|Ethnicity||14,800 Arhuacos (2001)|
There are 8000 speakers, all in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of Colombia, 90% of whom are monolingual. Literacy is 1 to 5% in their native language. Some speak Spanish, and 15 to 25% are literate in that auxiliary language. The users have a very strong traditional culture and have vibrant use of their tongue.
It is also known as: Aruaco, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Bintucua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, and Ike.
|Back vowels||Central vowels||Front vowels|
|Open vowels||i i||ɨ ʉ||u u|
|Mid vowels||e e||ə y||o o|
|Close vowels||a a|
/ə/ is raised to and merged with /ɨ/ word finally.
This language registers 17 consonant phonemes:
|occlusive (voiceless)||p p||t t||tʃ ch||k k||ʔ (ꞌ (saltillo))|
|occlusive (voiced)||b b||d d||dʒ ɉ||ɡ g|
|nasal||m m||n~ŋ n|
|fricative (voiceless)||s s||h j|
|fricative (voiced)||β w||z z||ʒ zh|
With some exceptions, Arhuaco syllables may begin with up to two consonants (the second of which must be a glide /w j/) and may be closed by one of the following consonants: /ʔ n r w j/.
Arhuaco stress normally falls on penultimate syllables, with secondary stresses occurring on every other preceding syllable, in the case of longer words (e.g. /ˌunkəˈsia/ 'protective bracelet'). There are some affixes and enclitics that are extrametrical and do not count as syllables for stress assignment.
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Frank, Paul. 1985. A grammar of Ika. PhD thesis. University of Pennsylvania.
Frank, Paul. 2000. Ika syntax. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Landaburu, Jon. 2000. La lengua Ika. in Lenguas indigenas de Colombia: Una visión descriptiva. Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
P.84. . in Scientific American.
- Arhuaco language at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Arhuaco at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arhuaco". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Arhuaco, by Arango and Sánchez, Ethnologue, 1998, access date 04-16-08
- Landaburu, Jon (2000). La lengua Ika. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.