|Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. incana|
C. e. subsp. equisetifolia
Casuarina equisetifolia, or Australian pine tree, is a she-oak species of the genus Casuarina. The native range extends throughout Southeast Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific Islands; including Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Timor-Leste, and the Philippines (where it is known as agoho pine), east to Papua New Guinea, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu, and south to Australia (north of Northern Territory, north and east Queensland, and north-eastern New South Wales). Populations are also found in Madagascar, but it is doubtful if this is within the native range of the species. The species has been introduced to the Southern United States and West Africa. It is an invasive species in Florida, South Africa and Brazil
Casuarina equisetifolia was officially described by Linnaeus in 1759 as Casuarina equisefolia. A type was designated by New South Wales botanist Lawrie Johnson in 1989. The specific name equisetifolia is derived from the Latin equisetum, meaning "horse hair" (referring to the resemblance of the drooping branchlets to horse tail). Common names include coast sheoak (coast she oak, coastal she-oak), beach casuarina, beach oak, beach sheoak (beach she-oak), beach pine, whistling tree, horsetail she oak, horsetail beefwood, horsetail tree, Australian pine, ironwood, whistling pine, Filao tree, and agoho.
- Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. equisetifolia. Large tree to 35 m (115 ft) tall; twigs 0.5–0.7 mm (0.020–0.028 in) diameter, hairless. Southeast Asia, northern Australia.
- Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. incana (Benth.) L.A.S.Johnson. Small tree to 12 m (39 ft) tall; twigs 0.7–1 mm (0.028–0.039 in) diameter, downy. Eastern Australia (eastern Queensland, New South Wales), New Caledonia, southern Vanuatu.
Casuarina is an evergreen tree growing to 6–35 m (20–115 ft) tall. The foliage consists of slender, much-branched green to grey-green twigs 0.5–1 mm (0.020–0.039 in) diameter, bearing minute scale-leaves in whorls of 6–8. The flowers are produced in small catkin-like inflorescences; the male flowers in simple spikes 0.7–4 cm (0.28–1.57 in) long, the female flowers on short peduncles. Unlike most other species of Casuarina (which are dioecious) it is monoecious, with male and female flowers produced on the same tree. The fruit is an oval woody structure 10–24 mm (0.39–0.94 in) long and 9–13 mm (0.35–0.51 in) in diameter, superficially resembling a conifer cone made up of numerous carpels each containing a single seed with a small wing 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) long.
Like some other species of the Genus Casuarina, Casuarina equisetifolia is an actinorhizal plant able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. In contrast to species of the Fabaceae family of plants (e.g., beans, alfalfa, Acacia), Casuarina harbours a symbiosis with a Frankia actinomycete.
Distribution and habitat
Casuarina is found from Burma and Vietnam throughout Malesia east to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu, and south into Australia (the northern parts of Northern Territory, north and east Queensland, and northeastern New South Wales, where it extends as far south as Laurieton.
Casuarina is widely used as a bonsai subject, particularly in South-east Asia and parts of the Caribbean. Indonesian specimens and those cultivated in Taiwan are regarded among the best in the bonsai world. The wood of this tree is used for shingles, fencing, and is said to make excellent hot-burning firewood. Among the islands of Hawaii, Casuarina are also grown for erosion prevention, and in general as wind breaking elements.
The legendary miraculous spear Kaumaile came with the hero Tefolaha on the South Pacific island Nanumea. He fought with it on the islands of Samoa and Tonga. As Tefolaha died, "Kaumaile" went to his heirs, then to their heirs, and on and on - 23 generations. It is about 1.80 meters long and about 880 years old and the tree was cut on Samoa.
The Casuarina leaves are usually used for ornamental purposes in the urban region.
Other than ornamental purposes, the Casuarina was also explored in for its potential in remediation of textile dye wastewater. Casuarina leaves were found to be useful as adsorbent material for the removal of textile dyes such as reactive orange,16 Rhodamine B, methylene blue, malachite green  and methyl violet 2b. Similarly the Casuarina dried cone was also reported to be able to remove Rhodamine B, and methyl violet 2b. The Casuarina bark was reported to able to remove methylene blue. Even the Casuarina seed was also found to be useful in dye removal of neutral red and malachite green. The carbon derived from the cones of Casuarina was found to be good adsorbent for the landfill leachate, while another laboratory also reported good adsorbent for copper ions from aqueous solution.
- Pinus kesiya, the Khasi or Benguet pine
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- Dahri, Muhammad Khairud; Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B.L (2015). "Application of Casuarina equisetifolia needle for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution". Alexandria Engineering Journal. 54 (4): 1253. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2015.07.005.
- Dahri, Muhammad Khairud; Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B. L (2013). "Removal of Methyl Violet 2B from Aqueous Solution Using Casuarina equisetifolia Needle". ISRN Environmental Chemistry. 2013: 1. doi:10.1155/2013/619819.
- Dahri, Muhammad Khairud; Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B. L (2016). "Remediation of Rhodamine B Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Casuarina equisetifolia Cone Powder as a Low-Cost Adsorbent". Advances in Physical Chemistry. 2016: 1. doi:10.1155/2016/9497378.
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- Alrozi, Rasyidah; Zubir, Nor Aida; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusof, Siti Noor Faizah Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian (2017). "Removal of organic fractions from landfill leachate by casuarina equisetifolia activated carbon: Characteristics and adsorption mechanisms". AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1885: 020139. Bibcode:2017AIPC.1885b0139A. doi:10.1063/1.5002333.
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