Blu-ray Disc recordable

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A blank rewritable Blu-ray Disc (BD-RE)

Blu-ray Disc Recordable (BD-R) refers to two direct to disc optical disc recording technologies that can be recorded on to a Blu-ray-based optical disc with an optical disc recorder. BD-R discs can be written to once, whereas Blu-ray Disc Recordable Erasable (BD-RE) can be erased and re-recorded multiple times. Disc capacities are 25 GB for single-layer discs, 50 GB for double-layer discs,[1] 100 GB ("XL") for triple-layer, and 128 GB for quadruple-layer (in BD-R only).[2][3]

The minimum speed at which a Blu-ray Disc can be written is 36 megabits (4.5 megabytes) per second.[4]

Version[edit]

As of April 2018, there are five versions of Blu-ray Disc Recordable Erasable (BD-RE) and four versions of Blu-ray Disc Recordable (BD-R). Each version includes three Parts (a.k.a. Books): Basic Format Specifications, File System Specifications, Audio Visual Basic Specifications. Each part has sub-versions (e.g. R2 Format Specification includes Part 3: Audio Visual Basic Specifications Ver.3.02, Part 2: File System Specifications Ver. 1.11, Part 1: Basic Format Specifications Ver. 1.3).[5][6][7]

Date RE Version R Version By Parts[7][a] Changes
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3
2002 1.0[8] RE V1.0 RE V1.0 RE V1.0
  • BD File System (BDFS), computer-incompatible
  • BD Audio/Visual (BDAV) format
  • BD content protection (BDCP) [9][10]
2005 2.0[11] 1.0 RE V2.1
R V1.3
RE V2.1
R V1.1
RE V2.1
  • New UDF 2.5 file system for computer use; UDF 2.6 also available for BD-R
  • Uses AACS[12]
  • Hybrid formats (inapplicable to recordable discs)[13]
  • New BD-R Low To High physical format.[14]
September 2006 3.0[15] 2.0[5] RE V2.1
R V1.3
RE V2.1
R V1.1
RE V3.0 +
ROM V2.4 (BDMV)
  • New camcorder sized (8 cm) discs
  • "Camcorder" added to product categories
  • BDMV (Blu-ray Disc Movie) application format
June 2010 4.0[16] 3.0[17] RE V3.0
R V2.0
RE V3.0
R V2.0
RE V4.0 +
RE V2.1
New BDXL definition:
  • Multi-layered BDAV rewritable/recordable disc with 2× and 4× speeds
  • 100 GB capacity
  • "Professional Device" added to BD product categories[18]
December 2017 5.0[19] 4.0[20] RE V3.1
R V2.2
RE V4.0
R V3.0
RE V5.0 BDXL expansions:
  • New 128 GB BD-R capacity
  • Ultra HD broadcast recording support

Speed[edit]

As of December 2017, the following speeds are seen in Blu-Ray specifications for R/RE discs:[7]

Drive speed Data rate 25GB BD-R(E) write time 50GB BD-R(E) DL (25GB/layer) write time 100GB BR-R(E) XL TL (~33GB/layer) write time
[1] 36 Mbit/s 4.5 MB/s 4.29 MiB/s ~95 min. ~190 min. ~380 min.
72 Mbit/s 9 MB/s 8.58 MiB/s ~47 min. ~94 min. ~188 min.
144 Mbit/s 18 MB/s 17.17 MiB/s ~24 min. ~48 min. ~96 min.
216 Mbit/s 27 MB/s 25.75 MiB/s ~16 min. ~32 min. ~64 min.
8x 288 Mbit/s 36 MB/s ~11.25 min. ~22.5 min.
10x 360 Mbit/s 45 MB/s ~9 min. ~18 min.
12x 432 Mbit/s 54 MB/s ~7.5 min. ~15 min.
14x 504 Mbit/s 63 MB/s ~6.5 min. ~13 min.
16x 576 Mbit/s 72 MB/s ~5.7 min. ~11.5 min.

2× speeds are mandatory for all formats, with 4× and 6× being optional for non-XL BD-R media. Since BD-RE 5.0/BD-R 4.0, a read speed of 4× is mandatory for UHD support.[7]

Note: Add extra time for disc verification phase and time for erasing the disc in the case of BD-RE.

Pricing[edit]

As of April 2018 (approximate pricing):

  • BD-R/RE drive US$50 and above[21]
  • 6× single-layer BD-R disc (25 GB) US$0.42 each in quantity;[22]
  • 10× single-layer BD-R disc (25 GB) CN¥2.04 each in quantity;[23]
  • 6× double-layer BD-R disc (50 GB) US$1.64 in quantity;[24]
  • 2× single-layer BD-RE disc (25 GB) US$0.82 in quantity;[25]
  • 2× double-layer BD-RE disc (50 GB) US$3.15 in quantity;[26]
  • 4× BD-R XL disc (100 GB) US$5 in quantity;[27]
  • 4× BD-RE XL disc (100 GB) US$11 in quantity;[28]

Recording mechanisms[edit]

Instead of the pits and lands found on prepressed/prerecorded/replicated discs, BD-R and RE discs contain grooves which contain a wobble frequency that is used to locate the position of the reading or writing laser on the disc.[29] BD-R has an Optimum Power Calibrations (OPC) / Test Zone, which is used to calibrate (finely adjust) the power of the writing laser before and during writing, and it also has a Drive Calibration Zone (DCZ) at the outer edge of the disc, for optional high speed calibration. The calibration is necessary to allow for slight manufacturing defects, greatly reducing or completely eliminating rejected discs and drives, reducing costs and eliminating potential waste. The information below describes the different types of recording layers that may be used on BD-R and BD-RE discs.

HTL (high to low)[edit]

"Normal" BD-R discs use a composite (or, in the case of BD-RE, a phase-changing alloy) that decreases its reflectivity on recording, i.e. "High To Low".[30] Sony, for example, uses an inorganic[31] composite that splits into two laminar components with low reflectivity.[32] Composites used may include BiN, Ge3N4, and Pd-doped tellurium suboxide.[33] A pair of layers with copper alloy and silicon that combines on recording may alternatively be used.[34] Similar to CD-RW and DVD-RW, a phase transition alloy (often GeSbTe or InAgTeSb, Copper silicate (CuSi) or other alloys can also be used, like Verbatim's proprietary MABL)[35][34][36] is used for BD-RE discs. Melting the material with a very high power beam turns it into an amorphous state with low reflectivity, while heating at a lower power erases it back to a crystalline state with high reflectivity.[37]

In BD-RE discs, the data layers are surrounded by a pair of dielectric Zinc Sulfur-Silicon Dioxide layers.[3][38] An adhesive spacer layer and a semi-reflective layer are used for multi-layer discs.[34][39] The recording and dielectric layers are all deposited using Sputtering. [38] On multi-layer BD-RE discs, each GeSbTe recording layer is progressively thinner. So the first layer (L0) is 10nm thick, L1 is 7.5nm thick, L2 is 6nm thick, and so on. The silver alloy reflective layers that are behind each recording layer also become progressively thinner, so the L0 silver layer is 10nm thick, the L1 layer is 9nm thick, the L2 layer is 7nm thick, and so on. The separation layers that separate the recording layers from one another also progressively become thinner. [40][41][42]

BD-R LTH (low to high)[edit]

BD-R LTH is a write-once Blu-ray Disc format that features an organic dye recording layer. "Low To High" refers to the reflectivity changing from low to high during the burning process, which is the opposite of normal Blu-rays, whose reflectivity changes from high to low during writing. The advantage of BD-R LTH is it can protect a manufacturer's investment in DVD-R/CD-R manufacturing equipment because it does not require investing in new production lines and manufacturing equipment. Instead, the manufacturer only needs to modify current equipment. This is expected to lower the cost of disc manufacturing.[43]

Old Blu-ray players and recorders cannot utilize BD-R LTH; however, a firmware upgrade can enable devices to access BD-R LTH. Panasonic released such a firmware update in November 2007 for its DMR-BW200, DMR-BR100 and MR-BW900/BW800/BW700 models.[44] Pioneer was expected to ship the first LTH BD drives in Spring 2008.[45] Sony upgraded the PlayStation 3 firmware enabling BD-R LTH reading in March, 2008.[46]

In 2011, France's Ministry of Culture and Communication conducted a study on the suitability of data archival of LTH (low to high) discs compared to HTL (high to low) discs. The data they collected indicated that the overall quality of LTH discs is worse than HTL discs.[47][48]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ RE and R definitions from the same date have different Part 1 and Part 2 specifications, but share the same Part 3 specifications.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Blu-ray FAQ: How much data can you fit on a Blu-ray disc?". blu-ray.com (not affiliated with the Blu-ray Disc Association). Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
  2. ^ AfterDawn.com. "BDA approves BDXL quad-layer Blu-ray standard". AfterDawn. Archived from the original on 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  3. ^ a b http://academic.hep.com.cn/foe/article/2014/2095-2759/11051
  4. ^ "Blu-ray FAQ: How fast can you read/write data on a Blu-ray disc?". blu-ray.com (not affiliated with the Blu-ray Disc Association). Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  5. ^ a b "Format Specification - R2". www.blu-raydisc.info. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  6. ^ White paper – Blu-ray Disc Format, 3. File System Specifications for BD-RE, R, ROM, August 2004 (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-01-24, retrieved 2010-06-10
  7. ^ a b c d Blu-ray Disc Association. "Blu-ray – All Books, As of December 2018" (PDF).
  8. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "Blu-ray – All Books, As of June 2010" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  9. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "RE1 Content Protection". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  10. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "RE (Key) 1 Content Protection". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  11. ^ "Format Specification - RE2". www.blu-raydisc.info. Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  12. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "RE 2 Content Protection". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  13. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "Hybrid Format Specification". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  14. ^ LTH was included in the "Blu-ray Disc Recordable Format Ver.1.2" specifications. Archived 2008-02-25 at the Wayback Machine cdrinfo.com
  15. ^ "Format Specification - RE3". www.blu-raydisc.info. Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  16. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "RE4 Format Specification (BDXL)". Archived from the original on 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  17. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association. "R3 Format Specification (BDXL)". Archived from the original on 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  18. ^ Staff Reporter (2015-12-21). "Portable Blu-Ray Players features". NotASingleDrop. Archived from the original on 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
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  22. ^ PlexDisc 633-814 25 GB 6x Blu-ray Logo Top Single Layer Recordable Disc BD-R, 50-Disc Spindle . Amazon. Retrieved on 2018-04-21.
  23. ^ "【铼德刻录盘】铼德(RITEK)BD-R蓝光光盘/刻录盘 10速25G 可打印 桶装50片" [RITEK BD-R, 10x 25G printable, 50-disc spindle]. Jingdong (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  24. ^ Smart Buy 50 Pack Bd-r Dl 50gb 6x Blu-ray Double Layer Recordable Disc Blank Logo Data Video Media 50-discs Spindle.... Amazon. Retrieved on 2018-04-21.
  25. ^ Verbatim Blu-ray Disc 50 pcs Spindle - 25GB 2X BD-RE Rewritable Bluray - Inkjet Printable. Amazon. Retrieved on 2018-04-21.
  26. ^ 10 Verbatim Bluray Bd-re Dl 50 Gb Rewritable Blueray Original Spindle (Japan). Amazon. Retrieved on 2018-04-21.
  27. ^ "10 Verbatim Bluray 100gb BD-R XL Triple Layer 4x Speed Blu-ray Inkjet Printable Discs". Amazon. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  28. ^ "3 Sony Blu Ray 100 GB BD-RE BDXL 3D Bluray Triple Layer Bluray Printable Disc". Amazon. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  29. ^ http://www.blu-raydisc.com/Assets/Downloadablefile/White_Paper_BD-RE_5th_20180216.pdf
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  31. ^ "Recording/Playback Mechanism and Recording Materials". Sony Global. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Recording/Playback Mechanism(-R) "Laminar Phase Separation"". Sony Global. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". doi:10.1007/s12200-014-0413-7. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. ^ a b c "14. Disc Construction and Manufacturing". Hugh's News BD FAQ. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  35. ^ "Enterprise Grade BD-R for Archive | MITSUBISHI KAGAKU MEDIA". October 26, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-10-26.
  36. ^ Lai, Feng-Min; Yang, Yao-Tsung; Ou, Sin-Liang (April 21, 2019). "Thermal, Optical, and Microstructural Properties of Magnetron Sputter-Deposited CuSi Films for Application in Write-Once Blu-Ray Discs". Coatings. 9 (4): 260. doi:10.3390/coatings9040260 – via www.mdpi.com.
  37. ^ "Recording Mechanism (-RE) "Phase-change material"". Sony Global. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  38. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-15. Retrieved 2020-04-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ https://docs-europe.electrocomponents.com/webdocs/0bdc/0900766b80bdcccf.pdf[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ Fuxi, Gan; Yang, Wang (February 9, 2015). Data Storage at the Nanoscale: Advances and Applications. CRC Press. ISBN 9789814613200 – via Google Books.
  41. ^ "E\PCOS 2009". epcos.
  42. ^ https://2534e415-f50f-44ab-8808-eb608caa1472.filesusr.com/ugd/3d44dd_780c17469fa14d8eb2c1394b4f5a5fee.pdf
  43. ^ Pioneer and Mitsubishi Develop Low cost BD-R Discs Using Organic Recording Layers, CDR info, archived from the original on 2008-02-25, retrieved 2008-03-26.
  44. ^ Firmware Adds Support for LTH BD-R Discs to Panasonic Recorders, CDR info, archived from the original on 2008-01-22, retrieved 2008-03-26.
  45. ^ Taiyo Yuden, Mitsubishi and Maxell Release First LTH BD-R Discs, CDR info, archived from the original on 2008-02-27, retrieved 2008-03-26.
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  48. ^ Qualite des Disques Blu-Ray Enregistrables pour L’Archivage des Donnees Numeriques Archived 2012-12-27 at the Wayback Machine. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communica. Retrieved on 2013-06-14.

External links[edit]