Coal in Russia

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Coal is one of the largest sources of energy in Russia, accounting for 14.4% of the country's electricity consumption.[1] The prominence of coal power in Russia has been declining since 1990, although Russia has among the largest coal reserves in the world.[2] Russia is the fifth largest consumer of coal in the world and is the sixth largest producer of coal.[3]

Coal reserves[edit]

Russia has the second largest coal reserves in the world, equaling 19% of the world's total. The total coal reserves in Russia amount to 173 billion tons.[3] This puts Russia behind the United States in total coal reserves, which has 263 billion tons (see coal in the United States).[4][5] Most of Russia's coal reserves are in the Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins.[6]

Coal production[edit]

Russia is currently sixth in the world in terms of coal production. It produced 323 million tons of coal in 2009, roughly 4% of the world's total production.[5][3] As the overall Russian economy shrank in the 1990s following the fall of the Soviet Union and transition to a market economy, coal production decreased as well, falling from a production of 425 million tons in 1988 to 232 million tons in 1998.

Coal production began to rise as the Russian economy rebounded following the 1998 financial crisis, but failed to reach Soviet-era production levels as it peaked at 329 million tons in 2008.[4][5] Production once again declined with the effects from the 2008 global economic downturn and as world coal prices fell.[7] Coal prices began to recover in 2010 and supported an almost 10 percent rise in Russian production until 2012. The trend continued even as world coal prices fell, as the devaluation of the ruble made Russian coal exports more competitive globally.[7]

The major areas of coal production are the Donets, Moscow, Pechora, Kuznetsk, Kansk-Achinsk, Irkutsk and South Yakutsk basins.[6] Over two-thirds of coal produced in Russia is used domestically.[4]

Year Coal Production
(Million tons)
1988 425
1990 395
1998 232
2000 258
2003 277
2004 284
2005 300
2006 309
2008 329
2009 323
2013 350
2014 357
2015 371
2016 383

Coal consumption[edit]

Russia is self-sufficient in coal, and consumed 223 million tons of coal in 2009.[4] The percentage of coal in Russian power generation has been declining since 1990, when it was 20.7%, due to increasing gas consumption as well as increasing nuclear and hydroelectric energy production.[2] Currently only 14.4% of Russia's power is produced from coal.[1]

Personal ranks and rank insignia[edit]

In 1947, personal ranks were introduced for the personnel of the coal industry and mining construction, as well as uniforms with rank insignia on the collar patches of [tunics, jackets, great coats, and summer blouses.[9] The personal ranks were abolished in 1954, for the coal industry and mining construction, as well as for most other civilian departments and agencies.[10]

Collar patches 1947-mup-pet01.png 1947-mup-pet03.png 1947-mup-pet05.png 1947-mup-pet05.png
Personal ranks Director general of the coal industry Director general of mining, first class Director general of mining, second class Director general of mining, third class
Collar patches 1947-mup-pet06.png 1947-mup-pet07.png 1947-mup-pet08.png 1947-mup-pet09.png
Branch Technical
Collar patches 1947-mup-pet07a.png 1947-mup-pet08a.png 1947-mup-pet09a.png
Branch Administrative
Collar patches 1947-mup-pet06n.png 1947-mup-pet07n.png 1947-mup-pet08n.png 1947-mup-pet09n.png
Branch Government Mining Inspection
Personal ranks Mining director Mining director,
first class
Mining director,
second class
Mining director,
third class
Collar patches 1947-mup-pet10.png 1947-mup-pet11.png 1947-mup-pet12.png 1947-mup-pet13.png 1947-mup-pet14.png 1947-mup-pet15.png
Branch Technical
Collar patches 1947-mup-pet10n.png 1947-mup-pet11n.png 1947-mup-pet12n.png
Branch Government Mining Inspection
Personal ranks Mining engineer,
first class
Mining engineer,
second class
Mining engineer,
third class
Mining technician,
first class
Mining technician,
second class
Mining technician,
third class
Collar patches 1947-mup-pet16.png 1947-mup-pet17u.png 1947-mup-pet18v.png 1947-mup-pet19e.png
Personal ranks Junior
mining technician
mining master
Mining master,
first grade
Mining mastern
second grade

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Russia's energy: electric power sector". Russian-American Business. 21 June 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  2. ^ a b c Sokolov, Dmitry (15 October 2007). "Coal Supply Outlook in Russia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012.
  3. ^ a b c "Coal Mining in the Russian Federation". MBendi Information Services. 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2002. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Russia- Electricity". U.S. Energy Information Administration. November 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d "Coalmining in Russia". Ignatov & Company Group. October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  6. ^ a b Lawson, Peter (2002). "An Introduction to the Russian Coal Industry" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2006.
  7. ^ a b Uzhakhov, Bilan (11 July 2016). "Is there a future for the Russian coal industry?". World Coal. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Statistics". Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation. 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  9. ^ А.М. Волков "Проект замены петлиц погонами на форменной одежде работников угольной промышленности СССР (1947 год)." Мундир No. 12. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  10. ^ "Указ Президиума ВС СССР от 12.07.1954 об отмене персональных званий и знаков различия для работников гражданских министерств и ведомств." Викитека. Retrieved 2019-02-05.