Kamula–Elevala languages

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Kamula–Elevala
Kamula – Elevala River
Geographic
distribution
northern Western Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Proto-languageProto-Kamula–Elevala
Subdivisions
  • Awin–Pa (Awin–Pare)
  • Kamula
Glottologkamu1264[2]
Awin-Pa-Kamula languages.svg
Map: The Awin–Pa–Kamula languages of New Guinea
  The Awin–Pa and Kamula languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kamula–Elevala languages are a small family of the Trans–New Guinea languages spoken in the region of the Elevala River.

Languages[edit]

The languages are just three, Aekyowm (Awin), Pare (Pa) and Kamula. They are not obviously related to each other, but Aekyowm and Pare are closer to each other than to Kamula.[3]

Classification[edit]

Stephen Wurm (1975) added Awin and Pa to an expanded Central and South New Guinea branch of TNG, a position reversed by Ross (2005). The connection between Awin–Pa and Kamula was established by Suter & Usher.[4]

Reconstruction[edit]

Proto-Kamula–Elevala
Reconstruction ofKamula–Elevala languages
Reconstructed
ancestors

Phonology[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant and vowel inventories as follows:[1]

*m *n
*p (or *h) *t *s *k
*b (or *p) *d *g
*s
*w *j
*i *u
*e *o
*a

There is also the diphthong *ai.

Pronouns[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the Awin–Pa pronouns as:[1]

sg du pl
1 *nɔ *ni, *ki
2 *go *gi
3 *jɔ

In the 1du, Awin has /ki/ and Pare /ni/, /niki/, /nigi/. The Kamula singular forms are quite similar (na, wa, je), but it does not have the dual.

Basic vocabulary[edit]

Some lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[1]

gloss Proto-Kamula-Elevala
head *ke̝ba
ear *m[ɔ/o̝]d[ɔ/o̝]
eye *kinɔ
nose *kine̝
tusk/tooth *bate̝
tongue/flame *taⁱ
knee/leg *tama
bone *ke̝dɔ
louse *awV
dog *ti
pig *m₂aⁱnæ
bird *te̝ja
egg/fruit/seed *m[ɔ/o̝]k[ɔ/o̝]
tree *je̝
man *k[ɔ/o̝]b[a/ɔ]
sun/day *gani
stone *ike̝
name *pi
eat/drink *de̝-
one *tV[n/d]o̝

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

The following basic vocabulary words are from the Trans-New Guinea database:[5]

gloss Pare Aekyom
head keba; kiba pɔƀe
hair osɛ; ouse tɛnɛ
ear mogamɛ; mogo; mɔgɔ kɛndɔkɛ
eye kere-mo; kinemo; kinemɔ krO-ŋɛ
nose kene; kine koe
tooth male; marɛ; pɛrɛ pʰɛtɛ
tongue tiː
leg tamakali
louse kiba ʔo; kiba ʔɔ; ɔ huɔlɛ
dog ti; til psane
pig mele
bird tie; tiye
egg moʔo; mɔʔɔ
blood sowo; sɔwɔ
bone ko; kɔ kro
skin sia; siga; siya kare
breast bu tutɛ
tree i̧; ĩ de; doe
man kobo
woman wigi
sun gẽnɛ̃; gine toe
moon abi
water mɔa; omɛ; ɔmɔɛ; ume waɛ
fire ne; nɛ de; doe
stone iebɔ; iyebo
road, path utigi tɛnɛ
name hi hi
eat da; denu; de-nu
one oteso; ɔtesɔ
two diyabo; diyabɔ

Evolution[edit]

Proposed Awin–Pa reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma:[6]

Aekyom language:

  • kendoke ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k[V]
  • khatike ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)
  • ndok[V], kare ‘skin’ < *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu
  • di ‘firewood, fire’ < *inda

Pa language:

  • keba ‘head’ < *kV(mb,p)(i,u)tu
  • ama ‘mother < *am(a,i)
  • di- ‘burn’ < *nj(a,e,i)

References[edit]

  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  1. ^ a b c d New Guinea World, Digul River – Ok
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kamula–Elevala". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Edgar Suter & Timothy Usher, 2017, 'The Kamula–Elevala Language Family', Language & Linguistics in Melanesia, vol. 25.
  4. ^ Edgar Suter & Timothy Usher (2017) "The Kamula–Elevala language family", Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 35: 106–131.
  5. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  6. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.

External links[edit]