Cariban languages

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Cariban
Geographic
distribution
Mostly within north-central South America, with extensions in the southern Caribbean and in Central America.
Linguistic classificationJe–Tupi–Carib?
  • Cariban
Glottologcari1283[1]
Cariban languages.png
Present location of Cariban languages, c. 2000, and probable extent in the 16th century.

The Cariban languages are a family of languages indigenous to northeastern South America. They are widespread across northernmost South America, from the mouth of the Amazon River to the Colombian Andes, and they are also spoken in small pockets of central Brazil. The languages of the Cariban family are relatively closely related. There are about three dozen of them, but most of them are only spoken by a few hundred people—the only one with more than a few thousand speakers is Macushi, which has 30,000. The Cariban family is well known among linguists partly because one language in the family—Hixkaryana—has a default word order of object–verb–subject, which had previously been believed to not exist in any spoken natural language.

A few decades prior to the arrival of the first conquistadores, people who spoke a Cariban language expanded into the Lesser Antilles and killed or displaced and also mixed with the Arawak peoples who already inhabited the islands. The resulting language—Kalhíphona or Island Carib—was Carib in name but largely Arawak in substance. This happened because Carib men took Arawak wives, who then passed their language on to the children. For a time, Arawak was spoken by women and children and Carib by adult men, but as each generation of Carib-Arawak boys reached adulthood, they acquired less Carib until only basic vocabulary and a few grammatical elements were left. That form of Island Carib became extinct in the Lesser Antilles in the 1920s, but survives in the form of Garífuna, or "Black Carib," in Central America. The gender distinction has dwindled to only a handful of words. Dominica is the only island in the eastern Caribbean to retain some of its pre-Columbian population, the Carib Indians, about 3,000 of whom live on the island's east coast.

Genetic relations[edit]

The Cariban languages share irregular morphology with the Ge and Tupi families, and Ribeiro connects them all in a Je–Tupi–Carib family.[citation needed] Meira, Gildea, & Hoff (2010) note that likely morphemes in proto-Tupian and proto-Cariban are good candidates for being cognates, but that work so far is insufficient to make definitive statements.

Language contact[edit]

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Guato, Kawapana, Nambikwara, Taruma, Warao, Arawak, Bororo, Jeoromitxi, Karaja, Rikbaktsa, and Tupi language families due to contact.[2]

Extensive lexical similarities between Cariban and various Macro-Jê languages suggest that Cariban languages had originated in the Lower Amazon region (rather than in the Guiana Highlands), where they were in contact with early forms of Macro-Jê languages, which were likely spoken in an area between the Parecis Plateau and upper Araguaia River.[2]:425

Family division[edit]

The Cariban languages are closely related, and in many cases where a language is more distinct, this is due to influence from neighboring languages rather than an indication that it is not closely related. Kaufman 2007 says, "Except for Opon, Yukpa, Pimenteira and Palmela (and possibly Panare), the Cariban languages are not very diverse phonologically and lexically (though more so than Romance, for example)."[This quote needs a citation]

Previous classifications[edit]

Good data has been collected around ca. 2000 on most Cariban languages; classifications prior to that time (including Kaufman 2007, which relies on them) are unreliable. Several such classifications are seen; the one shown here divides Cariban into seven branches. A traditional geographic classification into northern and southern branches is cross referenced with (N) or (S) after each language.[3]

Unclassified: Pimenteira (†), Palmela (†).

The extinct Patagón de Perico language of northern Peru also appears to have been a Cariban language, perhaps close to Carijona. Yao is so poorly attested that Gildea believes it may never be classified.

Meira (2006)[edit]

Preliminary internal classification of the Cariban languages according to Sérgio Meira (2006):[4]:169

Cariban
  • Guianan branch
    • Karinya (Galibi); Wayana; Apalaí (?); Palmella † (?)
    • Taranoan group
      • Karihona
      • Tiriyó; Akuriyó
    • Parukotoan group
      • Katxuyana
      • Waiwai; Hixkaryana
  • Venezuelano branch
    • Tamanaku †
    • Coastal group
      • Chayma †
      • Cumanagoto †
    • Pemongan group
      • Pemong (Arekuna, etc.)
      • Kapong (Akawaio, etc.)
      • Makuxi
    • Panare
    • Ye’kwana (?)
    • Mapoyo (?); Yawarana (?)
  • Waimirian branch
    • Waimiri-Atroari (?)
  • Yukpano branch
    • Yukpa (Motilón)
    • Hapreria (Japreria)
  • Southern (or Pekodian) branch
    • Bakairi
    • Xinguan group
      • Arara
      • Ikpeng
  • Kuikuroan branch
    • Kuikuro (Kalapalo, etc.)
    • Pimenteira † (?)

Gildea (2012)[edit]

As of Gildea (2012), there had not yet been time to fully reclassify the Cariban languages based on the new data. The list here is therefore tentative, though an improvement over the one above; the most secure branches are listed first, and only two of the extinct languages are addressed.[5]

Unclassified:

Apalaí
Waimirí Atroarí
Yukpa: Yukpa, Japréria

Jolkesky (2016)[edit]

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[2]

(† = extinct)

Karib

Varieties[edit]

Below is a full list of Arawakan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[6]

Western languages: Caraib / Calinago / Karib - language spoken by the insular and continental Caraibes, with many dialects:

  • Dialect of the insular Caraibes, once spoken on the Lesser Antilles Islands, now by only a few old individuals in a reserve on the island of Dominica.
  • Dialect of Pomeroon / Caribisi / Acarabisi - spoken on the Macarani River and Pomeroon River, Guyana.
  • Tabare / Cariña - dialect spoken by the inhabitants of the villages of El Guasey, Cachipo, Cachama, and San Joaquín de Parire (Mapicure) in the state of Anzoátegui and in the village of Tapaquire in the state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Caribe - extinct dialect once spoken by the descendants of Caraibes and by the mixed population on the plains of Barcelona, states of Monagas and Anzoátegui, Venezuela.
  • Carif / Moreno - dialect combined with Arawakan, spoken by the Negro Indian mixed population of British Honduras, in Guatemala on the Gulf of Honduras, and on Roatan Island in Honduras, Central America.
  • Cariniaco - extinct dialect once spoken at the mouth of the Caura River, state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Mayé - extinct dialect once spoken on the Casipore River, Amapá territory, Brazil. (Unattested.)
  • Paracoto - extinct dialect once spoken at the mouth of the Araguari River, Amapá and at the mouth of the Mana River, French Guiana. (Unattested.)
  • Carane - once spoken at the old mission of São Paulo d'Oiapoque, Amapá territory. (Unattested.)
  • Norac / Norag - once spoken on the Approuague River, French Guiana, later on the Anotarí River; now extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Itutan - once spoken on the lower course of the Casipore River and in the Serra Lombard, Amapá. (Unattested.)
  • Curucuane - once spoken on the lower course of the Casipore River, south of the Itutan tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Aricarí - once spoken near the Curucuane tribe on the lower course of the Calçoene River. (Unattested.)
  • Sapai - once spoken on the Mana River, French Guiana. (Unattested.)
  • Piriou - once spoken in French Guiana on the middle course of the Oyapoque River. (Unattested.)
  • Mersiou - once spoken on the Aratye River, Inini River, and Aua River, French Guiana, now probably extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Acoqua - once spoken at the sources of the Approuague River, and on the Camopi River, French Guiana. (Unattested.)
  • Wai - spoken on the Tamouri River French Guiana; now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Taira - spoken in the same colony as the Wai tribe on the Iracoubo River. (Unattested.)
  • Acuria - originally spoken on the Nickerie River and Coppename River, Suriname; now on the Berbice River, Guyana. (Unattested.)
  • Chacoi - spoken by a few mixed individuals between the Berbice River and Essequibo River, Guyana. (Unattested.)
  • Parabaiana - once spoken on the middle course of the Marouini River, French Guiana. (Unattested.)
  • Caicuchiana - once spoken in French Guiana, south of the Parabaiana tribe. (Unattested.)
Eastern languages
Trio group
Chiquena group
  • Chiquena / Shikiana - spoken on the Apiniwau River, Guyana, and at the sources of the Panemá River, Pará. (Farabee 1924, pp. 195-196.)
  • Zurumata - once spoken in a village of the same name on the upper course of the Trombetas River, Pará, now probably extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Ingarüne - spoken at the sources of the Panemá River and its tributaries. (Unattested.)
  • Salumá / Charúma - spoken between the upper courses of the Trombetas River, Uanabé River, and Tunúru River, Pará.
  • Prehnoma - spoken by a small tribe west of the Pianocoto tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Caicusiana - spoken on the Tunúru River south of the Salumá tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Tunayana - spoken between the middle courses of the Panemá River and Tunúru River. (Unattested.)
  • Sereu - spoken east of the sources of the Cachorro River. (Unattested.)
  • Cahuyana - spoken on the middle course of the Trombetas River. (Unattested.)
  • Marachó - spoken by an unknown tribe on the middle course of the Cuminá River. (Unattested.)
  • Pauxi / Pawiyana - spoken on the right bank of the middle course of the Erepecurú River (Cuminá River); now perhaps extinct.
  • Waríkyana - extinct language once spoken on the lower course of the Trombetas River. (Unattested.)
  • Uayeué - spoken on the Mapuera River and its tributary Urubú de Silves River.
  • Cachuena / Kaxiuâna / Casiana / Cachoarí - spoken by a few families at the mouth of the Cachorro River.
  • Mutuan - once spoken on the lower course of the Nhamundá River.
  • Cariguano - once spoken on the Panemá River. (Unattested.)
  • Conduri - extinct language once spoken at the mouth of the Nhamundá River. (Unattested.)
  • Paraugoaru - extinct language once spoken on the Capó River, a tributary of the Trombetas River. (Unattested.)
Waiwai group
Yauapery group
  • Yauapery / Atroahi - spoken on the middle course of the Yauapery River, state of Amazonas.
  • Uaimiri / Wahmirí - spoken at the sources of the Curiuaú River, state of Amazonas.
  • Crixaná / Quirixana - spoken between the middle course of the Yauapery River and the Curiuaú River, now probably extinct.
Pauishana group
Macusi group
  • Macusi / Makushí - spoken on the Rupununi River, Guyana, and at the sources of the Tacutu River and on the middle course of the Branco River, territory of Rio Branco, Brazil.
  • Monoicó - spoken on the Cotingo River, Brazil. (Unattested.)
  • Keseruma - spoken on the Tacutu River. (A. Meyer 1951.)
  • Asepáng - spoken to the south of the Keseruma tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Eliáng - spoken to the south of the Asepáng tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Pezacó - spoken to the south of the Eliáng tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Quenoloco - spoken at the sources of the Cotingo River. (Unattested.)
  • Teweia - spoken on the Cotingo River. (Unattested.)
  • Purucotó / Progoto - spoken on the Uraricapará River, territory of Rio Branco.
  • Wayumara / Azumara / Guimara - spoken between the Mucajaí River and Uraricoera River and in a part of Maracá Island.
  • Paraviyana / Paravilhana - extinct language once spoken between the Tacutu River and Caratirimani River, Rio Branco.
  • Zapara / Sapará - spoken in the middle and eastern parts of Maracá Island.
Pemón group
  • Taurepän / Taulipáng / Ipuricoto / Pemón - spoken between the Uraricuena River and Mount Roraima to the Caroní River, in the border zone of Brazil and Venezuela.
  • Arecuná - spoken at the sources of the Caroní River and Paragua River, state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Ingaricó - spoken to the north of Mount Roraima, border region of Brazil and Venezuela.
  • Patamona - spoken on the Potaro River and Ireng River, Guyana. (F. Lutz 1912 passim, only a few words.)
  • Camaracoto - spoken in the state of Bolívar, Venezuela, on the Paragua River and Caroní River.
  • Arinagoto - once spoken on the Paragua River, state of Bolívar, now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Paraparucota - once spoken between the Caura River and Cuchivero River, state of Bolívar; now extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Quiriquiripa - extinct language once spoken on the left bank of the Caura River. (Unattested.)
  • Aguaricoto - extinct language once spoken on the lower course of the Caura River, the same region. (Unattested.)
  • Serecong / Sarrakong - once spoken in the same region at the sources of the Mahú River. (Unattested.)
  • Chiricum - once spoken by the western neighbors of the Taurepán tribe in the Rio Branco territory. (Unattested.)
  • Achirigoto - once spoken on the left bank of the Caura River, middle course, in the state of Bolívar. (Unattested.)
  • Paudacoto - once spoken in the state of Bolívar at the sources of the Aro River. (Unattested.)
  • Cachirigoto - once spoken in the state of Bolívar south of the Camaracotó tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Barinagoto - once spoken at the mouth of the Caroní River, Bolívar state, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Arebato - once spoken in the village of Cuchara on the Caura River in the state of Bolívar, now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Armacoto - once spoken in the same region between the Paragua River and Merevari River. (Unattested.)
  • Mauitsi - once spoken at the sources of the Paragua River in the same region. (Unattested.)
  • Uaica / Waica - spoken by a few families on the Yuruari River and Cuyuni River, state of Bolívar.
  • Acawai / Capong - spoken in Guyana on the Moruca River, Cuyuni River, Acarabisi River, and Pomeroon River.
Maquiritaré group
  • Decuána / Deukwana / Maquiritaré - spoken on the Caura River, Ventuari River, Merevari River, and Auari River, state of Bolívar and Amazonas territory, Venezuela, and between the Cotingo River and Majari River, territory of Rio Branco, Brazil.
  • Yecuaná / Mayongcong - spoken on the Caura River southwest of the Arecuna tribe, state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Ihuruána - spoken at the sources of the Ventuari River, territory of Amazonas, Venezuela.
  • Cunuaná / Kunuhana - spoken in the same territory at the sources of the Cunucunuma River. (only four words.)
  • Morononi - extinct language once spoken in the same territory on the Ventuari River. (Unattested.)
  • Puipuitene - extinct language once spoken on the same river in the same territory by the neighbors of the Decuaná tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Acariana - once spoken by the neighbors of the Morononi tribe on the Orinoco River. (Unattested.)
  • Ocomesiane - once spoken in the same region on the Padamo River. (Unattested.)
  • Areviriana - once spoken by the eastern neighbors of the Ihuruána tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Jure - once spoken on the left bank of the middle course of the Ventuari River. (Unattested.)
  • Pishauco / Pshavaco - once spoken on the Serra Tepequem, Rio Branco territory. (Unattested.)
  • Mejepure - once spoken on the left ban1e of the lower course of the Ventuari River. (Unattested.)
  • Aberiana - once spoken by the neighbors of the Acariana tribe on the upper course of the Orinoco River. (Unattested.)
Mapoyo group
  • Mapoyo / Nepoyo - spoken by a small tribe between the Parguaza River and Suapure River, state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Carinuaca - extinct language once spoken in the area between the Ihuruána and Yauarána tribes, territory of Amazonas, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Curasicana / Kurushikiána / Orechicano - once spoken at the sources of the Biehita River, now by only a few individuals. (Unattested.)
  • Wökiare / Uaiquire - unknown language spoken in the same region on the Paru River. (Unattested.)
  • Yauarána / Yabarána - language spoken in the same territory on the Manapiare River.
  • Quaqua - once spoken by the northern neighbors of the Mapoyo tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Guaquiri - once spoken by the northern neighbors of the Curasicana tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Pareca - spoken in the region west of the Cuchivero River, now probably extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Taparito - extinct language once spoken on the middle course of the Caura River. (Unattested.)
  • Cadupinapo - once spoken by the southern neighbors of the Achirigoto tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Tabajari - now probably extinct, once spoken on the left bank of the Erebato River, state of Bolívar. (Unattested.)
Panare group
  • Panáre - language of a small tribe, spoken at the sources of the Cuchivero River, state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Abira - once spoken at the sources of the Manapiare River. (Unattested.)
  • Eye - once spoken by the southwestern neighbors of the Panáre tribe at the sources of the Cuchivero River. (Unattested.)
Tamanaco group
  • Tamanaco - extinct language once spoken along the Orinoco River from the mouth of the Caroni River to the mouth of the Cuchivero River, state of Bolívar, Venezuela.
  • Chayma / Guarapiche / Sayma - extinct language once spoken on the Guarapiche River, state of Anzoátegui, Venezuela.
  • Cumanagota - extinct language once spoken on the Cabo Codera and near Cumaná, state of Sucre, Venezuela.
  • Tivericoto - once spoken on the coast of the state of Monagas, Venezuela
  • Palenque - once spoken between the Unare River and Tamanaco River, Guárico state.
  • Caraca - once spoken around the modern capital of Caracas, Venezuela. (A. Espinosa (Vazquez de Espinosa) 1948, pp. 36-37, only a few words.)
  • Ciparigoto - extinct language once spoken on the Yaracuy River and Aroa River, state of Yaracuy. (Unattested.)
  • Teque - once spoken in the Guaire valley, state of Miranda. (Unattested.)
  • Tacarigua - once spoken around Lake Valencia, Miranda. (Unattested.)
  • Toromaina - once spoken on the San Pedro River, federal district of Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Arbaco - once spoken around the modern city of Victoria, state of Aragua. (Unattested.)
  • Meregoto - once spoken on the western shore of Lake Valencia in the state of Aragua. (Unattested.)
  • Quiriquire - extinct language once spoken on the Tuy River and Misoa River, state of Miranda. (Oramas 1918a, only a few patronyms.)
  • Chapacuare - once spoken in the Pascua valley, state of Guárico. (Unattested.)
  • Tarma - once spoken near the modern city of Maracay, state of Aragua. (Unattested.)
  • Mariche - once spoken in the Baruta valley, state of Miranda. (Unattested.)
  • Guayqueri - extinct language once spoken on the Paoviejo River, state of Cojedes. (Gumilla 1745, pt. 2, pp. 67-68, only one phrase.)[7]
  • Tomuza - once spoken between the Chico River[disambiguation needed] and Piritú River, states of Miranda and Anzoátegui. (Unattested.)
  • Haerena / Guarena - once spoken between the Guarenas River and Guatire River, state of Anzoátegui. (Unattested.)
  • Piritú - once spoken around the modern city of Puerto Píritu, state of Anzoátegui. (Unattested.)
  • Tagare - once spoken on the coast of the Gulf of Cariaco, state of Sucre. (Unattested.)
  • Pariagoto / Guayuno - extinct language once spoken on the Paria Peninsula in the state of Sucre.
  • Chamaygua - once spoken in the state of Sucre by the neighbors of the Cumanagota tribe. (Unattested.)
Yao group
  • Yao / Anacaioury - language once spoken by two tribes: one on the western part of the island of Trinidad; the other in French Guiana on the Ivaricopo River and Cau River.
Shebayi group
  • Shebayi / Supaye - extinct language once spoken in the Guianas; exact location is unknown.
Motilon group
  • Yupe / Motilon - spoken by many tribes in the Sierra de Perijá, state of Zulia, Venezuela, and in the department of Magdalena, Colombia. Dialects:
  • Macoa - spoken on the Yasa River and Negro River, Zulia.
  • Manastara - spoken on the Becerril River, Zulia.
  • Maraca - spoken by a tribe at the source of the Machigue River and on the Maraca River, Magdalena.
  • Parirí - spoken to the south of the Apon River.
  • Shapáru / Chaparro - spoken by the western neighbors of the Parirí tribe, Zulia.
  • Uasamo - spoken in the same area by the northern neighbors of the Shapáru tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Susa - spoken in the central part of the Sierra de Perijá, Magdalena. (Unattested.)
  • Manaure - spoken on the left bank of the lower course of the La Paz River, Magdalena. (Unattested.)
  • Tucushmo - spoken by the northern neighbors of the Iroca tribe, Magdalena. (Unattested.)
  • Socorpa - spoken in the same area by the northern neighbors of the Maracá tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Curumaní - spoken south of the Tucui River, Magdalena. (Unattested.)
  • Socomba - spoken between the sources of the Maracá River and Tucui River, formerly also on the Buenavista River, Magdalena. (Unattested.)
  • Tucuco - spoken at the sources of the Tucuco River, Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Shiquimu - spoken by the southwestern neighbors of the Shaparu tribe, Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Irapa - spoken by the eastern neighbors of the Shiguimu tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Pshicacuo - spoken by the western neighbors of the Tucuco tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Mishorca - spoken at the sources of the Tucuco River by the neighbors of the Pariri tribe. (Unattested.)
  • Yapreria / Sabril - spoken at the sources of the Palmar River, Zulia. (Anonymous Madrid h.)
  • Coyaima / Tupe - extinct language once spoken on the César River, Magdalena. (Castro Trespalacios 1946, only a few patronyms.)
  • Burede - once spoken at the sources of the Socuy River, Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Pemeno - once spoken at the mouth of the Escalante River, Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Bubure / Bobure - once spoken in the state of Zulia around the modern cities of Bobures and Gibraltar. (Unattested.)
  • Quenagua - extinct language once spoken in Espiritu Santo Valley in the state of Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Umaquena - once spoken on the Umaquena River, Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Sunesua - once spoken by the southern neighbors of the Quenaga tribe in the Espiritu Santo Valley, Zulia. (Unattested.)
  • Lobatera - once spoken around the modern city of Lobatera, state of Táchira. (Unattested.)
  • Táchira - once spoken on the Táchira River, state of Táchira. (Unattested.)
  • Tapano - once spoken in the state of Mérida between Lake Onia and Lake Motilon. (Unattested.)
  • Miyuse - once spoken in the state of Mérida on the Mucujepe River and Tucani River. (Unattested.)
Pijao group
Opone group
  • Opone - extinct language once spoken on the Opone River, department of Santander, Colombia.
  • Carare - spoken by a few individuals on the Carare River in the department of Santander.
  • Yariguí - once spoken on the Sogamoso River and in Barranca Bermeja in the same department. (Unattested.)
  • Hacaritama - once spoken around present-day Hacaritama city in the department of Santander.
  • Xiriguana - extinct language of a tribe once living in the department of Santander in the Cordillera de Lebaja. (Unattested.)
  • Carate - once spoken around the modern city of Ocaña, department of Norte de Santander. (Unattested.)
  • Corbago - once spoken in the department of Magdalena in the Sierra de Mene. (Unattested.)
  • Guane - once spoken in the department of Santander at the sources of the Tarare River. (Gumilla 1745, pt. 2, p. 40, only two words.)
  • Chinato - extinct language once spoken on the upper course of the Zulia River, department of Norte de Santander, around the modern city of Cúcuta. (Unattested.)
  • Zorca - once spoken in the same department in the San Cristóbal Valley (Unattested.)
  • Cariquena - once spoken on the Cariquena River in the state of Táchira, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
  • Capacho - once spoken around the village of Capacho in the state of Táchira, Venezuela. (Unattested.)
Carijona group
  • Guaque / Huaque / Murcielaga - extinct language once spoken on the Inganos River, Caquetá territory, Colombia.
  • Carijona / Kalihóna - language now spoken by a few individuals on the middle course of the Caquetá River, territory of Caquetá.
  • Umáua / Hiánocoto / Máua - language spoken at the sources of the Apoporis River in the territory of Caquetá.
  • Saha / Tsahatsaha - spoken in the territory of Caquetá between the Cuemani River and Yarí River. (Unattested.)
  • Riama - spoken between the Yari River, Apoporis River, and Vaupés River, territories of Caquetá and Vaupés. (Unattested.)
  • Mahotoyana - spoken in the territory of Vaupés on the Macaya River. (Unattested.)
  • Ajajú - unknown language spoken on the Ajaju River, Amazonas territory. (Unattested.)
Patagon group
  • Patagon - extinct language once spoken in the villages of Paca, Olipanche, and Bagua and around the modern city of Jaén, department of Cajamarca, Peru. (only a few words.)
Arara group
Palmela group
Pimenteira group
  • Pimenteira - Portuguese name of an extinct language the original name of which is unknown, spoken once at the sources of the Sant' Anna River and on Lake Pimenteira and between the Piauí River and Gurgueia River, state of Piauí, Brazil.
Xingú group
  • Yaruma / Aruma - spoken at the sources of the Paranaíba River, state of Mato Grosso, now perhaps extinct.
  • Bacairí / Bacaery - originally spoken between the Batoví River and Curisevú River, later on the Paranatinga River, now by only a few families on the Posto Simões Lopes, Mato Grosso.
  • Nahukwá / Naucuá / Anáukwá - language spoken between the Curisevú River and Culuene River, with many dialects:
    • Yanumakapü / Nahukwá proper - northern dialect.
    • Etagl - spoken in the village of Etagl.
    • Kuikutl / Guicurú / Cuicuro - spoken on the Culuene River in the village of Cuicuro.
    • Kalapalo / Apalaquiri - spoken in the village of the same name on the Culuene River.
    • Matipú / Matipuhy - spoken in the village of the same name on the right bank of the Curisevú River.
    • Yamarikuná - spoken on the Curisevú River.
    • Suva / Tsúva - spoken by a few people on the right bank of the Curisevú River. (Unattested.)
    • Naravute / Naravóto - spoken on the Curisevú River.
    • Aipats - spoken on the Curisevú River; now probably extinct. (Unattested.)
    • Auwáwiti - spoken by a few people on the Curisevú River. (Unattested.)

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Cariban (Karaib) languages.[6]

Language Branch head eye tooth man one two three
Yaruma Xingú u-vite ye-nguru u-én
Bakairí Xingú x-ináraxu x-ánu x-yéri aguróto tokolele asage ahágetokólo
Nahukwá Xingú u-víterö u-vínuru u-vire utoto álechi atake etila
Kuikutl Xingú u-ritöl u-ínuru u-íl utóto
Kalapalo Xingú u-íköre u-ínoru
Yamarikuná Xingú u-ínoru u-igl utóto
Arára Arára muchína oñuruma yéri ukone náne atag ataganané
Parirí Arára mũchí unguru heéngo l'ügóro nané atág atáganane
Apingi Arára i-montxi angrungo yeri ukone toiné asakoro aséruao
Palmela Palmela na-ápo óno yeré óka aropé aha ohehua
Pimenteira Pimenteira baburi önthuburü yari chä
Pijao Pijao luːn tínki oréma
Opone Opone yu-úh yéu xór okír seneároko sáura
Carare Opone sü-oko yeo
Guaque Carijona xutuye yeri gire
Carijona Carijona utuhé yénuru yéri kire téui sekeneré seaueré
Umáua Carijona bútuhe yenuːru yeːli gelé téui sakénele dyelauele
Patagon Patagon
Yupe Motilon o-hárza áno kiíko kürpa tukumarkó kosárko koserárko
Chaque Motilon o-harza anó kiíko kürpa kumarko kasarko kosera
Macoa Motilon yu-wasá anu kiyiːko mashá kumárko kósak koséra
Maraca Motilon yu-wasa yo-nu
Parirí Motilon yu-wása yá-nu kiʔiko kipantu kumárku kósaʔ
Shapáru Motilon yu-wása yá-nu yi kumárko kósa
Iroca Motilon tʔkúmaː
Tamanaco Tamanaco prutpe yanuru yeri ipáliche tevin achake achilove
Chayma Tamanaco putpo yer uaikiri tivin achak achorao
Cumanagota Tamanaco puyar enur yer uaikíri tivin asakve asorau
Tivericoto Tamanaco o-putpa o-neana ovin oko orwa
Palenque Tamanaco
Yao Yao boppe vokre hioseli tewin tage terewaw
Shebayi Shebayi wa-kewüri wa-daköli nu-yeri
Decuána Maquiritaré u-huhé énu yéde tokomo toːni hake aduáne
Yecuaná Maquiritaré hóuf u-yenuru yeːri areifhe tauíni ake hedáue
Cunuaná Maquiritaré hú-ha
Ihuruána Maquiritaré hú-he yeːde
Mapoyo Mapoyo uastari xene-yonuru xe-ñeiri tokomo tóskena sakane tominiakeré
Yauarána Mapoyo exne-oaixtéli exne-nuru exne-yéli tokúnu enix-péte asáke petomeyákele
Panáre Panáre oʔó yoʔón
Taurepán Taurepán upai yénu u-yé kurai teukinán sákeʔené seulúana
Arecuna Taurepán pu-pai yenú u-yé uarati täukináng sakeine isélehaúvane
Camaracoto Taurepán pupai-to enu-to warato taʔakin tsagane etserau
Ingarico Taurepán u-paí u-yenú u-yé orauó teukíng atsalongkong etseuluaong-kóng
Uaica Taurepán ienuru
Acawai Taurepán yu-popo yenuru yu wínow tidzyine asakró asorwo
Macusi Macusi po-pai tenu u-yeká uaratáe tiwing sagaré siruane
Keseruma Macusi yenu pemóngó tivín
Purucoto Macusi hau-pupe hau-yenú hau-yée walaitó aleini iniperkuru inialé
Wayumara Macusi i-hubé yenurú i-yelé totó tueviné asále eseuluó
Paraviyana Macusi i-pupá e-rénialö e-lelö meimun teuén aköunien olaulé
Zapará Macusi une-kapú u-yonú topúpesó itxemené tulekalenó oláno
Yauapery Yauapery ki-yó kembá ki-äri marabá asiki usono
Uaimiri Yauapery ki-fó kopanamareː ki-eri kumutareː unionoː tukunumá uruanoː
Orixaná Yauapery u-pai u-ini u-yeté itiamon tuimo sananeburé sarsiua
Pauishana Pauishana puːpo yoːno ye yungwei níkenaːna ataːre ãná-mokaːre
Waiwai Waiwai a-tipiri e-oru ko-yóri tata chewñé asakí chorohoko
Parucoto Waiwai o-yúla ko-yali tukinkaré asakené serkuané
Uaiboi Waiwai ku-nurú kamuhí
Hishcariana Waiwai kui-kuturu ku-yo tamushi tonishá sakó sorowão
Bonari Waiwai iri-opó nuru-bá yoré ukeré abané pademaká uruá
Chiquena Chiquena ya-nũru yoli soto winali asaga sorawau
Saluma Chiquena yiwu-tupuli ye-nu
Pauxi Chiquena toto
Uayeué Chiquena vu-turú u-yari totó
Cachuena Chiquena yo-soru yo-núru yoré totó tuinarí asáki osoruaul
Mutuan Chiquena ko-nofati yurú
Trio Trio í-pútupo ye-nuru i-yeri kirí tinki ökönö voyerau
Urucuyena Trio putpí i-eú yi-eːda okirí wanána shakené heruáu
Wama Trio wi-pupo ye-nuru ye-ri
Tliometesen Trio oba-tuwiri en-nuru oliː enkili tonikini sokororo ebemüni
Ocomayana Trio u-nu ye
Pianocoto Trio ye-nei yu-tali okirí
Rangú Trio
Waiana Eastern e-putiü ye-nuru yére okiri uaptö hakené eheruaé
Upurui Eastern e-putpiʔi ye-nuru yére okiri
Rucuyene Eastern ité-puru e-nuru yeré okiri tavené sakené héléuʔau
Apalai Eastern u-pupu anu deri eritua seni asakoro eseuʔau
Aracajú Eastern seresa apükaua
Caraib Western búpu é-hulu yeri uakuri ábama bíama eleva
Galibi Western u-pupu e-nuru yeré okiri awín okuo tereva
Caribisi Western ye-pupo ye-nuru wokiri ówé oko orwá
Caribe Western ada-puxo dhere buköre óbin óko órwa
Cariniaco Western é-nuru yeri okiri owi uariri orowa
Carif Western nábulu tágu bári ugíri ábana biáma íruwa


Language Branch water fire sun moon maize jaguar arrow
Yaruma Xingú páru kampón tsizi nunó
Bakairí Xingú páru páto chíshi núna anádzyi aká püráu
Nahukwá Xingú tuna itó riti nune aná ikere hüré
Kuikutl Xingú tuna ñorotéke liti núne tonuríñe
Kalapalo Xingú itoː turúgitiñe
Yamarikuná Xingú liti núne
Arára Arára parú kampot titi núna konat okoró puiram
Parirí Arára parú kampó titi tunó honát hogró puyrém
Apingi Arára paru kampot chichi nuno anat okori pirem
Palmela Palmela tuná vava yéyu ñúña éña okóro puera
Pimenteira Pimenteira tuna vafundi titi nulu thauato prümachö pürarü
Pijao Pijao tána nuhúgi huíl núna xaguáde
Opone Opone tuná fotó bueno kanó mues ixáke yahá
Carare Opone kʔara bwenuñe menye pak'anye
Guaque Carijona tuna maxoto vehi nuna kaikuchi
Carijona Carijona tuna apoto bei nunua kaikusi xarakue
Umáua Carijona tuːna mahóto wéi nuːne anaːdzyi kaikudzyi huːya
Patagon Patagon tuná anás
Yupe Motilon kuna guesta güichó kuna isóʔo samás
Chaque Motilon kuna hueto gichio kuno me isó
Macoa Motilon kúna huéto huichol kuník me ísho puréyi
Maraca Motilon kuːna whishta huicho kunu eːsho puraye
Parirí Motilon kána wueta wíchu kúnu
Shapáru Motilon kúna wuéta
Iroca Motilon kuːna esho
Tamanaco Tamanaco duná uapto veyu nuna xexe akére preu
Chayma Tamanaco tuna apoto vieyu nonin amapo kocheiku pure
Cumanagota Tamanaco tuna veyu nonum añaze kozeiko preu
Tivericoto Tamanaco tuna apoto niano
Palenque Tamanaco tuna ekere
Yao Yao tuná uapoto veyo nona arua mapuru
Shebayi Shebayi wekulüe kirtrire heweri
Decuána Maquiritaré tona wáto céi nona nakchi máedo haxkúdi
Yecuaná Maquiritaré tuná wato zyi nuːna maro shimaːra
Cunuaná Maquiritaré uáʔto shi núna shimáda
Ihuruána Maquiritaré tuná wáto zyiː nuːne
Mapoyo Mapoyo tuna kátun nuna oxonai ékire úbuʔare
Yauarána Mapoyo túna wáto yãtonu núne náchi hékele pákuli
Panáre Panáre echár-kun güegua kenak xadpoʔót
Taurepán Taurepán tuná apóg wéi kapéi anain kaikusé peléu
Arecuna Taurepán tuna apo väi kapeá aʔanaig kaikusi pureu
Camaracoto Taurepán apoiʔ be kapui anaiʔ kakutse purau
Ingarico Taurepán tuná ápo wéi kapéi anaí kaikushí pelé
Uaica Taurepán tuna apok uey nuna
Acawai Taurepán tuno wato vieyu nuno kaikushi pulewa
Macusi Macusi tuna uató wei kapoi anain kaikushí eriu
Keseruma Macusi
Purucoto Macusi tuna apotó wéi nánõ kaikudzé poyá
Wayumara Macusi túna wató weyú nuná mazyiná kaikushi heló
Paraviyana Macusi dóna vuatú tamana noné ainiain ekölé arámöu
Zapará Macusi tuná wató kapéi anáe ekelé urapóno
Yauapery Yauapery tuná uató eyú déʔeli kokoshí ibikuari
Uaimiri Yauapery tunã uatoː eioː nunueba uhi kúkúboi maprú
Orixaná Yauapery tuná uató ueihu teparé euá ekeré upreu
Pauishana Pauishana tuná uató uai núna uátaka uraːpa
Waiwai Waiwai tuná wehtó kamo nuné yaypí waywí
Parucoto Waiwai tuna witu uchi kapube akeré
Uaiboi Waiwai tuna zyitó núna
Hishcariana Waiwai toná wuhritó kamaːna noːná waiwí
Bonari Waiwai tuná uatú weyu keri pureːná
Chiquena Chiquena tuna wihala sesi imho klaho
Saluma Chiquena tuna
Pauxi Chiquena tuna isire nune uau préu
Uayeué Chiquena tuná piéto kamo nuná maipuri kurumuri
Cachuena Chiquena tuná mirótó isóso imnó honese kaikesú praué
Mutuan Chiquena tuna ritó soːro zyairú purí
Trio Trio túna mata veyu nunö anai maipuri pléu
Urucuyena Trio tuná mato uwi nuna maipurí puréu
Wama Trio tuna mato wei paora
Tliometesen Trio tono mato wei nunu potireru mashibuli pureri
Ocomayana Trio tuna mato uwi nuna
Pianocoto Trio tuna matto weh nuna eñaye maipuri purau
Rangú Trio tuma mato nuna
Waiana Eastern tuna uapot shishi nunuö enai yauéri pleu
Upurui Eastern tuna uapot shishi nunu enai yaueri piréu
Rucuyene Eastern tuna uapot chichi nunu enai maipuri piréu
Apalai Eastern tuna apotó chichi nunó ashinase machipuri piróu
Aracajú Eastern tuna uapto chichi yasüe uárapára
Caraib Western tóne uátu hueyu núnú aoashi kahikushi buleúa
Galibi Western tuna uato veyu nuno auoasi kaikusi plia
Caribisi Western tuna watú wiyeyu nuno purewa
Caribe Western túna bedu núno peröwa
Cariniaco Western túna wato wedo nuno puriui
Carif Western dúna wátu uéyu hát auás gáigusi láru

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Cariban
Reconstruction ofCariban languages

Proto-Cariban phonology according to Gildea (2012):[5]:448

Proto-Cariban consonants
p t k
m n
w r j
Proto-Cariban vowels
i ɨ u
e ô o
a

Proto-Cariban reconstructions by Gildea (2007, 2012):[8][9]

gloss Proto-Carib
'sun' *titi
'moon' *nunô
'water (n)' *tuna
'sunlight' *awatinɨ
'star' *tirikô
'DESIDERATIVE' *(CV)te
'sand' *saka(w)
'sand' *samutu
'body' *jamun
'flesh, meat, body' *punu
'meat food' *ôtɨ
'water' *paru
'rain' *konopo
'person' *karipona
'man' *wôkɨrɨ
'husband' *nɨjo, *mɨjo
'eye' *ônu-ru
'ear' *para-rɨ
'nose' *ôwna-rɨ
'mouth' *mɨta-rɨ
'lip' *ôtipi-rɨ
'saliva' *ôtaku
'tooth' *(j)ô-rɨ
'tongue' *nuru
'one' *tôwinô
'two' *atjôkô(nô/ne)
'head' *pu-tupô
'forehead' *pe-rɨ
'leg' *pôre(-pɨ/pa)
'foot' *pupu-ru
'heel' *pu(pu)-tôpu
'sole of foot' *pɨta
'knee' *ôtjôkumu-ru
'neck' *pɨmɨ-rɨ
'breast' *manatɨ-rɨ
'chest' *puropi-rɨ
'buttocks' *pupɨtɨkɨ
'cheek' *peta
'forest' *jutu
'inside' *tawô
'to bite' *ôteka
'to give; to put' *utu
'hand' *ômija-rɨ, *amo-rɨ
'to do; to make; to put' *(tɨ)rɨ, *(t)ɨrɨ
'to gift O (with something)' *ekarama
'to put away' *arama
'belly' *wetVpu
'belly' *(e)wenɨ
'heart (guts); chest' *ôwanô
'liver' *ôre
'to close (tr. v)' *apuru
'to descend' *wɨpɨtô
'to see' *ône
'to hear' *ôta
'to know (tr. v)' *putu
'to know (postp)' *warô
'to sleep' *wônɨkɨ
'to sleep' *wetu(mɨ)
'to shoot; to kill' *(tɨ)wô, *(t)wô(nô)
'to drink' *woku-ru
'to drink' *ônɨrɨ
'to eat (intr. v)' *ôt-ôku
'to eat fruit' *ônapɨ
'to eat meat' *(t)ônô
'to eat flour/bread' *(t)ôku
'to eat nuts' *aku
'to grate (manioc)' *(tɨ)kɨ
'to bathe (O)' *(tɨ)pɨ
'to weave' *(tɨ)kapɨ
'to cook; to boil' *(tɨ)jô
'to take; to pull out/away' *(t)ôwɨ
'to throw out' *(tɨ)papo
'to gather fruit' *(tɨ)pôtɨ
'fire' *wepeto
'fire' *mapoto
'ash' *wôreiCV
'to light fire' *(t)urô
'to burn (intr. v)' *jatu
'to burn (tr. v)' *uk(w)a
'to fell tree/farm' *(tɨ)ma
'to go' *(wɨ-)tô(mô)
'to come' *(w)ôtepɨ
'to come' *(w)ômôkɨ
'to say' *(wɨ)ka(ti)
'to be; to say' *a(p)
'to dwell; to be' *(w)eti
'to enter' *(w)ômô(mi)
'REFLEXIVE' *(w)e-
'RECIPROCAL' *(w)ôte-
'beak' *potɨ-rɨ
'earth' *nono
'cloud' *kapurutu
'rope' *ôwa(-rɨ)
'hot' *atu(NV)
'cold' *atono
'cold' *t-ɨnotɨ-me
'good' *kure
'hard' *akɨpɨ
'snake' *ôkôju
'path' *ôtema(-rɨ)
'mountain' *(w)ɨpɨ
'older brother' *pipi
'grandchild' *pa-rɨ
'faeces' *wetɨ, *watô
'to defecate' *weka
'child' *mure
'shoulder' *mota-rɨ
'thigh' *petɨ
'hair' *(e)tipotɨ(-rɨ)
'to cut' *akôtô
'to take; to carry' *arô
'to seize' *apôti
'1SG' *ôwɨ-rô
'2SG' *ômô-rô
'2COLL' *ôm-jamo
'1INCL' *kɨnmô-rô
'1INCL' *kɨwɨ-rô
'1INCL.COLL' *kɨC-jamo
'1EXCL' *apina
'this (INAN)' *(t)ônɨ
'this (INAN)' *(t)ôrô
'this (ANIM)' *môtjô
'this (ANIM COLL)' *môtj-jamo
'that (INAN)' *mônɨ
'that (INAN)' *môrô
'that (ANIM)' *môkɨ-rô
'that (ANIM COLL)' *môk-jamo
'who?' *onôkɨ
'all' *ômerô
'grease; fat' *katɨ
'to grow' *atɨta, *anɨta
'thick' *tɨpɨtɨ-ma
'AUGMENTATIVE' *imô
'small' *pitikô
'woman' *wôriti
'woman' *pɨtɨ
'fish' *kana
'dog' *akôrô
'dog' *kaikuti
'louse' *(w)ajamô
'tree' *wewe, *jeje
'branch' *ekata
'arm' *apô-rɨ
'seed' *ôpɨ(-tɨpô)
'seed' *a-tɨpô
'seed; contents' *a-rɨ(-rɨ)
'seed' *ôna-tɨpô
'leaf' *jare
'root' *mitɨ
'bark, skin' *pitupô
'blood' *munu-ru
'red' *t-a(k)pi-re
'white' *t-a-(re)mutu-ne
'black' *t-puru-me/ke
'night' *koko
'nightfall (intr. v)' *koko-mamɨ
'bone' *j-ôtîpî-rî
'egg' *pumo
'horn' *retɨ-rɨ
'tail; penis' *arokɨ
'scrotum; testicle' *ômu(-ru)
'feather' *apôri-rɨ
'name' *ôtetɨ
'ant' *iraka
'ant' *kɨjawôko
'ant' *juku
'ant' *mɨkakô
'ant' *(n)mapu(nu)
'bow' *wɨrapa-rɨ
'deer' *(wɨ)kapawu
'deer' *karijakô
'grandfather' *tamo(ko)
'heavy' *amôti-ma/-ne
'to sit' *erew-ta/-ma
'lightning' *manan manan
'howler monkey' *arimi
'monkey' *itjo
'rib' *awo-tɨ
'to roast' *puru, *purô
'to run' *ekatu(mɨ)
'shadow' *amore-rɨ
'shadow' *ôkatu
'short' *tɨntɨ-tʲô
'to talk; to converse' *ôt-uru
'spider' *mojoti
'spider' *tjawaraka(ru)
'to tie' *(m)ômô
'today; now' *amenarô
'tomorrow' *koropo
'vagina' *ôrɨ
'to wait' *mômôku
'high' *kawô
'sun' *weju
'1SG' *u-
'3SG' *i-
'stone' *tôpu
'flesh, meat, body' *punu
'person' *wɨtoto
'jaguar' *kajkuti
'to bite' *eseka
'to find' *eporɨ
'to give; to put' *utu
'to close (tr. v)' *apuru
'to descend' *ôpinô
'to pierce' *atpo
'to shoot; to kill' *(tɨ)wô, *(t)wô(nô)
'to eat meat' *(t)ônô
'to grate (manioc)' *(tɨ)kɨ
'to go' *(wɨ-)tô(mô)
'to come' *(w)ôtepɨ
'to enter' *(w)ômô(mi)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Anselmo, L.; Gutiérrez Salazar, M. (1981). Diccionario Pemón. Caracas: Ediciones CORPOVEN.
  • Camargo, E. (2002). Léxico bilingüe aparai - português / português - aparai. (Languages of the World: Dictionaries, 28.). München: Lincom Europa.
  • Courtz, H. (2008). A Carib Grammar and Dictionary. Toronto: Magoria Books.
  • Gildea, S. Payne, D. (2007). Is Greenberg's “Macro-Carib” viable? Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Ciências Humanas, 2:19-72.
  • Girard, V. (1971a). Proto-Carib phonology. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Mattei-Müller, M. (1994). Diccionario ilustrado Panare-Español con índice español-panare. Caracas: Comisión Nacional Quinto Centenario.
  • Pet. W. J. A. (1987). Lokono Dian: the Arawak Language of Suriname: A Sketch of its Grammatical Structure and Lexicon. Ithaca: Cornell University. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Puig, M. M. P. (1944). Diccionario de la Lengua Caribe Cuna. Panamá: La Estrella de Panamá.
  • Vitorino, M. M. (1991). Dicionário bilíngüe Wai-Wai/Português, Português/Wai-Wai. Boa Vista: Missão Evangélica da Amazônia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cariban". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  3. ^ Desmond Derbyshire, 1999. "Carib". In Dixon & Aikhenvald, eds., The Amazonian Languages. CUP.
  4. ^ Meira, Sérgio. 2006. A família lingüística Caribe (Karíb). Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas v.3, n.1/2, p.157-174. Brasília: FUNAI. (PDF)
  5. ^ a b Gildea, Spike. 2012. "Linguistic studies in the Cariban family", in Campbell & Grondona, eds, The Indigenous Languages of South America: A Comprehensive Guide. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
  6. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  7. ^ Gumilla, Joseph. 1745. El Orinoco ilustrado, y defendido: Historia natural, civil, y geographica de este gran Rio, y de sus caudalosas vertientes. 2nd ed., in 2 pts. Madrid. (New ed., Barcelona, 1791.)
  8. ^ Gildea, S. & Payne, D. (2007). Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable? In Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas, Belém, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 19-72. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.
  9. ^ Gildea, S. (2012). Linguistic studies in the Cariban family. In Campbell, L. & Grondona, V. (eds.), The Indigenous Languages of South America: A Comprehensive Guide. 441-494, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.

External links[edit]