Chilean Gendarmerie

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Chilean Gendarmerie
Gendarmería de Chile
Escudo Gendarmería de Chile.svg
AbbreviationGENCHI
MottoLabor Omnia Vincit. Deus Patria Lex
Work conquers everything. God, Country, Law
Agency overview
FormedNovember 30, 1929
Preceding agency
  • Cuerpo de Gendarmería de Prisiones
Jurisdictional structure
National agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
Chile
Operations jurisdictionChile
Legal jurisdictionAs per operations jurisdiction
General nature
Operational structure
Overviewed byDirección Nacional
HeadquartersSantiago de Chile

Agency executive
  • Jaime Rojas Flores, National Director of the Gendarmerie
Website
http://www.gendarmeria.cl

The Chilean Gendarmerie, in Spanish Gendarmería de Chile, (abbreviated to GENCHI) is the title of Chile's uniformed national prison service. The title is historic, and the service is not an actual gendarmerie.[1] The service evolved out of Chilean Army units which were given police and prison duties.

It is an armed service responsible to the Ministry of Justice. It has two mottoes, "Labor Omnia Vincit" ("Work conquers everything"), and "Deus Patria Lex" (God, Country, Law). Its symbol is a castle.

The service is currently led by Director General of the Gendarmerie Jaime Rojas Flores, appointed to this role by the Chilean president in 2016.

Early History[edit]

Chilean Army units were used for policing and guarding prisons from the time of Chile's independence. Chile's first "professional" prison was built in Santiago in 1843. In 1871 the "Special Guard" was created (Guardia Especial) which was Chile's first prison service separate from the army.

A Gendarme battalion, the Bulnes Battalion, fought as part of the Chilean Army during the War of the Pacific.

In 1892, under the government of Admiral Jorge Montt, the service was called "Special Guards of the Prisons of Chile" (Guardias Especiales de las Prisiones de Chile) and was responsible for prisons, executions, and prisoner transport.

Modern History[edit]

In 1911, under the government of Ramón Barros Luco, the Special Guards experienced some reforms and the title "Prison Gendarmerie Corps" was adopted (Cuerpo de Gendarmería de Prisiones). It had the additional duty of guarding prisoners in court. The vast majority of members of this new service were seconded from the Army, including officers and other ranks - the very reason for the current military heritage of today's organization. A law was passed in 1921, Law N° 3.815, concerning the organization of the service. (From 1930 until today November 30 - the day the law took effect after its approval - is considered to be the anniversary of the Gendarmerie.)

A Prison Gendarmerie School was established in 1928 to train personnel, and from 1944 onward, became the officer training school of the service.

From 1929 until 1931, the service was part of the Carabiniers of Chile, the national Gendarmerie proper. During this time, it was known within the carabiniers as the Prison Service, and its members were "Prison Carabiniers". From 1931, the title "Prison Service" was used, and the service regained its independence.

In 1944 an academy was founded, called the Penitentiary School of Chile, which in 1954 became the Technical School of Prison Security Services.

During the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, the current title of "Gendarmería de Chile" was adopted, and a new grey-green uniform was adopted which was inspired by German army uniforms of World War II. The Gendarmerie's Penological Education Academy, the staff college of the service for all junior officers, was established in 1997.

Organization[edit]

The Chilean Gendarmerie is a service which is influenced by and actively maintains its historic links with the Chilean army. As a result, it is an armed uniformed service of a para-military character, and it is organized on a para-military basis using army ranks. However the rank of Director General can be filled by either a veteran officer of the force or a civilian, in either case under the appointment and confidence of the President. The current rank system dates from 2010 and is based on the historical ranks of the service.

Ranks of the Gendarmerie[edit]

Gendarmes of the ranks
Gendarms of the ranks are those that graduate from the Gendarmerie's Penitentiary Formation School.

  • Gendarme Alumno - Student Gendarme
  • Gendarme - Gendarme
  • Gendarme Segundo - Gendarme 2nd Class
  • Gendarme Primero - Gendarme 1st Class
  • Cabo - Lance Corporal
  • Cabo Segundo - Corporal
  • Cabo Primero - Corporal First Class
  • Sargento Segundo - Sergeant 2nd Class
  • Sargento Primero - Sergeant 1st Class
  • Suboficial - Sub-Officer
  • Suboficial Mayor - Senior Sub-Officer

Officers
All future officers study at the "Pres. Gen. Manuel Bulnes Prieto" Gendarmerie Academy in Santiago de Chile and upon graduation are commissioned as sub-lieutenants.

The Gendarmiere also maintains a civilian technical and administrative corps, and although they report to both officers and gendarmes, they wear no uniforms at all.

Rank insignia[edit]

Dress High Command Senior officers Head officers Junior officers Student officers
Uniform coat SS.OO.1.GEND.DIRECTOR GENERAL.svg SS.OO.1.GEND.SUBDIRECTOR.svg Presilla Coronel de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Tte Coronel de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Mayor de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Capitán de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Teniente 1° de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Teniente 2° de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Subteniente de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla de Aspirante a Oficial de Gendarmería de Chile.png
Shirt
Raincoat
Parka
Pala Director Nacional de Gendarmería 2.jpg Pala Subdirector Operativo de Gendarmería 2.jpg Pala Coronel de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Tte Coronel de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Mayor de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Capitán de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Teniente 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Teniente 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Subteniente de Gendarmería.jpg
Inside Parche Director Nacional de Gendarmería 2.jpg Parche Subdirector Operativo de Gendarmería1.jpg Parche Coronel de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Tte Coronel de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Mayor de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Capitán de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Teniente 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Teniente 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Subteniente de Gendarmería.jpg
Ranks Director nacional Subdirector operativo Coronel Teniente coronel Mayor Capitán Teniente 1° Teniente 2° Subteniente Aspirante a oficial
Abbreviation DIREC NAC SDO CRNL TTE CRNL MAY CAP TTE 1° TTE 2° SUB TTE A.A.O.O
Dress
Warrant Officer
NCOs
Corporals
Gendarms
Students
Uniform coat Presilla Suboficial Mayor de Gendarmeria.jpg Presilla Suboficial de Gendarmeria.jpg Pentágono Sargento 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pentágono Sargento 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Pentágono Cabo 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pentágono Cabo 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Pentágono Cabo de Gendarmería.jpg Pentágono Gendarme 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pentágono Gendarme 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Distintivo de grado de Gendarme de Gendarmería de Chile.png Presilla de Gendarme Alumno Gendarmería de Chile.png
Shirt
Raincoat
Parka
Pala Suboficial Mayor de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Suboficial de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Sargento 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Sargento 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Cabo 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Cabo 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Cabo de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Gendarme 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Pala Gendarme 2° de Gendarmería.jpg
Inside Parche Suboficial Mayor de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Suboficial de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Sargento 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Sargento 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Cabo 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Cabo 2° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Cabo de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Gendarme 1° de Gendarmería.jpg Parche Gendarme 2° de Gendarmería.jpg
Ranks Suboficial Mayor Suboficial Sargento 1° Sargento 2° Cabo 1º Cabo 2º Cabo Gendarme 1° Gendarme 2° Gendarme Gendarme Alumno

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as "gendarmes as a body"

External links[edit]