A number of methods have been reported to produce carbon nanoscrolls, including arc discharge, high-energy ball milling, and intercalation, among others. The wedge based mechanical exfoliation is also reported the similar CNS experimentally.[clarification needed] However, the real world applications of nanoscroll products are limited due to their difficult colloidal processing. Thermodynamically, the nanoscale surfaces are stacking each other via van der Waals force to lower the energy barrier. To overcome this problem and obtain high quality nanoscrolls, a polymer-assisted liquid exfoliation technique has been recently demonstrated, allowing to manufacture high throughput and high quality CNS dispersions. Other material-based nanoscrolls, e.g. gold nanoscrolls, were also successfully attained by the exfoliation technique.
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