Batalo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Batalo Šantić
lord
Tepčija
Reign1392-1404
PredecessorMilat
SuccessorSladoje
Full name
Batalo Šantić
Bornbefore 1391
unknown
Died1404
BuriedCrkvine, Turbe
Noble familyŠantić
Spouse(s)Resa Vukčić
Issue
Vuk, Stefan i Ostoja Tepčić
Fatherunknown, probably Dragoš Šantić
ReligionBosnian Church
OccupationTepčija
Memorials44°14′19″N 17°34′19″E / 44.2386°N 17.5719°E / 44.2386; 17.5719 (Batalo's tomb) Mausoleum and the crypt at the hill Crkvine, Turbe (Travnik)[1]

Batalo was a medieval Bosnian nobleman from Lašva. He was the holder of the medieval Bosnian title of "Tepčija". In Medieval Bosnia the title of tepčija appeared some time during 13th century and was in use until second half of the 14th ventury. The function of a tepčija was to oversee the country's feudal estates.[2]

Life[edit]

Batalo belonged to the medieval Šantić family, who were lords of Lašva region. He married Resa Vukčić of the Vukčić-Hrvatinići noble family, and sister of Bosnian Grand Duke, Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, and had three sons, Vuk, Stefan i Ostoja, who were known by their last name Tepčić. Marrying the sister of the Bosnian Grand Duke elevated Batalo's status and gave him lordship over the medieval Sana region, or at least over some of its parts. His seat was at the fortress of Toričan, above the contemporary Varošluk village.[3][1]

The first mention of Batalo is found in a deed issued by King Stjepan Dabiša to the government of Dubrovnik, and dated July 17, 1392. In it, Batalo was named as a witness to the deed in his as "Tepčija". He was also, among others, a major influence at Bosnian Court and an adviser to Bosnian rulers from late 14th century, as well as a confidant of Hrvoje Vukčić. Batalo was also recognized by historians as one of the noblemen close to the Bosnian Church.[1]

Batalo's Gospel[edit]

Rastudije's Order with a list of Bosnian Church Djed

Batalo's Gospel is dated to 1393. The gospel was written by the scribe (in medieval Bosnia called dijak) Stanko Kromirijanin. The tepčija Batalo Šantić was the scribe's patron. Four pages of the gospel are preserved, and are held in National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg. On the third preserved page the scribe Stanko states that he was writing an ornate gospel for Batalo, dating its completion to 1393, two years after Tvrtko I death, during the reign of Dabiša.[1][4] Here we also learn about his fortress Toričan, and his dominion over Sana, as well as name of his wife, Resa, sister of Grand Duke of Bosnia, Hrvoje Vukčić.[1]

On page two, there is a list of djed of the Bosnian Church. Researchers call this list „Red gospodina Rastudija“ (Order of Bishop Rastudije), and is understood as a list of names of all Bosnian Church bishops before and after him.[5][1]

Tepčija[edit]

There were two, maybe even three[6] levels of the office: the "Veliki Tepčija" (Grand), "Tepčija" and "Mali Tepčija" (Lower). "Veliki Tepčija" took care of the royal estates and held office at the ruler's (Ban, later King) court. "Tepčija", if there was "Lower Tepčija", administrated of all major feudal estates except that which belonged to the Court, where "Lower Tepčija" would than take care of rest of the land.[2][7]

Batalo's mausoleum[edit]

Batalo's crypt and mausoleum (44°14′19″N 17°34′19″E / 44.2386°N 17.5719°E / 44.2386; 17.5719 (Batalo's tomb)) was discovered in 1915 by Captain Teplý of the Austro-Hungarian army, on a hill called Crkvine. The Crkvine locality is multi-layered archaeological site, with cultural and historical continuity dating back to the neolithic, through early Roman and late antiquity, to end of the 14th century.[1]

At the entrance large block of limestone called a stećak. Frontal stone plate, dimension 17 x 24 cm, carried inscription in Bosančica:[1]

Original in Bosančica script: Асє ʌєжн ɣӡʍожɴн ʍɣж mєпvнѣɖ Бɖmɖʌо ɖ пнɖ РɖΔоʍнʌ Δнѣɖк.
Latin script: Ase leži] uzmo [žni] muž' t [ep']čija Batal[o] bosan'ski a pisa Radomil' dijak'.
English: Here lies mighty man Bosnian tepčija Batalo so is writing Radomil the dijak*.


* dijak=scribe, and / or apprentice, disciple

Status and protection[edit]

Sometime between WWI and WWII a church was built near the tomb, but was demolished during the WWII, and in 1970 it was again built on the remaining foundations. It was declared a national monument in Bosnia and Hercegovina.[1][8] On January 25, 2005 KONS declared mausoleum, archaeological site and movable property, found and stored in National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1]

Literature[edit]

  • Amir Kliko, Tepčija Batalo, gospodar župa Sane i Lašve, Divan 45, časopis Bošnjačke zajednice kulture "Preporod", Općinsko društvo Travnik, 2004.
  • Blagojević, M., Tepčija, Leksikon srpskog srednjeg veka, Knowledge, Beograd, 1999.,728.
  • Truhelka, dr. Ćiro i Patsch, dr. Karlo, Iskopine u dolini Lašve 1893, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu V, Sarajevo, 1893., 685.-707.
  • Truhelka, dr. Ćiro, Grobnica bosanskog tepčije Batala, obretena kod Gornjeg Turbeta (Kotar Travnik), Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu XXVII, 1915., 365. -374.
  • Petrović, Jozo, Lubanja (calvarium) i dijelovi kostura bosanskoga velmože Batala, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu XXXV, Sarajevo, 1923., 177. - 182.
  • Mandić, Mihovil, Turbe kod Travnika, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu XXXVI, Sarajevo, 1924., 83. - 903.
  • Petrović, Jozo, S arheologom kroz Travnik, posebni otisak iz VI knjige "Narodne starine", Zagreb, 1931.
  • Sergejevski, Dušan, Kasno-antički mauzolej u Turbetu, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu VI, 1951., 135.-145.
  • Korošec, Josip, Neolitska naseobina na Crkvinama u Turbetu kod Travnika, Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu XII, Sarajevo, 1957., 5. - 18.
  • Mazalić, Đoko, Konzervatorski zahvat na Batalovoj grobnici i njezin današnji izgled, "Naše starine" VI, Sarajevo, 1959., 239.-242.
  • Bešlagić, Šefik, Stećci, kataloško-topografski pregled, Sarajevo, 1971., 142.-143.
  • Blagojević, M., Tepčije u srednjovekovnoj Srbiji, Bosni i Hrvatskoj, Istorijski glasnik, 1-2, Beograd, 1976., 7.-47.
  • Bešlagić, Šefik, Stećci-kultura i umjetnost, Sarajevo, 1982., 49.-50,116.
  • Maslić, Fatima, Starine i muzeji Travnika, Turistički savez Travnik, Zagreb, 1990.
  • Vrana, Vladimir, Književna nastojanja u sredovječnoj Bosni, Povijest Bosne i Hercegovine, knjiga I, HKD "Napredak", Sarajevo, 1942. – 1991., 794.-822.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The archaeological site of Batalo's Tomb in Turbe - KONS". old.kons.gov.ba (in English and Bosnian). Commission to preserve national monuments (KONS). 25 January 2005. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  2. ^ a b Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (2007). Glas. p. 23.
  3. ^ „Сеи справи књиге тепачија Батало, кои бише много славан' кои др'жаше Торичан и Лашву, а за ним' бише госпоја Реса. Вукца вое(вод)е кћи: А бише он един' брат'и вое(во)да босан'ски, а други кнез' босан'ски, а трети бан' хр'ватски. А тада Батало тепачија др'жаше Сану и гредише му на возиницих' вино ис Кремене у Торичан', а он' бише много доб'р добрим' људем' и много славан' добрим' кр'стијан'м и зато га Б(ог)' множаше у вики вјеком'. Ам(и)н'.“ Đ. Sp. Radojičić, Odlomak bogomilskog jevanđelja bosanskog tepačije Batala iz 1393 godine. Izvestija na Instituta za balgarska istorija 14-15, Sofija, 1964, 495-507
  4. ^ “В' име оца и сина и светаго духа. Сеи книге направи тепачија Батало своим' дијаком' Стан'ком Кромиријанином' и оковав' е сребром' и златом' и одлив' кросницоми и приказа е стар'цу Радину. А написаше се сие книге у дни крала Дабише од' ројенија С(и)на Б(о)жија 1393 лито, по умр'ти крала Твр'тка друго лито“, Đorđe Sp. Radojičić, Odlomak bogomilskog jevanđelja bosanskog tepačije Batala iz 1393 godine. Izvestija na Instituta za balgarska istorija 14-15, Sofija, 1964, 495-507;Franjo Šanjek, Bosansko - humski krstjani u povijesnim vrelima (13. - 15. st.), Barbat, Zagreb, 2003, 356
  5. ^ Aleksandar Solovjev, Vjersko učenje bosanske crkve, Zagreb 1948, 33
  6. ^ Istorijski glasnik: organ Društva istoričara SR Srbije. Društvo. 1976.
  7. ^ Историски гласник: орган Историского друштва НР Србије. Научна књига. 1975. p. 25.
  8. ^ "Bazilika u Turbetu". kons.gov.ba. Retrieved 13 July 2016.

External links[edit]