
Nigbo (extinct) near Agameti on the Fadan Karshi-Wamba road.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Alumu–Toro". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.

External links[edit]