Charles M. Lieber

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Charles M. Lieber
Lieber website photo.jpg
Born1959 (age 60–61)[1]
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materFranklin & Marshall College
Stanford University
Known forNanomaterials synthesis and assembly
Nanostructure characterization
Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics
AwardsWolf Prize in Chemistry (2012)
MRS Von Hippel Award (2016)
NAS (2004)
Scientific career
FieldsNanoscience and nanotechnology
Materials physics
InstitutionsHarvard University
Columbia University
Wuhan University of Technology
Doctoral studentsHongjie Dai
Philip Kim
Peidong Yang

Charles M. Lieber (born 1959[1]) is an American chemist and pioneer in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In 2011, Lieber was named by Thomson Reuters as the leading chemist in the world for the decade 2000-2010 based on the impact of his scientific publications.[2] He is known for his contributions to the synthesis, assembly and characterization of nanoscale materials and nanodevices, the application of nanoelectronic devices in biology, and as a mentor to numerous leaders in nanoscience.[3]

Lieber has published over 400 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has edited and contributed to many books on nanoscience.[4] He is the principal inventor on over fifty issued US patents and applications, and joined nanotechnology company Nanosys as a scientific co-founder in 2001 and Vista Therapeutics in 2007.[5] In 2012, Lieber was awarded the Wolf Prize in Chemistry.[6]

On January 28, 2020, Lieber was arrested on charges of making false statements to the U.S. Department of Defense and to Harvard investigators regarding his participation in China's Thousand Talents Program,[7][8] which has received criticism as a threat to national security.[9] The program was created by the Chinese government to pay foreign scientists for access to their research. In addition, his house was searched by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[10]

Education and research philosophy[edit]

Lieber obtained a B.A. in Chemistry from Franklin & Marshall College, graduating with honors in 1981. He went on to earn his doctorate at Stanford University in Chemistry, carrying out research on surface chemistry in the lab of Nathan Lewis, followed by a two-year postdoc at Caltech in the lab of Harry Gray on long-distance electron transfer in metalloproteins.[5] A self-confessed competitive person, Lieber feels “pressure to get things done quickly and – ideally – first”[11] and to break new ground: “What I like to do as a scientist is to work on things that have not already been shown to work”.[12] Studying the effects of dimensionality and anisotropy on the properties of quasi-2D planar structures and quasi-1D structures in his early career at Columbia and Harvard led him to become interested in the question of how one could make a one-dimensional wire, and to the epiphany that if a technology were to emerge from nascent work on nanoscale materials “it would require interconnections – exceedingly small, wire-like structures to move information around, move electrons around, and connect devices together.”[11] Lieber was an early proponent of using the fundamental physical advantages of the very small to meld the worlds of optics and electronics and create interfaces between nanoscale materials and biological structures,[13] and “to develop entirely new technologies, technologies we cannot even predict today.”[14]


Lieber joined the Columbia University Department of Chemistry in 1987, where he was Assistant Professor (1987-1990) and Associate Professor (1990-1991) before moving to Harvard as Full Professor (1992). Except for the fact that following a federal indictment and arrest he is on administrative leave for aiding and abetting a Chinese honey bucket (also indicted) he holds a joint appointment at Harvard University in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and the Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, as the Joshua and Beth Friedman University Professor. In 2015 he became Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.[5]

Research contributions[edit]

Lieber's contributions to the rational growth, characterization, and applications of a range of functional nanoscale materials and heterostructures have provided concepts central to the bottom-up paradigm of nanoscience. These include rational synthesis of functional nanowire building blocks, characterization of these materials, and demonstration of their application in areas ranging from electronics, computing, photonics, and energy science to biology and medicine.[15]

Nanomaterials synthesis. In his early work Lieber articulated the motivation for pursuing designed growth of nanometer-diameter wires in which composition, size, structure and morphology could be controlled over a wide range,[16] and outlined a general method for the first controlled synthesis of free-standing single-crystal semiconductor nanowires,[17][18] providing the groundwork for predictable growth of nanowires of virtually any elements and compounds in the periodic table. He proposed and demonstrated a general concept for the growth of nanoscale axial heterostructures[19] and the growth of nanowire superlattices with new photonic and electronic properties,[20] the basis of intensive efforts today in nanowire photonics and electronics. In parallel, he proposed and demonstrated the heterojunction concept of radial core-shell nanowire structures[21] and single-crystalline multi-quantum well structures.[22] Lieber also demonstrated a synthetic methodology to introduce controlled stereocenters – kinks – into nanowires,[23] introducing the possibility of increasingly complex and functional nanostructures for three-dimensional nanodevices.

Nanostructure characterization. Lieber developed applications of scanning probe microscopies that could provide direct experimental measurement of the electrical and mechanical properties of individual carbon nanotubes and nanowires.[24][25] This work showed that semiconductor nanowires with controlled electrical properties can be synthesized, providing electronically tunable functional nanoscale building blocks for device assembly. Additionally, Lieber invented chemical force microscopy to characterize the chemical properties of materials surfaces with nanometer resolution.[26]

Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Lieber has used quantum-confined core/shell nanowire heterostructures to demonstrate ballistic transport,[27] the superconducting proximity effect,[28] and quantum transport.[29] Other examples of functional nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices include nanoscale electrically driven lasers using single nanowires as active nanoscale cavities,[30] carbon nanotube nanotweezers,[31] nanotube-based ultrahigh-density electromechanical memory,[32] an all-inorganic fully integrated nanoscale photovoltaic cell[33] and functional logic devices and simple computational circuits using assembled semiconductor nanowires.[34] These concepts led to the integration of nanowires on the Intel roadmap, and their current top-down implementation of these structures.[35]

Nanostructure assembly and computing. Lieber has originated a number of approaches for parallel and scalable of assembly of nanowire and nanotube building blocks. The development of fluidic-directed assembly[36] and subsequent large-scale assembly of electrically addressable parallel and crossed nanowire arrays was cited as one of the Breakthroughs of 2001 by Science.[37] He also developed a lithography-free approach to bridging the macro-to-nano scale gap using modulation-doped semiconductor nanowires.[38][39] Lieber recently introduced the assembly concept ‘nanocombing,’[40] which can be used to align nanoscale wires in a deterministic manner independent of material. He used this concept to create a programmable nanowire logic tile[41] and the first stand-alone nanocomputer.[42]

Nanoelectronics for biology and medicine. Lieber demonstrated the first direct electrical detection of proteins,[43] selective electrical sensing of individual viruses[44] and multiplexed detection of cancer marker proteins and tumor enzyme activity.[45] His approach uses electrical signals for high-sensitivity, label-free detection, for use in wireless/remote medical applications. More recently, Lieber demonstrated a general approach to overcome the Debye screening that makes these measurements challenging in physiological conditions,[46] overcoming the limitations of sensing with silicon nanowire field-effect devices and opening the way to their use in diagnostic healthcare applications. Lieber has also developed nanoelectronic devices for cell/tissue electrophysiology, showing that electrical activity and action potential propagation can be recorded from cultured cardiac cells with high resolution.[47] Most recently, Lieber realized 3D nanoscale transistors[48][49] in which the active transistor is separated from the connections to the outside world. His nanotechnology-enabled 3D cellular probes have shown point-like resolution in detection of single-molecules, intracellular function and even photons.[50]

Current research[edit]

Nanoelectronics and brain science. The development of nanoelectronics-enabled cellular tools underpins Lieber's views[51] on transforming electrical recording and modulation of neuronal activity in brain science. Examples of this work include the integration of arrays of nanowire transistors with neurons at the scale that the brain is wired biologically,[52] mapping functional activity in acute brain slices with high spatiotemporal resolution[53] and a 3D structure capable of interfacing with complex neural networks.[54] He developed macroporous 3D sensor arrays and synthetic tissue scaffold to mimic the structure of natural tissue, and for the first time generated synthetic tissues that can be innervated in 3D, showing that it is possible to produce interpenetrating 3D electronic-neural networks following cell culture.[55] Lieber's current work focuses on integrating electronics in a minimally/non-invasive manner within the central nervous system.[56][57] Most recently, he has demonstrated that this macroporous electronics can be injected by syringe to position devices in a chosen region of the brain.[58] Chronic histology and multiplexed recording studies demonstrate minimal immune response and noninvasive integration of the injectable electronics with neuronal circuitry.[58][59][60] Reduced scarring may explain the mesh electronics’ demonstrated recording stability on time scales of up to a year.[61][62] This concept of electronics integration with the brain as a nanotechnological tool potentially capable of treating neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, stroke and traumatic injury has drawn attention from a number of media sources. Scientific American named injectable electronics one of 2015's top ten world changing ideas.[63] Chemical & Engineering News called it “the most notable chemistry research advance of 2015.”[64]


Other honors and positions[edit]

Lieber is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, the National Academy of Inventors, National Academy of Engineering, and an elected Foreign Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015).[79] He is an elected Fellow of the Materials Research Society, American Chemical Society (Inaugural Class), Institute of Physics, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), American Association for the Advancement of Science, and World Technology Network, and Honorary Fellow of the Chinese Chemical Society.[80] In addition he belongs to the American Physical Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Society for Optical Engineering, Optical Society of America, Biophysical Society and Society for Neuroscience. Lieber is Co-editor of the journal Nano Letters, and serves on the editorial and advisory boards of a number of science and technology journals.[5]

Federal arrest[edit]

On January 28, 2020, Lieber was charged with two federal counts of making a materially false, fictitious and fraudulent statement about his links to a Chinese university. According to the Department of Justice's charging document[81], there are two counts of alleged crime committed by Lieber. First, during an interview by DoD on April 24, 2018, Lieber was asked whether he was involved in the Thousand Talents Program. Lieber stated that "he was never asked to participate in the Thousand Talents Program", adding that "he 'wasn't sure' how China categorized him." The DOJ believes that Lieber's statement was false, because an intercepted email dated June 27, 2012, from Wuhan University of Technology ("WUT") included a contract for Lieber to sign. Second, in November 2018, the NIH inquired of Harvard University about Lieber's foreign affiliations. In January 2019, Harvard interviewed Lieber and reported to NIH that Lieber "had no formal association with WUT" after 2012. The DOJ believes Lieber's statement was false. Lieber was charged with two counts of violating 18 U.S.C. § 1001(a)(2), one on April 24, 2018, and one in January 2019 for making the allegedly false statements.

During his arraignment, authorities executed search warrants at his home and office in Lexington, Massachusetts. Lieber has been placed on paid administrative leave by Harvard.[82]

On June 9, 2020 the Department of Justice indicted Lieber on false statement charges alleging that, unbeknownst to Harvard University and beginning in 2011, Lieber became a “Strategic Scientist” at Wuhan University of Technology (WUT) in China. He later became a contractual participant in China’s Thousand Talents Plan from at least 2012 through 2015. [83]

Personal life[edit]

Lieber was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1959[84] and “spent much of his childhood building – and breaking – stereos, cars and model airplanes.”[85] Lieber is Jewish.[86]

Since 2007 he has grown giant pumpkins in his front and back yards in Lexington, Massachusetts.[87][88] In 2010 he won the annual weigh-off at Frerich's Farm in Rhode Island with a 1,610-lb pumpkin,[89] and returned in 2012 with a 1,770-lb pumpkin that won 2nd place in that year's weigh-off but set a Massachusetts record.[90] His 1,870-lb pumpkin in 2014 was named the largest pumpkin in Massachusetts and ranked 17th largest in the world that year.[90][91] The discrepancy between the size scales of his day job and hobby has been noted: “…on the one hand, Lieber’s chemistry “has had a defining influence on the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology,” according to his CV. On the other, his pumpkin could probably fill an entire Trader Joe's with pumpkin specialty products for the fall season.”[92]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Charles M. Lieber". Lieber Research Group. Harvard University. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  2. ^ Top 100 Chemists, 2000-2010: Special Report on High-Impact Chemists Archived 2018-12-29 at the Wayback Machine, ScienceWatch, 10 February 2011.
  3. ^ "Lieber Research Group - Former Group Members". Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Dr Lieber was charged in a criminal complaint for failure to disclose Chinese government funding of his research.
  4. ^ "Lieber Research Group - Publications". Archived from the original on 2016-10-30.
  5. ^ a b c d "Lieber Research Group - People - Charles M. Lieber". Archived from the original on 2016-11-10.
  6. ^ "2012 Wolf Prize in Chemistry". Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2020-02-02.
  7. ^ "Acclaimed Harvard Scientist Is Arrested, Accused Of Lying About Ties To China". Retrieved 2020-01-28.
  8. ^ "Harvard University Professor and Two Chinese Nationals Charged in Three Separate China Related Cases". 2020-01-28. Archived from the original on 2020-01-29. Retrieved 2020-01-28.
  9. ^ Leonard, Jenny (December 12, 2019). "China's Thousand Talents Program Finally Gets the U.S.'s Attention". Bloomberg News. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  10. ^ "Harvard department chair, BU researcher charged with concealing ties to China". WCBV5. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  11. ^ a b "An inside line on nanowires". ScienceWatch. 14: 1–5. 2003.
  12. ^ Pease, Arthur F. (Spring 2010). "If nanoelectronics and living cells converge…" (PDF). Pictures of the Future. Siemens: 65. Archived from the original on 2016-11-11.
  13. ^ "Forget what you know about nanotech". Business 2.0. November 2003.
  14. ^ Cromie, William J. (22 July 2004). "A giant step toward miniaturization". Harvard Gazette. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016.
  15. ^ Zhang, Anqi; et al. (2016). Nanowires: Building blocks for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Springer.
  16. ^ Lieber, Charles (2002). "Nanowires take the prize". Materials Today. 5 (2): 48. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(02)05254-9.
  17. ^ "One-dimensional nanostructures: Rational synthesis, novel properties and applications". Proceedings of the Robert A. Welch Foundation 40th Conference on Chemical Research: Chemistry on the Nanometer Scale. 165–187. 1997.
  18. ^ Morales, A. M; Lieber, C. M (1998). "A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires". Science. 279 (5348): 208–11. Bibcode:1998Sci...279..208M. doi:10.1126/science.279.5348.208. PMID 9422689.
  19. ^ Hu, Jiangtao; Ouyang, Min; Yang, Peidong; Lieber, Charles M. (1999). "Controlled growth and electrical properties of heterojunctions of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires". Nature. 399 (6731): 48–51. Bibcode:1999Natur.399...48H. doi:10.1038/19941. S2CID 4352749.
  20. ^ Gudiksen, Mark S.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Wang, Jianfang; Smith, David C.; Lieber, Charles M. (2002). "Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics". Nature. 617–20 (6872): 617–20. Bibcode:2002Natur.415..617G. doi:10.1038/415617a. PMID 11832939. S2CID 4333987.
  21. ^ "Scientists shell out on nanowires"., 8 November 2002. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  22. ^ Gevaux, David (2008). "Quantum wells meet nanowires". Nature Photonics. 2 (10): 594. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.190.
  23. ^ Merali, Zeeya (2010). "Nano-hairpin peeks into cells". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.402.
  24. ^ Wong, Eric W; Sheehan, Paul E; Lieber, Charles M (1997). "Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes". Science. 277 (5334): 1971–1975. doi:10.1126/science.277.5334.1971.
  25. ^ Ouyang, M; Huang, J. L; Cheung, C. L; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Energy gaps in "metallic" single-walled carbon nanotubes". Science. 292 (5517): 702–5. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..702O. doi:10.1126/science.1058853. PMID 11326093. Archived from the original on 2017-09-23. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
  26. ^ Frisbie, C. D; Rozsnyai, L. F; Noy, A; Wrighton, M. S; Lieber, C. M (1994). "Functional group imaging by chemical force microscopy". Science. 265 (5181): 2071–4. Bibcode:1994Sci...265.2071F. doi:10.1126/science.265.5181.2071. PMID 17811409.
  27. ^ "Nanowire transistors outperform silicon switches"., 24 May 2006. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  28. ^ Belzig, Wolfgang (2006). "Super-semiconducting nanowires". Nature Nanotechnology. 1 (3): 167–168. Bibcode:2006NatNa...1..167B. doi:10.1038/nnano.2006.161. PMID 18654178. S2CID 32211652.
  29. ^ Eriksson, Mark A; Friesen, Mark (2007). "Nanowires charge towards integration". Nature Nanotechnology. 2 (10): 595–596. Bibcode:2007NatNa...2..595E. doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.314. PMID 18654378.
  30. ^ Ball, Phillip (16 January 2003). "Lasers slim enough for chips". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news030113-5.
  31. ^ Kim, P; Lieber, C. M (1999). "Nanotube nanotweezers". Science. 286 (5447): 2148–50. doi:10.1126/science.286.5447.2148. PMID 10591644.
  32. ^ Rueckes, T; Kim, K; Joselevich, E; Tseng, G. Y; Cheung, C. L; Lieber, C. M (2000). "Carbon nanotube-based nonvolatile random access memory for molecular computing". Science. 289 (5476): 94–7. Bibcode:2000Sci...289...94R. doi:10.1126/science.289.5476.94. PMID 10884232. Archived from the original on 2017-09-23. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  33. ^ "Nanowire silicon solar cell for powering small circuits". IEEE Spectrum, 18 October 2007. 2007. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  34. ^ Huang, Y; Duan, X; Cui, Y; Lauhon, L. J; Kim, K. H; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Logic gates and computation from assembled nanowire building blocks". Science. 294 (5545): 1313–7. Bibcode:2001Sci...294.1313H. doi:10.1126/science.1066192. PMID 11701922.
  35. ^ "Will 5nm happen?". Semiconductor Engineering, 20 January 2016. 2016-01-20. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016.
  36. ^ Huang, Y; Duan, X; Wei, Q; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Directed assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into functional networks". Science. 291 (5504): 630–3. Bibcode:2001Sci...291..630H. doi:10.1126/science.291.5504.630. PMID 11158671. S2CID 15429898.
  37. ^ "Breakthrough of 2001: Nanoelectronics". Science, 20 December 2001. 2001-12-20. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  38. ^ Yang, C; Zhong, Z; Lieber, C. M (2005). "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires". Science. 310 (5752): 1304–7. Bibcode:2005Sci...310.1304Y. doi:10.1126/science.1118798. PMID 16311329. S2CID 575327.
  39. ^ "Making the world's smallest gadgets even smaller". Harvard Gazette, 9 December 2005. 2005-12-09. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  40. ^ Weiss, Nathan O; Duan, Xiangfeng (2013). "Untangling nanowire assembly". Nature Nanotechnology. 8 (5): 312–313. Bibcode:2013NatNa...8..312W. doi:10.1038/nnano.2013.83. PMID 23648735.
  41. ^ "Scaled-down success: Programmable logic tiles could form basis of nanoprocessors". Scientific American, 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  42. ^ "Nanowire nanocomputer in new complexity record"., 6 February 2014. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  43. ^ Cui, Y; Wei, Q; Park, H; Lieber, C. M (2001). "Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species". Science. 293 (5533): 1289–92. Bibcode:2001Sci...293.1289C. doi:10.1126/science.1062711. PMID 11509722.
  44. ^ "Nanodevices target viruses"., 8 October 2004. 2004-10-08. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  45. ^ Eisenstein, Michael (2005). "Protein detection goes down to the wire". Nature Methods. 2 (11): 804–805. doi:10.1038/nmeth1105-804b. PMID 16285036. S2CID 10269939.
  46. ^ Gao, N; Zhou, W; Jiang, X; Hong, G; Fu, T. M; Lieber, C. M (2015). "General strategy for biodetection in high ionic strength solutions using transistor-based nanoelectronic sensors". Nano Letters. 15 (3): 2143–8. Bibcode:2015NanoL..15.2143G. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00133. PMC 4594804. PMID 25664395.
  47. ^ "Nanowire network measures cells' electrical signals". New Scientist, 22 April 2009. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  48. ^ Pastrana, Erika (2010). "Reading cells from within". Nature Methods. 7 (10): 780–781. doi:10.1038/nmeth1010-780a. PMID 20936771. S2CID 31249789.
  49. ^ "Nanobiotechnology: Tiny cell transistor". Nature. 466 (7309): 904. 2010. Bibcode:2010Natur.466Q.904.. doi:10.1038/466904a. S2CID 7525322.
  50. ^ Lockwood, Tobias (2012). "Nano Focus: Nanoscale transistor measures living cell voltages". MRS Bulletin. 37 (3): 184–186. doi:10.1557/mrs.2012.68.
  51. ^ Kruskal, P. B; Jiang, Z; Gao, T; Lieber, C. M (2015). "Beyond the patch clamp: Nanotechnologies for intracellular recording". Neuron. 86 (1): 21–4. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.01.004. PMID 25856481. S2CID 16548874.
  52. ^ "Harvard scientists use nanowires to connect neurons". Solid State Technology, 25 August 2006. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  53. ^ Xie, C; Cui, Y (2010). "Nanowire platform for mapping neural circuits". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (10): 4489–90. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.4489X. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000450107. PMC 2842070. PMID 20194753.
  54. ^ Qing, Q; Jiang, Z; Xu, L; Gao, R; Mai, L; Lieber, C. M (2014). "Free-standing kinked nanowire transistor probes for targeted intracellular recording in three dimensions". Nature Nanotechnology. 9 (2): 142–7. Bibcode:2014NatNa...9..142Q. doi:10.1038/nnano.2013.273. PMC 3946362. PMID 24336402. S2CID 4293027.
  55. ^ "Integrating man and machine". Chemical & Engineering News. 90 (52): 22. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  56. ^ Hong, G.; Fu, T. M.; Qiao, M.; Viveros, R. D.; Yang, X.; Zhou, T.; Lee, J. M.; Park, H. G.; Sanes, J. R.; Lieber, C. M. (2018). "A method for single-neuron chronic recording from the retina in awake mice". Science. 360 (6396): 1447–1451. Bibcode:2018Sci...360.1447H. doi:10.1126/science.aas9160. PMC 6047945. PMID 29954976. S2CID 49535811.
  57. ^ "Syringe-injectable mesh electronics for stable chronic rodent electrophysiology". J. Vis. Exp. 137: e58003. 2018.
  58. ^ a b Liu, J; Fu, T. M; Cheng, Z; Hong, G; Zhou, T; Jin, L; Duvvuri, M; Jiang, Z; Kruskal, P; Xie, C; Suo, Z; Fang, Y; Lieber, C. M (2015). "Syringe-injectable electronics". Nature Nanotechnology. 10 (7): 629–636. Bibcode:2015NatNa..10..629L. doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.115. PMC 4591029. PMID 26053995.
  59. ^ Xie, C; Liu, J; Fu, T. M; Dai, X; Zhou, W; Lieber, C. M (2015). "Three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks as minimally invasive brain probes". Nature Materials. 14 (12): 1286–92. Bibcode:2015NatMa..14.1286X. doi:10.1038/nmat4427. PMID 26436341.
  60. ^ Jarchum, Irene (2015). "A flexible mesh to record the brain". Nature Biotechnology. 33 (8): 830. doi:10.1038/nbt.3316. PMID 26252143. S2CID 26926468.
  61. ^ Fu, T. M; Hong, G; Zhou, T; Schuhmann, T. G; Viveros, R. D; Lieber, C. M (2016). "Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level". Nature Methods. 13 (10): 875–82. doi:10.1038/nmeth.3969. PMID 27571550. S2CID 205425194.
  62. ^ "Injectable nanowires monitor mouse brains for months". IEEE Spectrum, 29 August 2016. 2016-08-29. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  63. ^ "World changing ideas 2015". Scientific American Special Report, 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016.
  64. ^ "Top research of 2015: Flexible electronics you can inject". Chemical & Engineering News Top Research of 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-11-07.
  65. ^ "MRS Medal".
  66. ^ "ACS Award in the Chemistry of Materials". Archived from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  67. ^ "Award for Research Excellence in Nanotechnology". UPenn Nano/Bio Interface Center. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  68. ^ "Inorganic Nanoscience Award to Charles Lieber". Chemical and Engineering News. 87 (16): 58. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  69. ^ "Science Society Kavli Lecturers | the Kavli Foundation". Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  70. ^ "2012 Wolf Prize in Chemistry". ChemistryViews. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  71. ^ "Springer and Tsinghua University Press award Nano Research Award". 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  72. ^ Morris, James (September 2013). "IEEE Nanotechnology Council Announces 2013 Winners". IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine: 30–31. doi:10.1109/MNANO.2013.2260465.
  73. ^ "Willard Gibbs Medal Award". Archived from the original on 2018-02-06. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  74. ^ "Charles M. Lieber Awarded the Materials Research Society's Highest Honor". 9 December 2016. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  75. ^ Wang, Linda (15 February 2016). "Remsen Award to Charles Lieber". Chemical & Engineering News. 94 (7): 33. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018 – via American Chemical Society.
  76. ^ "NIH Director's Pioneer Award Program - Award Recipients". Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  77. ^ "Charles M. Lieber awarded the 2018 Kirkwood Medal". 26 February 2018.
  78. ^ "Welch Award 2019". Archived from the original on 2019-10-09. Retrieved 2019-09-10.
  79. ^ "12 famous scientists elected 2015 CAS Foreign Members". Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASAD), November 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-04-22.
  80. ^ "Chemistry professor Charles Lieber granted the honorary title of Fellow of the Chinese Chemical Society [in Chinese]". Chinese Chemical Society, October 25, 2009. Retrieved 2016-09-15. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016.
  81. ^ "AFFIDAVIT IN SUPPORT OF APPLICATION FOR CRIMINAL COMPLAINT (AGAINST CHARLES M. LIEBER) by Robert Plumb , FBI Special Agent". US Department of Justice. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  82. ^ "Harvard scientist charged with lying about ties to Chinese university; two Chinese nationals accused of economic espionage - The Boston Globe". Archived from the original on 2020-01-28. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  83. ^ "Harvard University Professor Indicted on False Statement Charges - Justice News". Retrieved 2020-06-11.
  84. ^ "Charles Lieber". Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  85. ^ Lieber, Charles M. (2001). "The incredible shrinking circuit". Scientific American. 285 (3): 50–6. Bibcode:2001SciAm.285c..58L. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0901-58. PMID 11524970.
  86. ^ "Jewish Recipients of the Wolf Prize".
  87. ^ Mahoney, Bryan (11 October 2007). "Journey of the great pumpkins". YouTube.
  88. ^ "Harvard Professor's Arrest Raises Questions About Scientific Openness : Short Wave". Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  89. ^ "Frerich's Farm Newsletter/November 2010". Archived from the original on 2016-11-07.
  90. ^ a b "Chem professor grows Mass.'s largest pumpkin, no plans for pie". The Harvard Crimson. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016.
  91. ^ "Nanoscientist grows giant pumpkin, crabs in costume". Chemical and Engineering News 92(43):40. 2014. Archived from the original on 2016-11-07.
  92. ^ "Harvard chemist grows insanely large pumpkin". Boston Magazine. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016.

External links[edit]