Chronology of Gabon
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The African nation of Gabon has had human inhabitants for perhaps 400,000 years. Bantu peoples settled here from the 11th century. The coastline first became known to Europeans through Portuguese and Dutch sailors. Colonised by the French in the 19th century, Gabon became independent in 1960.
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|History of Gabon|
-400 000 years: shaped stones found near Otoumbi in the middle of the country, attest to inhabitation beginning in this period.
-12 000 years: axes and arrow heads dating to this period are found in Moyen-Ogooué province and in the southern part of the country.
-5 000: The first pygmies people the territory of the current Gabon.
Iron Age: iron metallurgy in Gabon, attested to by traces found in several sites.
11th century: Bantu migrations, coming from the north. Little by little the Bantu begin to outnumber the pygmies.
1698: Dutch sailors destroy several Mpongwé villages in the Gabon estuary.
1722: the pirate captain Bartholomew Roberts is killed by the English navy off Cape Lopez.
1839: the Mpongwe chief Denis Rapontchombo authorizes the French to settle on the left bank of the Komo estuary.
1841: the "king" Louis Dowe in turn authorises the French to settle the right bank of the estuary.
1843: construction of Fort-d'Aumale, first permanent French settlement on the Komo estuary.
1862: treaty establishing French sovereignty over Cap Lopez.
1886: Gabon becomes a French colony.
1889: the Woermann company exports the first okoumé to Hamburg.
1896: Awandji took the Lastourville outpost and kill the French administrator.
1898: The concessionary companies are allocated vast territories which they put in regulated sections.
1899: André Raponda-Walker is the first Gabonese ordained as a priest.
1900: determination of the border between Gabon and Spanish Guinea.
1900: death in captivity, in Gabon, of Samory Touré.
1908: pacification of Haut-Ivindo by capitain Fabiani. who founds the Makokou outpost.
1911: France cedes Woleu-Ntem to Germany, which attaches it to Cameroon.
1911: surrender of the Bakaya chief, Maruvulu, after several years of guerilla warfare.
1913: the Mitsogo chief Mbombé dies in prison at Mouila.
1914–1915: fighting in Woleu-Ntem between Senegalese sharpshooters and German troops from the Cameroon. Collapse of okoumé market, which had primarily been exported to Germany. Gabonese forced to harvest rubber or palm kernels to pay head tax, men also forcibly recruited to serve as porters in military campaigns.
1922: the administrator Montespan signs a peace treaty with Chief Wongo, halting the guerilla actions of the Awandji.
1929: the surrender of chief Wongo ends the uprising of the Awandji of l'Ogooué-Lolo.
1940: the colony of Gabon rallies to the Free French (France libre) after several battles between Vichyste and Gaullistes.
1946: Jean-Hilaire Aubame, founder of the Union Démocratique et Sociale du Gabon, is the first Gabonese elected to the French National Assembly.
1946: Haut-Ogooué is definitively attached to Gabon.
1946: Abolition of forced labor
1956: first oil wells, at Ozouri, by the la Société des Pétroles d'Afrique Équatoriale, the future Elf-Gabon.
1958: Gabon becomes an autonomous state within the framework of the Communauté française.
1960: the Republic of Gabon becomes an independent state.
1961: Léon Mba is elected president of the Republic.
1962: COMILOG (Compagnie Minière de l'Ogooué) begins mining manganese.
1964: attempted military coup d'état against Léon Mba fails due to French military intervention.
1968: president Bongo installs a single-party régime.
1970: the first buildings open at the university of Libreville.
1975: Gabon becomes a member of OPEC.
1977: creation of the state-owned compagny Air Gabon.
1977: summit meeting of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in Libreville.
1978: the Gabonese government expels thousands of nationals of Benin.
1981: founding of MORENA (MOuvement de REdressement NAtional), unsanctioned opposition party.
1981: Gabon expels several thousand nationals of Cameroon.
1981: Omar Bongo is received by Ronald Reagan in Washington.
1983: official visit of François Mitterrand, president of the French republic.
1983: creation in Libreville of the CICIBA (Centre International des CIvilisations BAntoues, International Center of Bantu Civilizations).
1985: capital execution of captain Alexandre Mandja Ngokouta in Libreville.
1986: inauguration of the Libreville-Franceville railway line (le Transgabonais).
1990: after a period of political unrest, re-establishment of multipartisme.
1990: French military intervention at Port-Gentil and at Libreville to evacuate foreign nationals (opération Requin).
1994: Gabon leaves OPEC.
1995: Gabonese police expel thousands of undocumented foreigners ("sans-papiers").
1998: re-election of Omar Bongo to the presidency.
2002: Paul Mba Abessole becomes minister of human rights of president Bongo.
2005: unsurprising reelection of Omar Bongo Ondimba to the presidency.
2006: liquidation of the state compagny Air Gabon, which had been struggling for years with financial difficulties.
2007: creation of the private company Gabon Airlines.
2009: death of Omar Bongo 7 June.
2009: election of Ali Bongo Ondimba, minister of defense et son of Omar Bongo Ondimba (30 August).
2013: liquidation of Gabon Airlines.
- Philippe Lemarchand (1994). 'Afrique et l'Europe: atlas du XXe siècle (in French). Éditions Complexe. p. 180. ISBN 978-2870275184 – via Google Books.
- Liz Alden Wily (2012). "Land Rights in Gabon: Facing Up to the Past – and Present" (PDF). FERN. p. 20.
- Liz Alden Wily (April 2012). "Land Rights in Gabon: Facing Up to the Past – and Present" (PDF). FERN. p. 102.
- Loic Ntoutoume (29 July 2015). "Ces assassinats jamais élucidés" (in French). Gabon Review.
- "Que retenir du règne des Bongo après "un demi-siècle" de pouvoir sans partage ?" (in French). Info241. 17 November 2014.
- POLITIQUE AFRICAINE N-115. Fin de règne au Gabon (in French). Karthala Editions. 2009. p. 82. ISBN 978-2811132040 – via Google Books.
- "PÈLERINAGE APOSTOLIQUE AU NIGERIA, AU BÉNIN, AU GABON ET EN GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE: DISCOURS DE JEAN-PAUL II À L'ARRIVÉE EN GABON". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 17 February 1982.
- Institut für Afrika-Kunde; Rolf Hofmeier, eds. (1990). "Gabun". Afrika Jahrbuch 1989 (in German). Germany: Leske + Budrich. doi:10.1007/978-3-322-92639-5. ISBN 978-3-8100-0831-2. OCLC 19093344.
Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Afrika südlich der Sahara
- "Gabon". Political Chronology of Africa. Political Chronologies of the World. Europa Publications. 2001. p. 181+. ISBN 978-0203409954.
- Douglas A. Yates (2013). "Gabon". In Andreas Mehler; et al. (eds.). Africa Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2012. 9. Koninklijke Brill. p. 261+. ISSN 1871-2525.
- "Gabon Profile: Timeline". BBC News. 15 January 2019.