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Luyag na Caboloan
c. 1406–1576
StatusTributary state to Ming dynasty
Common languagesPangasinan, other Northern Luzon languages
Buddhism, Hinduism, Animism and Folk religion
• Established
c. 1406
• Spanish conquest of Pangasinan
CurrencySilver, Barter
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Prehistory of the Philippines
Barangay state
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of Philippines
Traditional Chinese馮嘉施蘭
Possible Inhabitants of Caboloan with Kampilan sword, depicted in the Boxer Codex (1590) surmised to come from Taimei Anchorage, Lingayen Gulf, Luzon

Caboloan (also spelled Kaboloan; Pangasinan: Luyag na Caboloan),[1] referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan (Chinese: 馮嘉施蘭; pinyin: Féngjiāshīlán),[2] was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital.[3] The polity of Pangasinan sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411.[2]

In the 16th century, the port settlement of Agoo[4] in Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by the Spanish.[5] The locals wore apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments. They also blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. They used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households. Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were also encountered in naval battles in the area.[6] In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south, especially the Kapampangans.

Limahong, a Chinese corsair and warlord, briefly invaded the polity after his failure in the Battle of Manila (1574). He then set up an enclave of wokou (Japanese and Chinese pirates) in Pangasinan. Nevertheless, the Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo and his force of Tagalog, Visayan and Latino soldiers then assaulted and destroyed the pirate-kingdom, liberated the Pangasinan people and then incorporated their polity into the Spanish East Indies of the Spanish Empire.

See also[edit]

Pre-Colonial History of the Philippines
Naturales 4.png
Barangay government
Ten datus of Borneo
States in Luzon
Caboloan (Pangasinan)
Rajahnate of Maynila
States in the Visayas
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Kedatuan of Dapitan
Rajahnate of Cebu
States in Mindanao
Rajahnate of Butuan
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanates of Lanao
Key figures
History of the Philippines
Portal: Philippines


  1. ^ Flores, Marot Nelmida-. The cattle caravans of ancient Caboloan : interior plains of Pangasinan : connecting history, culture, and commerce by cartwheel. National Historical Institute. Ermita: c2007.
  2. ^ a b Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8.
  3. ^
  4. ^ de Loarca, Miguel (1582). Relacion de Las Yslas Filipinas.
  5. ^ Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578-2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80.
  6. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay. Manila Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 187.