Cayuvava language

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Cayubaba
Kayuvava
Native toBolivia
RegionBeni Department
Ethnicity650 (2006)[1]
Native speakers
4 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3cyb
Glottologcayu1262[2]

Cayubaba (Cayuvava, Cayuwaba, Kayuvava) is a moribund language of the Bolivian Amazon. The Cayubaba people inhabit the Beni region to the west of the Mamoré River, North of the Santa Ana Yacuma, with a population of 794 inhabitants.[3]

Since the declaration of the Supreme Decree N.º 25894 on September 11, 2000, Cayubaba has been one of the official indigenous languages of Bolivia,[4] which was included in the Political Constitution, which was introduced on February 7, 2009.[5]

Current situation[edit]

As shown by Crevels and Muysken (2012),[6] the territory of Cayubaba forms part of a region historically known as Mojos (or Moxos), that covers approximately 200,000 square kilometers of what is currently the Department of Beni. Above all, the Cayubaba focus on traditional farming, growing rice, yucca, corn, bananas, sugar cane, beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, etc. They also raised livestock, although on a small scale. The Cayubaba community meets at the Subcentral Indígena Cayubaba, which is affiliated to the Indigenous Peoples Center of Beni (CPIB) and is, therefore, a member of the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia (CIDOB).

Historical Aspects[edit]

The first to establish contact with the Cayubaba was the Jesuit missionary priest, P. Agustín Zapata in 1693. As Crevels and Muysken (2012)[7] point out, it was during this first visit to Cayubaba territory that Father Zapata saw seven villages, of which six had approximately 1,800 inhabitants and one had more than 2,000. At the beginning of the 18th century, P. Antonio Garriga funded the Mission of Exaltation of the Holy Cross, which was primarily inhabited by the Cayubaba. Later the Missions of San Carlos, Conception, and Peñas were founded.

At the beginning of the 19th century, when Swedish geologist and paleontologist Erland Nordenskiold visited Cayubaba, there were only 100 people from the group, who apart from their language, kept very little of their native culture. The Cayubaba region was famous for growing tobacco. At the time of the exploitation of rubber, the commercialization of tobacco was intense throughout the country, and Exaltación became a busy port on the Mamoré River. In the mid- 20th century, however, the cultivation of tobacco was almost stopped by the mass emigration of Cayubaba to Exaltación, who were fleeing the measles epidemic that almost decimated the population.

Genetic Classification[edit]

As indicated by Crevels and Muysken (2012),[8] despite all the tentative proposals to genetically classify Cayubaba (see, for example, Greenberg, 1987);[9] Kaufman, 1990,[10] 1994;[11] Suárez, 1974),[12] the language is still considered a language isolate.

Language Contact[edit]

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arawak, Bororo, Takana, and Tupi language families due to contact.[13]

Grammatical Sketch[edit]

Phonology[edit]

Cayubaba presents the following system of consonantal phonemes (taken from Crevels and Muysken, 2012)[14] based on (Key 1961),[15] 1962,[16] 1967).[17] The consonant phoneme represented below with /r/ has allophones that include [ɾ~ l~ d̥].[citation needed]

Table 1: Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive Voiced b d k
Voiceless p t
Nasal m n ɲ
Continuant Voiced β r j w
Voiceless s ʃ h

In the second table, we are presented with the system of vowel phonemes (taken from Crevels and Muysken, 2012)[18] and based on (Key, 1961).[15]

Table 2: Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low æ a

Vocabulary and Word Classes[edit]

Regarding the vocabulary and word classes in Cayubaba, the following can be pointed out (Crevels and Muysken, 2012):[19]

  • In Cayubaba, there are five distinct word classes: verbs, for example boro 'give', tavu 'swim'. Nouns, for example veje-veje 'wind', ñoko 'monkey'. Pronouns, for example ãre-ai '1SG', ãre-a '2SG', and modifiers and particles, for example kóra 'perhaps', ñõhõ 'now'.
  • In regards to adjectives, many adjectival concepts are expressed through predicate adjectives formed with the affixes pa(+i)... +ha, for example: pa-i-ra-ha ''Well, be well', pa-tï-ha 'red, is red'. This is to say, it is difficult to establish criteria for the class of adjectives separate from verbs.
  • In addition, Cayubaba presents some adverbs, such as pïïrë 'sboro 'lowly', irire 'good'.
  • boro 'The basic numerical system includes five numerals:  karata/kata 'one', mitia/mite 'two', kurapa 'three', chaada/chaad 'four', y me(i)da(ru) 'five'. These numerals can be combined with the rirobo element (irobo/erobo/iro/hiro/kiro) 'five more' to form numbers up to ten. The numbers eleven to nineteen are formed with the augmentative suffix - hiiñe ‘and, in addition to'. Starting from one hundred, borrowed words from Castilian are used, such as karata-siento[one-one hundred] ''one hundred', karata-mirie [one-thousand] 'a thousand'.

Morphology[edit]

Regarding the morphology of Cayubaba, the following is presented from Crevels and Muysken:[20]

  • Regarding the nominal morphology, the cayubaba shows a process of full reduplication, for example  wïrï-wïrï 'iguana', and partial, for example uku-ku 'pig'. In addition, there are also six complex and productive processes of nominal composition:
Composition processes Example
noun nucleus (possessed) + noun modifier (possessor) hebë-kafe ‘coffee husk'
sequence of roots with figurative meaning ridore-maka‘año’ (lit. ‘burning-sun’)
verb + noun vede-ñika‘dueño de casa’ (lit. ‘have-home’)
onomatopoeic element + noun sĩsĩha-ñõko 'type of monkey’
modifier + noun chakïrï-hiki ‘maíz suave’ (lit. ‘soft corn’)
modifier + noun + modifier sïsïha-pichï-yïtï‘pequeña hormiga negra’(lit. ‘small-ant-black’)

The plural nominal is expressed through the proclitic me = as observed in (Figure 1). In nominal sentences, the proclitic me, is appended to the first element of the sentence, as seen in (Figure 2).

(1) me=i-asi
PL=ART-man
'the men'
me=rishò raviri
PL=new oars
‘new oars'
  • The personal pronouns in Cayubaba function as independent elements, but they actually are derived from verb forms. The basic pronouns, which are presented in Table 3, are derived from the existential verb ãre 'there are', 'exist'. In this verb form, the direct object marker is suffixed. In the case of plural pronouns, you can put the personal markers before the suffix -hi ‘present active state'. These pronouns may be considered, then, like presentative pronouns in the sense of 'I'm the one who...'.

Table 3: Base Pronouns

Base Pronouns
1SG ãre-ai
2SG ãre-a
3SG ãre-e/ããr-e
1PI ãre-ere/ãre-hi-ere
1PE
2PL ãre-pere/ãre-hi-pere
3PL ãre-riki/ãre-hi-riki
  • As for the verbal morphology, there are processes of reduplication and affixation, as well as a set of proclitic and enclitic elements. There are certain types of reduplication, for example [root + root] reduplication in ròmò-ròmò 'kneel down' to express an ongoing action. As for the process of affixation, the verb can be modified by a series of prefixes and suffixes that indicate the subject, object, time, appearance, mode, etc., for example, the first-position prefixes that mark time and appearance, such as the mara-'hypothetical future' in (3) and mera- 'simple future' in (4).
(3) mara-h-i-bachari-dya
FUT.HIP-1SG-CL-inform-2SG.OI
‘(I) would inform you.’
(4) mera-h-i-bekere~re-ë
FUT-1SG-CL-learn~CAUS.INC-2SG.OD
‘I will teach.’
  • The verbal complex can also be modified by a series of proclitic and enclitic elements. Within the proclitic elements, there are modal/evidential proclitics, chui='certainty', manoro= 'almost' (surely), to have the intention. Within the enclitic elements, there are locative enclitics, e.g. "=jahi" 'below', "=puti"'outside', the temporal or aspectual enclitics, e.g. "koidi" 'sometimes', "=ñoho" 'now', and the relational enclitics, e.g. "=dyë" 'together', = ma 'with respect to a woman'.

Syntax[edit]

With regard to the syntax of Cayubaba, the following is seen (Crevels and Muysken, 2012):[21]

  • Cayubaba does not present a fixed constituent order. The only mandatory element in the clause is that the predicate usually precedes the subject and objects, as is observed in (5). If the subject is a free personal pronoun, then it always precedes the predicate, as observed in (6).
(5) ari-a-ñuhu kita ki=tò̃rene dy-a-ñika-che
CMPL-INTL-to bring water ART-woman COM.LOC-3SG-house-3SG.POS
‘The woman brought water to her house.’
(6) ãree a-poërëre-ha karata toro-takorako mitia takorako
PRO:3SG CL-to buy-RES one M-rooster two hens
'He buys a rooster and two hens.’
  • With respect to the nominal phrase, the modifier precedes the nucleus, as shown in (7). However, the possessive element follows that which is possessed, as is observed in (8).
(7) mitia tò̃rene
two women
‘two women’
(8) avope ki=ñeatò̃rene
father ART-my wife
‘the father of my wife'
  • In Cayubaba, processes of incorporation are observed, as in (9), which consist of the incorporation of the direct object in the verb, which is in the same accent group.
(9) mera-h-i-dïkï-ñika ãrehidya
FUT-1SG-CL-make-house PRO:2SG.OI
‘I will build the house.’
  • Cayubaba also presents different subordination processes. The proclitic ki = in its subordinate function, for example, is used to indicate add-ons, as in (10), and it can also complete an adverbial subordinate, as in (11). It also distinguishes conjunctions that mark subordinate clauses and appear at the beginning of the sentence, for example, "=chu" 'because' in (12).
(10) ye-pe-h-a-ve-dya ki-h-i-hudyuhi-a
NEG-always-1SG-CL-to say-2SG.OI SUB-1SG-CL-to leave-2SG.OD
'I tell you, I will never leave you.’
(11) ki-t-i-bòechò k-a-ukuku-che
SUB-3SG-CL-to sell ART-3SG-pork-3SG.POS
‘when he sold his pig’
(12) chu h-i-bachari-e
because 1SG-CL-to tell-3SG.O
'Because I told him’

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Cayuvava.[22]

gloss Cayuvava
one karata
two mítia
three kurapa
tooth ai-che
tongue iné
hand daxe
woman toréne
water ikita
fire idore
moon iráre
maize xiki
jaguar yedava
house iñíka

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Key, H. (1975). Lexicon-dictionary of Cayuvava-English. (Language Data Amerindian Series, 5). Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cayubaba at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cayubaba". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Cayubaba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-06-03.[verification needed]
  4. ^ "Decreto Supremo".[verification needed]
  5. ^ "Constitución Política del Estado (CPE) - Infoleyes Bolivia". bolivia.infoleyes.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-06-03.[verification needed]
  6. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  7. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  8. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  9. ^ Greenberg, Joseph Harold, 1915-2001. (1987). Language in the Americas. Calif. ISBN 0804713154. OCLC 466159954.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)[verification needed]
  10. ^ Kaufman, Terrence (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more.[verification needed]
  11. ^ Kaufman, Terrence (1994). The native languages of South America.[verification needed]
  12. ^ Suárez, Jorge (1974). South American Indian languages. Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edition. pp. 105–112.[verification needed]
  13. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  14. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  15. ^ a b Key, Harold (April 1961). "Phonotactics of Cayuvava". International Journal of American Linguistics. 27 (2): 143–150. doi:10.1086/464617. ISSN 0020-7071.[verification needed]
  16. ^ Key, Harold H. (1962). Fonotacticas del cayuvava : traduccion de bella A. vda. De cuellar. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. OCLC 757420791.[verification needed]
  17. ^ Key, Harold (1967). Morphology of Cayuvava. Mouton. OCLC 252959637.[verification needed]
  18. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  19. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  20. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  21. ^ Crevels, Mily y Muysken, Pieter (2012). Cayubaba. En: Mily Crevels y Pieter Muysken (eds.) Lenguas de Bolivia, tomo II Amazonía, 341-374. La Paz: Plural editores. (en prensa).[verification needed]
  22. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

External links[edit]