Coroner of New York City
The Coroner of New York City issued death certificates and performed autopsies and inquests for New York County, New York for all homicides, suicides and accidental deaths and any suspicious deaths. The office served only Manhattan until 1891 when the city expanded. After the 1891 consolidation of New York City the office handled the outer boroughs, with each outer borough having two coroners. Coroners are elected at the same time as the Mayor of New York City for a term of four years and there was no requirement that the candidate had to be a physician. They may be removed from office by the Governor of New York. If a coroner dies in office, or is fired, or quits, someone is appointed to fill out their term. The coroners received a salary and also billed the city for services rendered for each autopsy and inquest. By 1896 the Manhattan coroner was earning $6,000 per year, and in 1897 each inquest was billed at $8.50. In 1915 a law was passed and the office was to be abolished on January 1, 1918. It was replaced with the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York. The medical examiner was to be a physician and no longer had the ability to hold inquests, those powers were transferred to the district attorney. Between 1898 when the city was consolidated and 1915 when the office went from coroner to medical examiner, 65 coroners had served in the position. Of them, 19 were physicians, 8 were undertakers, 7 were politicians, 6 were real estate agents, 2 were saloon keepers, 2 were plumbers, 1 was a musician, 1 was a dentist, and 1 was a butcher.
The New York statute of 1847 describes the Coroner's duties:
Whenever any coroner shall receive notice that any person has been slain, or has suddenly died, or has been dangerously wounded, or has been found dead under such circumstances as to require an inquisition, it shall be the duty of such Coroner to go to the place where such person shall be, and forthwith to summon a jury.
The laws covering deaths in New York City in 1865 was as follows:
The machinery of the law of New-York City about Coroners' inquests is arranged to take advantage of the insular situation of New-York. That is: First, it prohibits interments within the city, except in certain specified cases. Second, it prohibits anyone from conveying out of the city the body of anyone who has died within it, except under a permit from the City Inspector. Third, it directs the Inspector to grant such permit on receipt of a proper certificate, either from the Coroner or from the physician who attended the deceased; or if there was none, from some one of the family. Fourth, it specifies that the physician who makes such a certificate shall, among other things, specify 'the direct and indirect cause of the death of such person;' and that if the Coroner holds an inquest, he shall do the same in his certificate.
The Government of the City of New York official guide written by the New York City Commissioner of Accounts in 1917 describes the office as follows:
There are eleven Coroners in the City of New York — four for the Borough of Manhattan, two for The Bronx, two for Brooklyn, two for Queens and one for Richmond. The Coroners in each borough, except Richmond, constitute a Board of Coroners for the borough. Coroners are elected at the same time as the Mayor for a term of four years. They may be removed on charges by the Governor. The Coroner has jurisdiction over all homicide, suicide and accidental death cases and over all suspicious deaths, deaths in prison, and cases where the deceased was unattended by a physician. In cases of serious wounding the Coroner has jurisdiction to take an ante-mortem statement. The functions of the Coroner are threefold — medical investigation to determine the scientific cause of death, legal investigation to determine who caused the death, and judicial power to sit as a magistrate in homicide cases. The law requires the Coroner to summon a jury in cases where there is reasonable ground to believe that a homicide has been committed, and he may order the arrest of suspected persons. Each Coroner has a coroner's physician to assist him in medical investigations. He may subpoena witnesses and has power to order an autopsy and issues death certificates, upon which the Health Department grants burial permits. A law passed in 1915 provides for the abolishment of the office of Coroner on January 1, 1918, and the substitution of a Chief Medical Examiner for the entire city, with assistant medical examiners. The work of legal investigation is to be assumed by the District Attorneys, and the coroner's judicial function is to be performed by the City Magistrates.
Originally New York City had two elected coroners. Each coroner was assigned a physician and a clerk. In 1852 the number of coroners were doubled to four.
In 1896 Theodore Knapp Tuthill suggested doubling the number of New York County, New York coroners from four to eight, and increasing the compensation for the coroners to attract more competent officials.
In 1903 senator Nathaniel A. Elsberg sought to abolish the office and set up a new one based on the medical examiner model used in Massachusetts. Each medical examiner would be appointed to a five-year term. The coroner would no longer have police power and judicial power. That role would be taken over by the New York County District Attorney and the Criminal Court of the City of New York.
By 1914-1915 there were eleven coroners serving the five boroughs of New York City with a budget of $170,000.
On January 1, 1918 the office was abolished and replaced with the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York. Charles Norris (1867–1935) was the first non acting chief medical examiner in the newly established Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York.
New York County
- Manhattan, New York City had two coroners serving simultaneously until 1852, and four coroners after 1852. The aggregate of the coroners is called the Board of Coroners and is headed by the President of the Board of Coroners. The salary was $6,000 (approximately $176,000 today) in 1898.
- John Burnet 1748 to 1758.
- Thomas Shreve circa 1769 to circa 1771.
- Seth Geer, M.D. (?-1866) circa 1852. He had a stroke in 1851. "We regret to be called upon, to record severe and painful attack of paralysis to our worthy Coroner, Dr. Seth Geer, who was suddenly prostrated on Tuesday night at his residence in the Fourth-avenue, by a paralytic stroke, which we learn, has entirely disabled him of the power and muscular motion of his right arm and right leg." He resigned in 1852. He died on October 15, 1866 in Chatham, New Jersey.
- O'Donnell circa 1854.
- Robert Gamble (coroner) 1854 to 1859 and 1865 to 1869. "Robert Gamble has been chosen President, and coroner William C. Gover as secretary of the Board of Coroners for the ensuing three years in 1865".
- Nugent circa 1857.
- Louis Naumann, M.D. (1825-1888) circa 1862.
- Collin circa 1865.
- Robert Gamble (coroner) 1865 to 1869.
- John Wildey (1823-1889) circa 1865. "Ex-Coroner John Wildey, who died in Bellevue Hospital on Wednesday, was buried yesterday. He died in poverty. He had made plenty of money, but long ago lost the last of his fortune. He was an old fireman, having joined Engine Company No. 11 as far back as ..." He died in poverty at Bellevue Hospital on May 29, 1889 and was buried on May 31, 1889.
- William C. Gover (1815-1891) 1865 to 1871. He was born in 1851 in Philadelphia. He died on December 14, 1891 in Manhattan, New York City.
- Aaron B. Rollins (1818-1878) 1867 to 1871.
- Cornelius Flynn circa 1870.
- Patrick H. Keenan (1837-1907) circa 1870. He died on May 5, 1907 in Manhattan. "City Chamberlain Patrick Keenan, who died on Sunday evening, was buried yesterday in Calvary Cemetery."
- William G. Schirmer, M.D. (1810-1878) 1868 to 1870. He was born in Cassell, Germany in 1810. He studied medicine in Heidelberg, Germany. He migrated to the United States around 1838. He died at his homein Greenwich, Connecticut on July 8, 1878.
- Richard Croker (1843-1922) 1873 to 1876.
- Poltman circa 1874.
- Anthony Eickhoff (1827-1901) 1874 to 1876.
- Dempsey circa 1879.
- William H. Kennedy (1837-1892), undertaker, 1882 to 1885. He was born in Ireland in 1837. Death of ex-Coroner Kennedy. He lived at 1076 Lexington Avenue. He died on September 17, 1892 at his home in Manhattan.
- Ferdinand Eidman (1843-1910), 1885 to 1889. He was born in 1843 in Worms, Germany. He died on May 5, 1910 in Manhattan.
- Levy circa 1892.
- William O'Meagher, M.D. (1829-1896) 1894 to 1896. He died in office before he could complete his four-year term.
- Michael Jean Baptiste Messemer, M.D. (1851-1894) 1883 to 1894. He died in office.
- Conway circa 1889.
- Theodore Knapp Tuthill, M.D. (1848-1926) 1896 to ?. He was born on January 22, 1848 in Orange County, New York. He graduated from New York University College of Medicine in 1890. He died on October 25, 1926 at the Lutheran Hospital in Manhattan.
- Emil William Hoeber (1833-1906) from about 1895 until 1897. He was born in 1833 in Germany and migrated to the United States in 1853. He married Jenny Heidelsheimer on October 28, 1875 in Manhattan, New York City. He died on October 5, 1906 in Manhattan, New York City.
- William H. Dobbs circa 1896.
- Greenleaf circa 1897.
- Edward T. Fitzpatrick, 1898 to 1901. He was the president of the Manhattan Board of Coroners under the administration of William L. Strong. His salary was $6,000 in 1898.
- Jacob E. Bausch (1868-1932), 1898 to 1902. He was born on October 5, 1867 in Manhattan. His salary was $6,000 in 1898. His coroner's physician was Philip F. O'Hanlon. He switched allegiance from Tammany Hall to the Fusion ticket in 1911. He died on May 21, 1932 in Brooklyn, New York City.
- Edward W. Hart, 1898 to 1901. His salary was $6,000 in 1898.
- Antonio Zucca (1851-1922), 1898 to 1901. He was born in 1851 in Trieste. His salary was $6,000 in 1898. He died on 14 April 1922 in Manhattan.
- Nicholas T. Brown circa 1902.
- Solomon Goldenkranz, M.D. (1868-1937), circa 1903. He was born in 1868. He attended New York University Medical School. He died in 1937.
- Gustav Scholer, M.D. (1851-1928), 1902 to 1905. He was born on June 25, 1851 in Germany to Jacob Scholer and Henrietta Foerster. He migrated to the United States in 1865 and became a citizen in 1872. He was a graduate of New York University Medical School in 1885. He became the chief of the surgical department of the West Side Dispensary. He was a Republican. He was coroner during the General Slocum disaster, the largest loss of life in an accident in New York City at the time. He died on December 1, 1928 in Manhattan. He was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His papers are archived at the New York Public Library.
- Moses J. Jackson (1848-1918) circa 1905. He was born in 1848. He was convicted of bribery in 1905. He died on January 1, 1918 in Manhattan.
- Peter P. Acritelli (1873-1912), 1905 to 1907. He was born on January 18, 1873 in Italy to Francesco Acritelli and Santa Maringelo. He was elected as coroner in 1905. He was indicted on two counts in connection with an illegal registration. He was charged with a felony and a misdemeanor in 1907. He survived the indictment and ran again for coroner and was defeated. He died on March 3, 1912.
- George Frederick Shrady, Jr., M.D. (1862-1933), circa 1906.
- Peter Dooley, circa 1907.
- Julius Harburger (1850-1914), circa 1907.
- Israel Lewis Feinberg, M.D. (1872 - April 13, 1941), 1910 to 1918. He was a physician and the President of the Manhattan Board of Coroners from 1910 to 1918.
- Henry W. Holzhauser, circa 1911.
- Herman Hellenstein, M.D. (1863-1920), 1909 to 1917. He was born in 1863 in Hungary. He died December 20, 1920 at Mount Sinai Hospital. He was 57 years old.
- James Edward Winterbottom (1880-1933), circa 1911. He was born on July 6, 1880. He worked as an undertaker. He died on November 13, 1933.
- Timothy P. Healy (1863-1930), 1913 to 1918. He was one of the last four coroners of New York County, New York when the office was abolished in 1918.
- Patrick Riordan, M.D. (1868-1923), 1914 to 1918. He was one of the last four coroners of New York County, New York when the office was abolished in 1918, and he was the first acting medical examiner for the new Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York. He filled the office for one month until Charles Norris was appointed as the first full time medical examiner. He collapsed in the doorway of Louis Cohen's drug store, at 1203 Lexington Avenue in Manhattan and died on September 21, 1923.
- Two coroners serving simultaneously for Queens, New York City
- Edward Stevens (coroner), circa 1685.
- Ackerman, circa 1879.
- William J. Bartlett was elected a coroner for a term of three years starting on January 1, 1897.
- Philip Thomas Cronin (1858-1905), circa 1898. He was born in 1858. His salary was $4,000 in 1898. He died on May 16, 1905 and was buried in Lawrence Family Graveyard.
- Samuel S. Guy, Jr., dentist, circa 1898. His salary was $4,000 in 1898. He murdered his wife in 1907 after she slapped him, he served 7 years in prison. "Dr. Samuel S. Guy, a prominent dentist of Far Rockaway, Queens, of which borough he was Coroner for four years, shot and instantly killed his wife, Lillian M. Guy, in the dining room of their home at Mott Avenue and Sheridan Boulevard, Far Rockaway, about 6 o'clock last evening."
- Leonard Ruoff, Jr. (1848-1907) circa 1898. He was an undertaker. His salary was $4,000 in 1898. "Leonard Ruoff, Jr., Ozone Park, N.Y., has purchased what is claimed to be the first motor undertaker's wagon. It is an electric machine, designed to carry a load of 1,000 pounds". He died on October 31, 1907 at age 59.
- Samuel Davidson Nutt, M.D. (1865-1928) 1906 to 1910. He was born on June 24, 1865 in New York City to Joseph D. Nutt and Celia Florinda Upham. In 1886, he graduated from Bellevue Hospital Medical School. He became the coroner in 1906. Charles Evans Hughes attempted to remove Samuel D. Nutt as coroner of Queens County, New York in 1908. Nutt took $94 from the body of A.R. Von Der Zweep, who was killed by the cars on the Long Island Rail Road at Valley Stream, New York. He was exonerated, he testified that he had locked the money in his safe to protect it, and became ill and forgot to list it in the inventory. He served as coroner until 1910. He died on May 3, 1928 in Woodhaven, New York.
- Dunn, circa 1913.
- Carl Voegel (1869-1955), 1913 to 1918. "When the Board of Elections was created in 1901, Mr. Voegel was named chief clerk in Queens. In 1913 he served as [coroner]". He was a Democrat. He was one of the last two coroners of Queens County, New York.
- Daniel M. Ebert, 1913 to 1918. He was a Democrat. He was one of the last two coroners of Queens County, New York.
- Two coroners served simultaneously for The Bronx, New York City
- Anthony McOwen (1842-1920) circa 1898. His salary was $6,000 in 1898. He died on October 29, 1920 in Manhattan. He was buried in Old Saint Raymonds Cemetery in the Bronx, New York City.
- James Robinson (1851-1921), He was the coroner for nine years, a process server with the Queens County District Attorney, and at the time of his death he was a Deputy Sheriff of Queens County, New York. He took his own life by stepping in front of on oncoming train in Manhattan on May 31, 1921 at the Wall Street Station.
- Thomas M. Lynch (1847-1922) circa 1898. His salary was $6,000 in 1898. He may have died on April 11, 1922 at age 75.
- Albert Frederick Schwannecke (1859-1912) 1909 to 1912. He was born in 1859 in Germany and migrated to the United States. In 1892 he was the Commissioner of Deeds for New York City. In 1909 he became Coroner of Bronx County, New York. In 1910 he was arrested on a charge of disorderly conduct for threatening a police officer while he was investigating a murder. He died on April 30, 1912 in Bronx, New York City of a gastric hemorrhage after falling while on duty.
- Jerome F. Healy (1858-1925), 1913 to 1918. He died on December 30, 1925. He was one of the last two coroners of Bronx County, New York.
- William J. Flynn, 1913 to 1918. He was one of the last two coroners of Bronx County, New York.
- Two coroners served simultaneously for Brooklyn, New York City. One served the eastern district and the other served the western district.
- Peter Johnson of Gueoos, circa 1685.
- Norris, circa 1862.
- Edward Henry Flavin, Sr. (1839-1911), circa 1869. He was born in Rockport, Illinois in August 1839. He married Mary J. (1840-1908) had a son, Edward H. Flavin, Jr. (1865-1922). Edward H. Flavin, Sr. died on May 11, 1911 in Brooklyn.
- George Henry Lindsay (1837-1916), 1886 to 1892. He was born on January 7, 1837. He died on May 25, 1916. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery.
- George Washington Lindsay (1865-1938), 1886 to 1892. He was born on March 28, 1865 to George Henry Lindsay. He was the deputy coroner from 1886 to 1892. He died on March 15, 1938.
- Edward Butler Coombs, dentist (1862-1910), 1896 to 1897. He was a dentist and in 1896 was elected as the coroner of Kings County, New York. In 1898 he was convicted of presenting a false and fraudulent bill for an inquest that he never performed. He was released from prison in 1900 after serving one year and seven months. "Ex-Coroner Edward B. Coombs was released from the Kings County Penitentiary yesterday afternoon, his term of imprisonment having expired. Coombs was not required to pay the fine of $1,000 which was imposed upon him when he was sentenced because of a legal flaw in the commitment." After his release he left the city.
- Joseph Marie Creamer II, M.D. (1852-1900), 1892 to 1896 in the eastern district. He was born in 1852. He was a Democrat. He died of pneumonia of February 23, 1900.
- George H. Nason (1852-?), 1896 to 1897 in the eastern district. He was born in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. He graduated from the University of the City of New York in 1874. He was an undertaker before elected as coroner. He and Coombs were indicted in 1897 for submitting fraudulent bills for inquests that never convened. He became an examining inspector for New York City and was removed from office on March 28, 1904.
- George Washington Delap, M.D. (1857-1901), 1897 to 1901 in the eastern district. His physician at the coroner's office was Alvin C. Hendersen (1849-1899). Delap died on September 14, 1901 and was buried in Calvary Cemetery.
- Two coroners served in some years, and in other years a single coroner served Staten Island.
- Frances Barber (coroner), circa 1685.
- John J. Van Rensselaer, M.D. 1879 to ?. He was appointed by the Governor of New York on July 4, 1879.
- Levy circa 1884.
- Charles Wilmot Townsend, M.D. (1867-1907), ? to 1897. He was born in December 1867. He died on January 7, 1907 when he was murdered in his home by John Bell. "Dr. Charles Wilmot Townsend, one of the best-known physicians on Staten Island, was shot in his home yesterday morning as he lay in bed with his wife on the second floor of their home, 5 Westervelt Avenue. He is now in the S.T. Smith Infirmary, and it is said there that he will probably die."
- William B. Wilkinson (1868-1935), 1897 to ?. He died on February 2, 1935 on Staten Island.
- John Seaver. He was paid $4,000 in 1898.
- George Charles Tranter (1851-1925). He was paid $4,000 in 1898. "George C. Tranter, 74 years old, one of the Democratic leaders of Staten island before its consolidation with New York City, died in his home." He died on 13 May 1925 on Staten Island.
- James Leonard Vail (1876-1941) 1913 to 1918. He was born on April 15, 1876. He died on March 13, 1941 at age 64. He was the last coroner of Richmond County, New York.
- Government of the City of New York. New York City Commissioner of Accounts. 1917.
- "The Corrupt Tale of the Last Coroners of the City of Brooklyn". May 14, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- The Abolition of the Office of Coroner in New York City. New York Short Ballot Organization. 1914.
- Kenneth Terry Jackson, Lisa Keller, and Nancy Flood. The Encyclopedia of New York City. p. 1506.
- "The Law Affecting Coroners' Inquests". New York Times. September 1, 1865.
- The New York City Consolidation Act, as in Force in 1891. 1891. p. 738.
- "Coroners In Conference. Plans Advanced For Making Their Service More Efficient. Coroner Tuthill Reads an Elaborate Paper Outlining a Scheme of Improvement. He Thinks the Salary Insufficient to Secure Competent Officials. Twice as Many Coroners' Physicians Needed and Their Pay Not Adequate" (PDF). New York Times. August 5, 1896. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Bill To Abolish Coroners. Senator Elsberg Introduces a Measure Favored by Medical Associations Based on the Massachusetts Law" (PDF). New York Times. February 6, 1903. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- Minutes of Coroners proceedings, City and County of New York.
- "Coroner and Office of Chief Medical Examiner, 1823-1946". NYC.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
- "Painful Illness of Coroner Geer" (PDF). New York Times. October 30, 1851.
- "Resignation of Coroner Geer" (PDF). New York Times. January 11, 1852.
- "General News". New York Times. January 11, 1865.
- "Dr. Louis Naumann" (PDF). New York Times. November 1, 1876.
- "John Wildey Died In Poverty" (PDF). New York Times. June 1, 1889.
- "Funeral of William C. Gover. He was Connected with New York Politics For Many Years" (PDF). New York Times. December 16, 1891.
- "Death Of Ex-Coroner Rollins. He Is Found Dead In His Bed At The Union-place Hotel. A Sketch Of His Career". New York Times. December 5, 1878. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- "Throng At Keenan Funeral". New York Times. May 9, 1907. Retrieved 2016-01-13.
- "Dr. William Schirmer" (PDF). New York Times. July 9, 1878. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Death of ex-Coroner Kennedy" (PDF). New York Times. September 18, 1892. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
- "Ferdinand Eidman Dead. Revenue Collector, ex-State Senator, and ex-Coroner Was 67 Years Old" (PDF). New York Times. May 6, 1910. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- "Dr. T.K. Tuthill Made Coroner. Appointed by Gov. Morton in Place of the Late Dr. O'Meagher" (PDF). New York Times. March 28, 1896. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Death of Coroner O'Meagher". Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 1896. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Funeral of Dr. Theodore K. Tuthill". New York Times. October 28, 1926.
- "Ex-Coroner Hoeber Dead. An Interesting Figure of the Strong Administration Passes Away" (PDF). New York Times. October 6, 1906.
- "Bausch Quits Tammany. Ex-Coroner Is Done with Murphyism and Comes Out for Fusion". New York Times. October 30, 1911.
- "Jacob E. Bausch Dies. Former Coroner Here. Served in Manhattan, 1898 to 1902, and as Clerk of Board, 1906-? Labor Leader". New York Times. May 22, 1932. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- "Coroner Eidman's Deputy" (PDF). New York Times. December 30, 1885. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- "Dr. Gustav Scholer Dies of Heart Disease. Former Coroner Had Been President of the Arion Society and New York Turn Verein". New York Times. December 2, 1928. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
- "Gustav Scholer papers" (PDF). New York Public Library. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
- "Indict Coroner Acritelli. He Is Accused of Aiding and Abetting Registration Frauds" (PDF). New York Times. October 26, 1907. Retrieved 2015-12-31.
- "George F. Shrady, Ex-Coroner, Dies. Son Of Eminent Physician Caused Lowering Of Death Rate From 'the Bends.' Headed Aqueduct Police ... Sanitary Engineer. His Profession Once Had Charge Of Tammany Speakers' Bureau". New York Times. April 6, 1933. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
- "Dr. Israel Feinberg, Ex-Coroner Here, 69; Head of Old Board, 1910-18, Sought to Abolish System". New York Times. April 14, 1941. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
Dr. Israel Feinberg, former president of the old Board of Coroners, died yesterday morning at bocker Hospital where he was ...
- "Coroners' Office Conceals Crime. Dr. Feinberg, Head of Manhattan Board, Admits Whole System Should Be Abolished. Commissioner of Accounts Gets Confirmation of Charges by Official Twice Elected". New York Times. November 18, 1914. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
Dr. Israel L. Feinberg, President of the Manhattan Board of Coroners and now serving his second term, has come out unreservedly for the abolition of the entire Coroners' system. He says it is inadequate, subject to great abuses, and that as it works out in this city, it reeks with waste, confusion, and inefficiency.
- "Herman Hellenstein" (PDF). New York Times. December 22, 1920.
- "James Winterbottom Dies". New York Times. November 14, 1933. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- "Ex-Coroner Riordan Dies Suddenly". New York Times. September 22, 1923.
- Appointments 1685. p. 45.
- "Throng at Cronin Funeral" (PDF). New York Times. May 20, 1905.
- "Murders His Wife For Slapping Him. Dr. Samuel S. Guy of Queens Commits Crime While on a Drunken Spree. Dies Instantly In Home. Mrs. Guy Had Dragged Him Away from the Servant, Whom He Was Annoying" (PDF). New York Times. April 9, 1907.
- "Dr. Guy, Wife Slayer, Free. Paroled After Serving Two [sic] Years of Fourteen-Year Term" (PDF). New York Times. December 3, 1914.
- "Minor Mention". The Horseless Age. 1907.
- "Want Nutt Punished For Contempt Of Court". Brooklyn Daily Standard Union. April 16, 1906.
- "Asks Gov. Hughes To Oust Coroner Nutt. Charged That Queens Official Retained $94 Taken from A.R. Von Der Zweep's Body. Coroner Says That He Held Railroad Victim's Effects In His Safe Until Court Action Was Brought". New York Times. April 18, 1908.
- "Carl Voegel". New York Times. December 10, 1955.
- "'Uncle Jim', Veteran Queens Politician, Dies In June 1921". June 19, 2008. Retrieved 2016-01-16.
- "Lieut. Mcauliffe On Trial. He Is Under Charge for the Arrest of Coroner Schwannecke" (PDF). New York Times. April 29, 1910.
- "Bronx Coroner Killed On Duty. Schwannecke, Beloved by His Neighbors, Fell While Investigating Laborer's Death" (PDF). New York Times. May 1, 1912.
- "J.F. Healy New Bronx Coroner" (PDF). New York Times. July 11, 1912.
- "Edward H. Flavin". Brooklyn Eagle. May 13, 1911.
- "George Henry Lindsay". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. p. 1451.
- "Ex-Coroner Coombs Free. His Term of Imprisonment for Presenting a False Claim Expires. Not Required to Pay Fine" (PDF). New York Times. August 21, 1900.
- "Dr. Joseph Creamer Dead". Brooklyn Eagle. February 23, 1900. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
- "Dr. A.C. Hendersen Dead. He was Coroner's Physician in the Borough of Brooklyn" (PDF). New York Times. February 7, 1899. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- "Death Of Coroner Delap. Illness of Accused Brooklyn Official Terminates Fatally" (PDF). New York Times. September 13, 1901. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
- "A New Coroner for Richmond County" (PDF). New York Times. July 5, 1879. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Coroner for Richmond County" (PDF). New York Times. September 18, 1897.
- "Unknown Wakes Doctor And Shoots Him In Bed. Charles W. Townsend, the Victim, Won't Tell Who Did It. Jewels And Money Left. Wife Tells Different Stories About a Burglar. Two Men Arrested, One the Husband of a Woman Patient". New York Times. January 27, 1907.
- "George C. Tranter". New York Times. May 14, 1925. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
- "James L. Vail. Ex-County Clerk and Coroner of Richmond. Once Committeeman". New York Times. March 14, 1941.
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