Caddoan languages

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Caddoan
Geographic
distribution
Great Plains, North America
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions
ISO 639-5cdd
Linguasphere64-B
Glottologcadd1255[1]
Pre-Contact Caddoan languages map.svg
Pre-contact distribution of Caddoan languages

The Caddoan languages are a family of languages native to the Great Plains. They were spoken by tribal groups of the central United States, from present-day North Dakota south to Oklahoma. In the 21st century, they are critically endangered, as the number of native speakers has declined markedly.

Family division[edit]

Five languages belong to the Caddoan language family:

Caddoan languages

Caddo

Northern Caddoan

Wichita

Pawnee‑Kitsai

Kitsai

Pawnee languages

Pawnee

Arikara

Kitsai and Wichita are both extinct. Kitsai went extinct in the 19th century as its members were absorbed into the Wichita tribe. Wichita became extinct in 2016 when the last native speaker of Wichita, Doris McLemore (who left recordings and language materials), died.

All of the other Caddoan languages are nearly extinct; as of 2007, Caddo is spoken by only 25 people, Pawnee by 10, and Arikara by 10. Caddo and Pawnee are spoken in Oklahoma by small numbers of tribal elders. Arikara is spoken on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota.

Speakers of some of the languages were formerly more widespread; the Caddo, for example, used to live in northeastern Texas, southwestern Arkansas, and northwestern Louisiana, as well as southeastern Oklahoma. The Pawnee formerly lived along the Platte River in what is now Nebraska.

Prehistory[edit]

Glottochronology is a controversial method of reconstructing, in broad detail, the history of a language and its relationships. In the case of Proto-Caddoan, it appeared to have divided into two branches, Northern and Southern, more than 3000 years ago. (The division of the language implies also a geographic and/or political separation.)

South Caddoan, or Caddo proper, evolved in north-eastern Texas and adjacent Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Other than Caddo, no daughter languages are known, but some unrecorded ones likely existed in the 16th and the 17th centuries.

Northern Caddoan evolved into several different languages. The language that became Wichita, with several different dialects, branched off about 2000 years ago. Kitsai separated from the Northern Caddoan stem about 1200 years ago, and Pawnee and Arikara separated 300 to 500 years ago.[2]

External relations[edit]

Adai, a language isolate known only from a 275-word list collected in 1804, may be a Caddoan language. The documentation is too scanty to determine with certainty. The Adai lived in Louisiana.[3] The language of the Eyeish or Ais, who lived adjacent to the Caddo, was a distinct language, but was probably related to Caddoan.[4] (An unrelated people, also called the Ais, lived in Florida.)

Some linguists believe that the Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan languages may be connected in a Macro-Siouan language family, but their work is suggestive and the theory remains hypothetical. Similar attempts to find a connection with the Algonquian languages have been inconclusive. There is insufficient evidence for linguists to propose a hypothetical Macro-Algonquian/Iroquoian language family.[5]

Vocabulary[edit]

Below is a list of basic vocabulary of Northern Caddoan languages from Parks (1979):[6]

No. English Arikara Pawnee Kitsai Wichita
1 I -t- -t- -t- -c-
2 thou -x- -s- -s- -s-
3 we -sir- -cir- -ci- (incl. dual) -cíːy-
4 this ti ti tiʔi tiʔi
5 that i i i-, anini ‘by that’ haːríːh
6 chest waːkuːkáu? awaːkiːsuʔ nikokíːsu khiːkʔa
7 not ka- ka- ka- kírih
8 all čitúːʔ kituː akwác asséːhah
9 many ranihuːn kari nirahkina ‘there are many’ iyarhah
10 one áxkux ásku arísku ass
11 two pítkux pítku cásu, cúsu wicha
12 big rihuːn rihuːr nikin tac; Riwaːc
13 woman sápat cápat cakwákt kaːhiːkʔa
14 man wíːta píːta wiːta wiːc
15 person sáhniš cáhriks kírika ihaːs
16 fish čiwáhtš kacíːki nitát kaːcʔa
17 bird níkus ríkucki kuːcáke, kucáki ichir
18 dog xáːtš ásaːki anúːsa kicíyeːh
19 tree naháːpi rahaːpe yáku (wood); ayákwi tiyaːhkw
20 seed načiríːkuʔ rákiriːkuʔ nikiríːkʔu nikiːsʔa
21 leaf sčeːkaráːkuʔ kskéːkaraːkuʔ yakánu kíʔincaːcʔa
22 root kasukaːwíuʔ rákapahcuʔ ayakakunayahkasa ʔaskiːcʔa
23 bark haːkiskúːxuʔ ráːkickuːsuʔ yakatakuác tíːkʔacʔiyaːcʔa
24 skin sahnišskúːxuʔ ckáriːtuʔ arahkita kithaːrʔa
25 meat tsástš kísacki neːtanaːs, awánas ʔarasʔa
26 blood páːtuʔ páːtuʔ kwáːtu waːckicʔa
27 bone číːšuʔ kíːsuʔ kíːsu kiːsʔa
28 grease čisahítš kícahihtuʔ yahtkiríyu ‘hot’; kinasíːtu ‘lard’ kiraːsʔa
29 egg nipíːkuʔ ripíːkuʔ nikwíːku nikwiːkʔa
30 horn aríːkuʔ paːríːkuʔ, aríːkuʔ aríːku ʔarikʔa
31 táíl nitkúːʔ ritkuːʔu nitkúhu kiːyaːkʔa
32 feather híːtuʔ íːtuʔ híːtuʔ niːsʔa
33 hair úːxuʔ úːsuʔ ickóːsu tiyaːcʔa
34 head páxuʔ páksuʔ kwitácuʔ íckoʔo ‘about head’ weʔekʔa
35 eye čiríːkuʔ kiríːkuʔ kiriːkʔu kirikʔa
36 nose siníːtuʔ icúːsuʔ icúːsu tisʔa
37 mouth haːkáʔuʔ háːkauʔ háːku haːkaʔa
38 tooth áːnuʔ áːruʔ anhíːsuʔ aːkʔa
39 tongue háːtuʔ háːtuʔ háːtuʔ hacʔa
40 fingernail šwíːtuʔ kspíːtuʔ kskwíːtu iskwicʔa
41 foot áxuʔ ásuʔ asúʔ asʔa
42 knee paːčíːšuʔ páːkiːsuʔ kirikisnayus kiːskwasʔa
43 hand íšuʔ íksuʔ íksuʔ iskʔa
44 neck číːsuʔ kíːcuʔ natíːnu kiticʔa
45 breasts éːtuʔ éːtuʔ isáːtu eːcʔa
46 liver karíːkuʔ karíːkuʔ karíːku karikʔa
47 drink čiːka kíːka kíːka -kikʔa
48 eat waːwa-a waːwa-a wawaʔánu, wáwaʔa -waːwaʔa
49 bite kaʔus kauc takocóhu ‘bite it’ -taʔa
50 see ut... e.rik ut... eːrik tuciʔeːriksu ‘he sees it’ ʔiːs
51 hear atka-u atka-u atkarahkus ‘hear it’ ʔaːckhéʔe
52 know ut...reːsiːš ir...raːʔiːta atihayaki ‘I know it’ wickaʔa
53 sleep itka itka itka -hiʔinck
54 die koːt hurahac híːksta ‘died’ -teʔes
55 kill koːtik kuːtik ki ki
56 swim huːseːriːtik huːceːriːtik nutoceríːtik ‘he swims’ -arhiya ‘to bathe’
57 fly awanu awari niahak, -a- ʔiːtoː (+loc.)ʔa
58 laugh awaxk awask awas naʔaʔa ‘comes in air’ -wakharikikw
59 come in...a in...a ináhu ‘he is coming’ u-a... ʔa
60 lie ša sa sa ʔirhawi
61 sit kux ku wi ʔicaki
62 stand arič arik áriki ariki
63 cut kakatk kakatk kakatk -kack
64 say waːko waːku wáku wakʔa
65 sun šakúːnuʔ sakúːruʔ sakúːnu saːkhirʔa
66 moon páh cúhkwá wáːh
67 star sákaːʔa úːpirit nikwírik híːkwirikʔa
68 water tstóːxuʔ kíːcuʔ akicóːnu kicʔa
69 rain tsuhíːnuʔ ácuhuːruʔ nahacaʔa a...hiriʔa (verb only)
70 stone kanítš karítki kátanu ʔikaːʔa
71 sand čiwíhtuʔ kíwiktuʔ kiwíktu kiːchaːrʔa
72 earth hunáːnuʔ huráːruʔ hunáːna hiraːrʔa
73 cloud skarahkataháːnuʔ ckáuʔ nácton keʔeːrʔa
74 smoke naːwíːšuʔ ráːwiːsuʔ aːrosː ickweʔeːkʔa
75 fire čeːkáʔuʔ keːkauʔ ‘flame’ akiak yecʔa (n.); -keʔe ‘be a fire’
76 ash itkanahtúːsuʔ karáktuhcuʔ itkáːnu ickhaːrʔa ‘dust, sand’
77 burn in...kunistaʔa kahuːriktik, ir...kunstaʔa nahúniku, -hurik -hiri
78 path hatúːnuʔ, -sat- hatúːruʔ nuhyaːtáta ‘path goes’ hachirʔa; -yac ‘to be path’
79 mountain wáːʔuʔ wáːuʔ arakauh nawaːreʔerhárih ‘where there are mountains’
80 red pahaːt pahaːt kwahtnyú kwaːc
81 blue tareːʔuːx tareːʔuːs arayósː kawʔac
82 yellow rahkatáːn rahkataːr kisísː, kwanis narisis
83 white čiːsawatáːn taːkaːr kahcnú khac
84 black katíːt katíːt katinuk kaːrʔiːs
85 night nitkaháːnuʔ rátkahaːruʔ natki- ckhaːrʔa
86 hot in...awiristo ir...awirictu rahtátkiu ‘it’s hot’ wariːckhaːrʔa
87 cold in...raːnanaːxitu ir...raraːsitu nahenóːku ‘it’s cold’ -hkwic
88 sated kaːwačiːt kaːwakiːt ahinoːsana ‘becomes sated’ tawaːwi
89 good un...heːr ur...heːr ickuruːku, ickorók acs
90 round riwiru riwiru ariwíok táriwiːk
91 three tawihk- tawihk- táwihko tawhaː
92 grass húːnuʔ íːruʔ acíːu híːyaːkhaːrʔa
93 guts néːsuʔ réːcuʔ kiréːcu, kiriacu niyaːcʔa
94 wind hutúːnuʔ hutúːruʔ hutúːnu niweʔéːrʔa
95 foggy pihuː pihuː rúsca -ʔiskwaːwi
96 urinate kaːsuː kaːcuː wíahas ‘he urinates’ -aːhas
97 tie ut...tareːpi ut...tareːpu atonocakósk ‘I tie it’ -thiyaki
98 sing raːkaroːk raːkaruːk kurawáknu ‘he is singing’ kiraːh
99 spit out hawat hawat ahatkicowati ‘he spits’ hawati
100 cry čikak kikak akikakóhu ʔiriki

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Caddoan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Caddoan Tree Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine", Texas Beyond History website, accessed 30 May 2011; Schleser, Karl H. Plains Indians, A.D. 500 to 1500: The Archaeological Past of Historic Groups. Norman: U of OK Press, 1994, pp. 147-148
  3. ^ "Adai." Native Languages, accessed 1 Jun 2011
  4. ^ "Who were the Ais." Texas Beyond History, accessed 1 Jun 2011
  5. ^ Mithun, Marianne. The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 305
  6. ^ Parks, Douglas R. 1979. The Northern Caddoan Languages: Their Subgrouping and Time Depths. Nebraska History 60: 197-213.

Further reading[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Chafe, Wallace L. (1973). Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics (Vol. 10, pp. 1164–1209). The Hague: Mouton. (Reprinted as Chafe 1976).
  • Chafe, Wallace L. (1976). "Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan", In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Native Languages in the Americas (pp. 527–572). New York: Plenum. (Originally published as Chafe 1973).
  • Chafe, Wallace L. (1976). The Caddoan, Iroquioan, and Siouan languages. Trends in Linguistics; State-of-the-art report (No. 3). The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 90-279-3443-6.
  • Chafe, Wallace L. (1979). Caddoan. In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), The languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment (pp. 213–235). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74624-5.
  • Chafe, Wallace L. (1993). "Indian Languages: Siouan–Caddoan". Encyclopedia of the North American colonies (Vol. 3). New York: C. Scribner's Sons ISBN 0-684-19611-5.
  • Lesser, Alexander; & Weltfish, Gene. (1932). "Composition of the Caddoan linguistic stock". Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 87 (6), 1-15.
  • Melnar, Lynette R. Caddo Verb Morphology(2004) University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-0-8032-2088-1
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Taylor, Allan. (1963). "Comparative Caddoan", International Journal of American Linguistics, 29, 113-131.

External links[edit]