The Chilihueque or Hueque was a South American camelid variety or species that existed in central and south-central Chile in Pre-Hispanic and colonial times. There are two main hypotheses on their status among South American camelids: the first one suggests that they are locally domesticated guanacos and the second that they are a variety of llamas brought from the north into south-central Chile. The alpaca has also been suggested as a possible identity.
Chilihueque populations declined towards extinction in the 16th and 17th century, being replaced by European livestock. The causes of its extinction are not clear but it is known that the introduction of sheep caused some competition among both domestic species. Anecdotal evidence of the mid-17th century show that both species coexisted but suggests that there were many more sheep than chilihueqes. The decline of chilihueques reached a point in the late 18th century when, according to Tomás Guevara, only the Mapuche from Mariquina and Huequén next to Angol raised the animal.
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