Climate of Antarctica
Antarctica has the coldest climate on the Earth. Antarctica's lowest air temperature record was set on 21 July 1983, with −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Station. Satellite measurements have identified even lower ground temperatures, down to −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) at the cloud free East Antarctic Plateau on 10 August 2010. It is also extremely dry (technically a desert), averaging 166 mm (6.5 in) of precipitation per year. On most parts of the continent the snow rarely melts and is eventually compressed to become the glacier ice that makes up the ice sheet. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, because of the katabatic winds. Most of Antarctica has an ice cap climate (Köppen EF) with very cold, generally extremely dry weather.
The lowest reliably measured temperature of a continuously occupied station on Earth of −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) was on 21 July 1983 at Vostok Station. For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (19.3 °F) colder than subliming dry ice (at sea level pressure). The altitude of the location is 3,900 meters (12,800 feet).
The lowest recorded temperature of any location on Earth's surface was −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) at , which is on an unnamed Antarctic plateau between Dome A and Dome F, on 10 August 2010. The temperature was deduced from radiance measured by the Landsat 8 satellite, and discovered during a National Snow and Ice Data Center review of stored data in December, 2013. This temperature is not directly comparable to the -89.2 quoted above, since it is a skin temperature deduced from satellite-measured upwelling radiance, rather than a thermometer-measured temperature of the air 1.5 m (4.9 ft) above the ground surface.
The highest temperature ever recorded in Antarctica was 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) at Esperanza Base, on the Antarctic Peninsula, on 24 March 2015. The mean annual temperature of the interior is −57 °C (−70.6 °F). The coast is warmer. Monthly means at McMurdo Station range from −26 °C (−14.8 °F) in August to −3 °C (26.6 °F) in January. At the South Pole, the highest temperature ever recorded was −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) on 25 December 2011. Along the Antarctic Peninsula, temperatures as high as 15 °C (59 °F) have been recorded,[clarification needed] though the summer temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F) most of the time. Severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean. East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation. The Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate. Higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing.
The total precipitation on Antarctica, averaged over the entire continent, is about 166 millimetres (6.5 inches) per year (Vaughan et al., J Climate, 1999). The actual rates vary widely, from high values over the Peninsula (15 to 25 inches a year) to very low values (as little as 50 millimetres (2.0 inches) in the high interior (Bromwich, Reviews of Geophysics, 1988). Areas that receive less than 250 millimetres (9.8 inches) of precipitation per year are classified as deserts. Almost all Antarctic precipitation falls as snow. Rainfall is rare and mainly occurs during the summer in coastal areas and surrounding islands. Note that the quoted precipitation is a measure of its equivalence to water, rather than being the actual depth of snow. The air in Antarctica is also very dry. The low temperatures result in a very low absolute humidity, which means that dry skin and cracked lips are a continual problem for scientists and expeditioners working in the continent.
Weather condition classification
The weather in Antarctica can be highly variable, and the weather conditions can often change dramatically in short periods of time. There are various classifications for describing weather conditions in Antarctica; restrictions given to workers during the different conditions vary by station and nation. In Antarctic, there are different stations scattered everywhere in Antarctica, 16 total in Antarctica (Amery, Burger Hills, Cape Poinsett, Casey, Davis, Dumont D'urville, Haupt Nunatak, Law Dome, Mawson, McMurdo, Mirnyj, Novolazarevskaja, Skiway South, Syowa, Whoop Whoop and Wilkins Runway) and one in sub-Antarctica (Macquarie Island). The three places that have the lowest temperature are Amery, Law Dome and Wilkins Runway (temperature in order: -24.1, -12.8,-10.2).
Nearly all of Antarctica is covered by a sheet of ice that is, on average, a mile thick or more (1.6 km). Antarctica contains 90% of the world's ice and more than 70% of its fresh water. If all the land-ice covering Antarctica were to melt — around 30 million cubic kilometres (7.2 million cubic miles) of ice — the seas would rise by over 60 metres (200 feet). This is, however, very unlikely within the next few centuries. The Antarctic is so cold that even with increases of a few degrees, temperatures would generally remain below the melting point of ice. Higher temperatures are expected to lead to more snow, which would increase the amount of ice in Antarctica, offsetting approximately one third of the expected sea level rise from thermal expansion of the oceans. During a recent decade, East Antarctica thickened at an average rate of about 1.8 centimetres per year while West Antarctica showed an overall thinning of 0.9 centimetres per year. For the contribution of Antarctica to present and future sea level change, see sea level rise. Because ice flows, albeit slowly, the ice within the ice sheet is younger than the age of the sheet itself.
|Percent||Mean ice thickness
|Inland ice sheet||11,965,700||85.97||2,450||29,324,700||97.00|
|Glacier ice (total)||13,586,380||2,160||30,109,800¹|
|¹The total ice volume is different from the sum of the component parts because individual figures have been rounded.|
|West Antarctica (excluding Antarctic Peninsula)|
|Inland ice sheet||1,809,760||1,780||3,221,400|
|Inland ice sheet||300,380||610||183,200|
|Ross Ice Shelf|
|Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf|
This section needs attention from an expert in glaciers. The specific problem is: unintelligible English and lack of clarity.(April 2017)
About 75% of the coastline of Antarctica is ice shelves. The utmost parts consist of floating ice until the grounding line of land based glaciers is reached, which is determined through affords such as Operation IceBridge. Ice shelves lose mass through iceberg breakup (calving), or basal melting (at the foot of the glacier, when warm ocean water impacts), and this can affect ice sheet stability when the land based glaciers start to retreat; melting or breakup of floating shelf ice does not directly affect global sea levels, however, when sea ice freezes, it preferentially expels salt, in the process becoming purer than the sea water it is floating in. Pure water is less dense than salty water, so when the ice melts it will overflow the 'hole in the water' that the ice had occupied, and when it overflows, it raises the water level.
Known changes in coastline ice:
- Around the Antarctic Peninsula:
- 1936–1989: Wordie Ice Shelf significantly reduced in size.
- 1995: Ice in the Prince Gustav Channel disintegrated.
- Parts of the Larsen Ice Shelf broke up in recent decades.
- 1995: The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in January 1995.
- 2001: 3,250 square kilometres (1,250 square miles) of the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated in February 2001. It had been gradually retreating before the breakup event.
- 2015: A study concluded that the remaining Larsen B ice-shelf will disintegrate by the end of the decade, based on observations of faster flow and rapid thinning of glaciers in the area.
The George VI Ice Shelf, which may be on the brink of instability, has probably existed for approximately 8,000 years, after melting 1,500 years earlier. Warm ocean currents may have been the cause of the melting. Not only the ice sheets are losing mass, but they are losing mass at an accelerating rate.
The continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is positive and significant at >0.05 °C/decade since 1957. The West Antarctic ice sheet has warmed by more than 0.1 °C/decade in the last 50 years, and is strongest in winter and spring. Although this is partly offset by fall cooling in East Antarctica, this effect is restricted to the 1980s and 1990s.
Research published in 2009 found that overall the continent had become warmer since the 1950s, a finding consistent with the influence of man-made climate change:
- "We can't pin it down, but it certainly is consistent with the influence of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels", said NASA scientist Drew Shindell, another study co-author. Some of the effects also could be natural variability, he said.
- West Antarctic ice loss could contribute to 1.4 metres (4 feet 7 inches) sea level rise
- Antarctica predicted to warm by around 3 °C (5.4 °F) over this century
- 10% increase in sea ice around the Antarctic
- Rapid ice loss in parts of the Antarctic
- Warming of the Southern Ocean will cause changes in Antarctic ecosystem
- Hole in ozone layer, which has shielded most of Antarctica from global warming
The area of strongest cooling appears at the South Pole, and the region of strongest warming lies along the Antarctic Peninsula. A possible explanation is that loss of UV-absorbing ozone may have cooled the stratosphere and strengthened the polar vortex, a pattern of spinning winds around the South Pole. The vortex acts like an atmospheric barrier, preventing warmer, coastal air from moving into the continent's interior. A stronger polar vortex might explain the cooling trend in the interior of Antarctica.
In their latest study (20 September 2007) NASA researchers have confirmed that Antarctic snow is melting farther inland from the coast over time, melting at higher altitudes than ever and increasingly melting on Antarctica's largest ice shelf.
Researchers reported on 21 December 2012 in Nature Geoscience that from 1958 to 2010, the average temperature at the mile-high Byrd Station rose by 2.4 °C (4.3 °F), with warming fastest in its winter and spring. The spot which is in the heart of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the fastest-warming places on Earth. In 2015, the temperature showed changes but in a stable manner and the only months that have drastic change in that year are August and September. It also did show that the temperature was very stable throughout the year.
- Antarctica cooling controversy
- Global warming in Antarctica
- Climate of the Arctic
- Effects of global warming
- Retreat of glaciers since 1850
- Polar amplification
- The Coldest Place on Earth: -90°C and below from Landsat 8 and other satellite thermal sensors, Ted Scambos, Allen Pope, Garrett Campbell, and Terry Haran, American Geophysical Union fall meeting, 9 December 2013.
- Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite, Jonathan Amos, BBC News, 9 December 2013.
- Budretsky, A.B. (1984). "New absolute minimum of air temperature". Bulletin of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (in Russian). Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat (105).
- "World: Lowest Temperature - ASU World Meteorological Organization". asu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16.
- Natasha Vizcarra (2013-12-09). "Landsat 8 helps unveil the coldest place on Earth". National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
- Jonathan Amos (2013-12-09). "Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite". BBC News Science & Environment. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
- "Antarctic weather". www.antarctica.gov.au.
- "Climate statistics for Australian locations". www.bom.gov.au.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- "WMO Region VII (Antarctica mainland & adjoining islands): Highest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Antarctica Climate data and graphs, South Pole, McMurdo and Vostok". coolantarctica.com.
- Matthew A. Lazzara (2011-12-28). "Preliminary Report: Record Temperatures at South Pole (and nearby AWS sites…)". Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "La Antártida" (in Spanish). Dirección Nacional del Antártico. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- "Latest Weather Observations for Antarctica". www.bom.gov.au.
- "Weathering The Conditions" (PDF). The Antarctic Sun. 18 October 1997. p. 8. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- Jim Scott. "Weather and Travel" (PDF). Welcome to McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station. p. 6. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- "Field Manual" (PDF). Antarctica New Zealand. New Zealand Government. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- "Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis". Grida.no. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- "Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis". Grida.no. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- Davis; et al. (2005). "Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise,". Science. 308 (5730): 1898–1901. Bibcode:2005Sci...308.1898D. doi:10.1126/science.1110662. PMID 15905362.
- "Does Melting Sea Ice Raise Sea Levels? - Peace Legacy". peacelegacy.org.
- E. Rignot; S. Jacobs; J. Mouginot; B. Scheuchl. "Ice-Shelf Melting Around Antarctica". Science. 341: 266–270. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..266R. doi:10.1126/science.1235798. PMID 23765278.
- NASA (14 May 2015). "NASA Study Shows Antarctica's Larsen B Ice Shelf Nearing Its Final Act".
- Mike Bentley; Dominic Hodgson. "Millennial-scale variability of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula". Natural Environment Research Council. Archived from the original on 12 September 2002. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- Bentley, M.J. (1), Hjort, C. (2) Ingolfsson, O. (3) and Sugden, D.E. (4). "Holocene Instability of the George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula". Archived from the original on 20 October 2004. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- "Press Release – New Year?s Honours for British Antarctic Survey Personnel". British Antarctic Survey. 2006-01-05. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- "NASA - Is Antarctica Melting?". www.nasa.gov.
- Tenney Naumer. "Climate Change: The Next Generation". climatechangepsychology.blogspot.com.
- Retrieved=2009-01-22 Archived December 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v457/n7228/full/nature07669.html Retrieved=2009-01-22
- "Global warming hitting all of Antarctica: scientists". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Antarctica study challenges warming skeptics, Jan 21, 2009
- "NASA - NASA Researchers Find Snowmelt in Antarctica Creeping Inland". nasa.gov.
- IPCC 2007, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 2007, page 376.
- Nicolas, Julien. "Reconstructed Byrd temperature record". polarmet.osu.edu.
- Witze, Alexandra (14 April 2014). "West Antarctica warming fast".
- "Map of Antarctica and annual spatial footprint of the Byrd temperature record. : Central West Antarctica among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth". Nature Geoscience. 6: 139–145. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..139B. doi:10.1038/ngeo1671.
- Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.; Monaghan, A. J.; Lazzara, M. A.; Keller, L. M.; Weidner, G. A.; Wilson, A. B. (2012). "Central West Antarctica among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth". Nature Geoscience. 6 (2): 139–145. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..139B. doi:10.1038/ngeo1671.
- D. G. Vaughan; G. J. Marshall; W. M. Connolley; J. C. King; R. M. Mulvaney (2001). "Devil in the detail". Science. 293 (5536): 1777–9. doi:10.1126/science.1065116. PMID 11546858.
- M.J. Bentley; D.A. Hodgson; D.E. Sugden; S.J. Roberts; J.A. Smith; M.J. Leng; C. Bryant (2005). "Early Holocene retreat of the George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula". Geology. 33 (3): 173–6. Bibcode:2005Geo....33..173B. doi:10.1130/G21203.1.
- Warm Snap Turned Antarctica Green Around the Edges; Thawed-out continent was lined with trees 15 million years ago, study says. June 20, 2012 National Geographic
- Taking Antarctica's temperature; Frozen continent may not be immune to global warming July 27, 2013; Vol.184 #2 Science News
- Climate data from Antarctic surface stations with trends
- Temperature data from the READER project
- A pamphlet about the weather and climate of Antarctica
- Antarctica's central ice cap grows while glaciers melt
- "AWS and AMRC Real-Time Weather Observations and Data". University of Wisconsin-Madison's Antarctic Weather Stations Project and Antarctic Meteorological Research Center. Retrieved May 31, 2005.
- Antarctica Climate and Weather
Climate change in Antarctica
- Western Antarctica warming confirmed December 23, 2012 USA Today
- NASA experts explain ice melt in Antarctica (2014)
- "Sea Ice Index – Trends in extent – Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic)". National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved Jan 9, 2009.
- "Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of Antarctica". USGS Fact Sheet 2005–3055. Retrieved May 31, 2005.
- "Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of Antarctica". USGS Fact Sheet 050–98. Retrieved February 28, 2005.
- "Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Eights Coast area, Antarctica; 1972–2001". U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Series Map, I-2600-E. Retrieved February 28, 2005.
- "Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Bakutis Coast area, Antarctica; 1972–2002". U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Series Map, I-2600-F. Retrieved February 28, 2005.
- "Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica; 1972–1997". U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Series Map, I-2600-G. Retrieved February 28, 2005.
- "Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World – Antarctica". U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-B. Retrieved February 28, 2005.