Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a dystopian futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of low-life and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order. Much of cyberpunk is rooted in the New Wave science fiction movement of the 1960s and 1970s, when writers like Philip K. Dick, Roger Zelazny, John Brunner, J. G. Ballard, Philip José Farmer and Harlan Ellison examined the impact of drug culture, technology, and the sexual revolution while avoiding the utopian tendencies of earlier science fiction.
Comics exploring cyberpunk themes began appearing as early as Judge Dredd, first published in 1977. Released in 1984, William Gibson's influential debut novel Neuromancer would help solidify cyberpunk as a genre, drawing influence from punk subculture and early hacker culture. Other influential cyberpunk writers included Bruce Sterling and Rudy Rucker. The Japanese cyberpunk subgenre began in 1982 with the debut of Katsuhiro Otomo's manga series Akira, with its 1988 anime film adaptation later popularizing the subgenre.
Early films in the genre include Ridley Scott's 1982 film Blade Runner, one of several of Philip K. Dick's works that have been adapted into films. The films Johnny Mnemonic (1995) and New Rose Hotel (1998), both based upon short stories by William Gibson, flopped commercially and critically. The Matrix trilogy (1999-2003) were some of the most successful cyberpunk films. More recent additions to this genre include Blade Runner 2049 (2017), a sequel to the original 1982 film, as well as Upgrade (2018), Alita: Battle Angel (2019) based on the 1990s Japanese manga Battle Angel Alita, and the 2018 Netflix TV series Altered Carbon based on Richard K. Morgan's 2002 novel of the same name.
Lawrence Person has attempted to define the content and ethos of the cyberpunk literary movement stating:
Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of the human body.
Cyberpunk plots often center on conflict among artificial intelligences, hackers, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a near-future Earth, rather than in the far-future settings or galactic vistas found in novels such as Isaac Asimov's Foundation or Frank Herbert's Dune. The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but tend to feature extraordinary cultural ferment and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its original inventors ("the street finds its own uses for things"). Much of the genre's atmosphere echoes film noir, and written works in the genre often use techniques from detective fiction. There are sources who view that cyberpunk has shifted from a literary movement to a mode of science fiction due to the limited number of writers and its transition to a more generalized cultural formation.
History and origins
The origins of cyberpunk are rooted in the New Wave science fiction movement of the 1960s and 70s, where New Worlds, under the editorship of Michael Moorcock, began inviting and encouraging stories that examined new writing styles, techniques, and archetypes. Reacting to conventional storytelling, New Wave authors attempted to present a world where society coped with a constant upheaval of new technology and culture, generally with dystopian outcomes. Writers like Roger Zelazny, J.G. Ballard, Philip Jose Farmer, and Harlan Ellison often examined the impact of drug culture, technology, and the sexual revolution with an avant-garde style influenced by the Beat Generation (especially William S. Burroughs' own SF), Dadaism, and their own ideas. Ballard attacked the idea that stories should follow the "archetypes" popular since the time of Ancient Greece, and the assumption that these would somehow be the same ones that would call to modern readers, as Joseph Campbell argued in The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Instead, Ballard wanted to write a new myth for the modern reader, a style with "more psycho-literary ideas, more meta-biological and meta-chemical concepts, private time systems, synthetic psychologies and space-times, more of the sombre half-worlds one glimpses in the paintings of schizophrenics."
This had a profound influence on a new generation of writers, some of whom would come to call their movement "Cyberpunk". One, Bruce Sterling, later said:
In the circle of American science fiction writers of my generation — cyberpunks and humanists and so forth — [Ballard] was a towering figure. We used to have bitter struggles over who was more Ballardian than whom. We knew we were not fit to polish the man’s boots, and we were scarcely able to understand how we could get to a position to do work which he might respect or stand, but at least we were able to see the peak of achievement that he had reached.
Ballard, Zelazny, and the rest of New Wave was seen by the subsequent generation as delivering more "realism" to science fiction, and they attempted to build on this.
Similarly influential, and generally cited as proto-cyberpunk, is the Philip K. Dick novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep, first published in 1968. Presenting precisely the general feeling of dystopian post-economic-apocalyptic future as Gibson and Sterling later deliver, it examines ethical and moral problems with cybernetic, artificial intelligence in a way more "realist" than the Isaac Asimov Robot series that laid its philosophical foundation. Dick's protege and friend K. W. Jeter wrote a very dark and imaginative novel called Dr. Adder in 1972 that, Dick lamented, might have been more influential in the field had it been able to find a publisher at that time. It was not published until 1984, after which Jeter made it the first book in a trilogy, followed by The Glass Hammer (1985) and Death Arms (1987). Jeter wrote other standalone cyberpunk novels before going on to write three authorized sequels to Do Androids Dream of electric sheep, named Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (1995), Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (1996), and Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep was made into the seminal movie Blade Runner, released in 1982. This was one year after William Gibson's story, "Johnny Mnemonic" helped move proto-cyberpunk concepts into the mainstream. That story, which also became a film years later in 1995, involves another dystopian future, where human couriers deliver computer data, stored cybernetically in their own minds.
In 1983 a short story written by Bruce Bethke, called Cyberpunk, was published in Amazing Stories. The term was picked up by Gardner Dozois, editor of Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine and popularized in his editorials. Bethke says he made two lists of words, one for technology, one for troublemakers, and experimented with combining them variously into compound words, consciously attempting to coin a term that encompassed both punk attitudes and high technology.
He described the idea thus:
The kids who trashed my computer; their kids were going to be Holy Terrors, combining the ethical vacuity of teenagers with a technical fluency we adults could only guess at. Further, the parents and other adult authority figures of the early 21st Century were going to be terribly ill-equipped to deal with the first generation of teenagers who grew up truly “speaking computer.”
Afterward, Dozois began using this term in his own writing, most notably in a Washington Post article where he said "About the closest thing here to a self-willed esthetic “school” would be the purveyors of bizarre hard-edged, high-tech stuff, who have on occasion been referred to as “cyberpunks” — Sterling, Gibson, Shiner, Cadigan, Bear."
About that time in 1984, William Gibson's novel Neuromancer was published, delivering a glimpse of a future encompassed by what became an archetype of cyberpunk "virtual reality", with the human mind being fed light-based worldscapes through a computer interface. Some, perhaps ironically including Bethke himself, argued at the time that the writers whose style Gibson's books epitomized should be called "Neuromantics", a pun on the name of the novel plus "New Romantics", a term used for a New Wave pop music movement that had just occurred in Britain, but this term did not catch on. Bethke later paraphrased Michael Swanwick's argument for the term: "the movement writers should properly be termed neuromantics, since so much of what they were doing was clearly Imitation Neuromancer".
Sterling was another writer who played a central role, often consciously, in the cyberpunk genre, variously seen as either keeping it on track, or distorting its natural path into a stagnant formula. In 1986 he edited a volume of cyberpunk stories called Mirrorshades: The Cyberpunk Anthology, an attempt to establish what cyberpunk was, from Sterling's perspective.
Bookending the Cyberpunk era, Bethke himself published a novel in 1995 called Headcrash, like Snow Crash a satirical attack on the genre's excesses. Fittingly, it won an honor named after cyberpunk's spiritual founder, the Philip K. Dick Award.
It satirized the genre in this way:
...full of young guys with no social lives, no sex lives and no hope of ever moving out of their mothers' basements ... They're total wankers and losers who indulge in Messianic fantasies about someday getting even with the world through almost-magical computer skills, but whose actual use of the Net amounts to dialing up the scatophilia forum and downloading a few disgusting pictures. You know, cyberpunks."
The impact of cyberpunk, though, has been long-lasting. Elements of both the setting and storytelling have become normal in science fiction in general, and a slew of sub-genres now have -punk tacked onto their names, most obviously Steampunk, but also a host of other Cyberpunk derivatives.
Style and ethos
Primary figures in the cyberpunk movement include William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Bruce Sterling, Bruce Bethke, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, and John Shirley. Philip K. Dick (author of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, from which the film Blade Runner was adapted) is also seen by some as prefiguring the movement.
Blade Runner can be seen as a quintessential example of the cyberpunk style and theme. Video games, board games, and tabletop role-playing games, such as Cyberpunk 2020 and Shadowrun, often feature storylines that are heavily influenced by cyberpunk writing and movies. Beginning in the early 1990s, some trends in fashion and music were also labeled as cyberpunk. Cyberpunk is also featured prominently in anime and manga (Japanese cyberpunk), with Akira, Ghost in the Shell and Cowboy Bebop being among the most notable.
Cyberpunk writers tend to use elements from crime fiction—particularly hardboiled detective fiction and film noir—and postmodernist prose to describe an often nihilistic underground side of an electronic society. The genre's vision of a troubled future is often called the antithesis of the generally utopian visions of the future popular in the 1940s and 1950s. Gibson defined cyberpunk's antipathy towards utopian SF in his 1981 short story "The Gernsback Continuum," which pokes fun at and, to a certain extent, condemns utopian science fiction.
In some cyberpunk writing, much of the action takes place online, in cyberspace, blurring the line between actual and virtual reality. A typical trope in such work is a direct connection between the human brain and computer systems. Cyberpunk settings are dystopias with corruption, computers and internet connectivity. Giant, multinational corporations have for the most part replaced governments as centers of political, economic, and even military power.
The economic and technological state of Japan is a regular theme in the Cyberpunk literature of the '80s. Of Japan's influence on the genre, William Gibson said, "Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk." Cyberpunk is often set in urbanized, artificial landscapes, and "city lights, receding" was used by Gibson as one of the genre's first metaphors for cyberspace and virtual reality. The cityscapes of Hong Kong and Shanghai have had major influences in the urban backgrounds, ambiance and settings in many cyberpunk works such as Blade Runner and Shadowrun. Ridley Scott envisioned the landscape of cyberpunk Los Angeles in Blade Runner to be "Hong Kong on a very bad day". The streetscapes of the Ghost in the Shell film were based on Hong Kong. Its director Mamoru Oshii felt that Hong Kong's strange and chaotic streets where "old and new exist in confusing relationships", fit the theme of the film well. Hong Kong's Kowloon Walled City is particularly notable for its disorganized hyper-urbanization and breakdown in traditional urban planning to be an inspiration to cyberpunk landscapes.
One of the cyberpunk genre's prototype characters is Case, from Gibson's Neuromancer. Case is a "console cowboy," a brilliant hacker who has betrayed his organized criminal partners. Robbed of his talent through a crippling injury inflicted by the vengeful partners, Case unexpectedly receives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to be healed by expert medical care but only if he participates in another criminal enterprise with a new crew.
Like Case, many cyberpunk protagonists are manipulated, placed in situations where they have little or no choice, and although they might see things through, they do not necessarily come out any further ahead than they previously were. These anti-heroes—"criminals, outcasts, visionaries, dissenters and misfits"—call to mind the private eye of detective fiction. This emphasis on the misfits and the malcontents is the "punk" component of cyberpunk.
Society and government
Cyberpunk can be intended to disquiet readers and call them to action. It often expresses a sense of rebellion, suggesting that one could describe it as a type of cultural revolution in science fiction. In the words of author and critic David Brin:
...a closer look [at cyberpunk authors] reveals that they nearly always portray future societies in which governments have become wimpy and pathetic ...Popular science fiction tales by Gibson, Williams, Cadigan and others do depict Orwellian accumulations of power in the next century, but nearly always clutched in the secretive hands of a wealthy or corporate elite.
Cyberpunk stories have also been seen as fictional forecasts of the evolution of the Internet. The earliest descriptions of a global communications network came long before the World Wide Web entered popular awareness, though not before traditional science-fiction writers such as Arthur C. Clarke and some social commentators such as James Burke began predicting that such networks would eventually form.
Some observers cite that cyberpunk tends to marginalize sectors of society such as women and Africans. For instance, it is claimed that cyberpunk depicts fantasies that ultimately empower masculinity using fragmentary and decentered aesthetic that culminate in a masculine genre populated by male outlaws. Critics also note the absence of any reference to Africa or an African-American character in the quintessential cyberpunk film Blade Runner while other films reinforce stereotypes.
Minnesota writer Bruce Bethke coined the term in 1980 for his short story "Cyberpunk," which was published in the November 1983 issue of Amazing Science Fiction Stories. The term was quickly appropriated as a label to be applied to the works of William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan and others. Of these, Sterling became the movement's chief ideologue, thanks to his fanzine Cheap Truth. John Shirley wrote articles on Sterling and Rucker's significance. John Brunner's 1975 novel The Shockwave Rider is considered by many[who?] to be the first cyberpunk novel with many of the tropes commonly associated with the genre, some five years before the term was popularized by Dozois.
William Gibson with his novel Neuromancer (1984) is arguably the most famous writer connected with the term cyberpunk. He emphasized style, a fascination with surfaces, and atmosphere over traditional science-fiction tropes. Regarded as ground-breaking and sometimes as "the archetypal cyberpunk work," Neuromancer was awarded the Hugo, Nebula, and Philip K. Dick Awards. Count Zero (1986) and Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988) followed after Gibson's popular debut novel. According to the Jargon File, "Gibson's near-total ignorance of computers and the present-day hacker culture enabled him to speculate about the role of computers and hackers in the future in ways hackers have since found both irritatingly naïve and tremendously stimulating."
Early on, cyberpunk was hailed as a radical departure from science-fiction standards and a new manifestation of vitality. Shortly thereafter, however, some critics arose to challenge its status as a revolutionary movement. These critics said that the SF New Wave of the 1960s was much more innovative as far as narrative techniques and styles were concerned. Furthermore, while Neuromancer's narrator may have had an unusual "voice" for science fiction, much older examples can be found: Gibson's narrative voice, for example, resembles that of an updated Raymond Chandler, as in his novel The Big Sleep (1939). Others noted that almost all traits claimed to be uniquely cyberpunk could in fact be found in older writers' works—often citing J. G. Ballard, Philip K. Dick, Harlan Ellison, Stanisław Lem, Samuel R. Delany, and even William S. Burroughs. For example, Philip K. Dick's works contain recurring themes of social decay, artificial intelligence, paranoia, and blurred lines between objective and subjective realities. The influential cyberpunk movie Blade Runner (1982) is based on his book, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. Humans linked to machines are found in Pohl and Kornbluth's Wolfbane (1959) and Roger Zelazny's Creatures of Light and Darkness (1968).
In 1994, scholar Brian Stonehill suggested that Thomas Pynchon's 1973 novel Gravity's Rainbow "not only curses but precurses what we now glibly dub cyberspace." Other important predecessors include Alfred Bester's two most celebrated novels, The Demolished Man and The Stars My Destination, as well as Vernor Vinge's novella True Names.
Reception and impact
Science-fiction writer David Brin describes cyberpunk as "the finest free promotion campaign ever waged on behalf of science fiction." It may not have attracted the "real punks," but it did ensnare many new readers, and it provided the sort of movement that postmodern literary critics found alluring. Cyberpunk made science fiction more attractive to academics, argues Brin; in addition, it made science fiction more profitable to Hollywood and to the visual arts generally. Although the "self-important rhetoric and whines of persecution" on the part of cyberpunk fans were irritating at worst and humorous at best, Brin declares that the "rebels did shake things up. We owe them a debt."
Cyberpunk further inspired many professional writers who were not among the "original" cyberpunks to incorporate cyberpunk ideas into their own works, such as George Alec Effinger's When Gravity Fails. Wired magazine, created by Louis Rossetto and Jane Metcalfe, mixes new technology, art, literature, and current topics in order to interest today's cyberpunk fans, which Paula Yoo claims "proves that hardcore hackers, multimedia junkies, cyberpunks and cellular freaks are poised to take over the world."
Film and television
The film Blade Runner (1982)—adapted from Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?—is set in 2019 in a dystopian future in which manufactured beings called replicants are slaves used on space colonies and are legal prey on Earth to various bounty hunters who "retire" (kill) them. Although Blade Runner was largely unsuccessful in its first theatrical release, it found a viewership in the home video market and became a cult film. Since the movie omits the religious and mythical elements of Dick's original novel (e.g. empathy boxes and Wilbur Mercer), it falls more strictly within the cyberpunk genre than the novel does. William Gibson would later reveal that upon first viewing the film, he was surprised at how the look of this film matched his vision for Neuromancer, a book he was then working on. The film's tone has since been the staple of many cyberpunk movies, such as The Matrix trilogy (1999-2003), which uses a wide variety of cyberpunk elements.
The number of films in the genre or at least using a few genre elements has grown steadily since Blade Runner. Several of Philip K. Dick's works have been adapted to the silver screen. The films Johnny Mnemonic and New Rose Hotel, both based upon short stories by William Gibson, flopped commercially and critically. These box offices misses significantly slowed the development of cyberpunk as a literary or cultural form although a sequel to the 1982 film Blade Runner was released in October 2017 with Harrison Ford reprising his role from the original film.
In addition, "tech-noir" film as a hybrid genre, means a work of combining neo-noir and science fiction or cyberpunk. It includes many cyberpunk films such as Blade Runner, Burst City, Robocop, 12 Monkeys, The Lawnmower Man, Hackers, Hardware, and Strange Days.
Anime and manga
The Japanese cyberpunk subgenre began in 1982 with the debut of Katsuhiro Otomo's manga series Akira, with its 1988 anime film adaptation, which Otomo directed, later popularizing the subgenre. Akira inspired a wave of Japanese cyberpunk works, including manga and anime series such as Ghost in the Shell, Battle Angel Alita, Cowboy Bebop, and Serial Experiments Lain. Other early Japanese cyberpunk works include the 1982 film Burst City, the 1985 original video animation Megazone 23, and the 1989 film Tetsuo: The Iron Man.
In contrast to Western cyberpunk which has roots in New Wave science fiction literature, Japanese cyberpunk has roots in underground music culture, specifically the Japanese punk subculture that arose from the Japanese punk music scene in the 1970s. The filmmaker Sogo Ishii introduced this subculture to Japanese cinema with the punk film Panic High School (1978) and the punk biker film Crazy Thunder Road (1980), both portraying the rebellion and anarchy associated with punk, and the latter featuring a punk biker gang aesthetic. Ishii's punk films paved the way for Otomo's seminal cyberpunk work Akira.
Cyberpunk themes are widely visible in anime and manga. In Japan, where cosplay is popular and not only teenagers display such fashion styles, cyberpunk has been accepted and its influence is widespread. William Gibson's Neuromancer, whose influence dominated the early cyberpunk movement, was also set in Chiba, one of Japan's largest industrial areas, although at the time of writing the novel Gibson did not know the location of Chiba and had no idea how perfectly it fit his vision in some ways. The exposure to cyberpunk ideas and fiction in the 1980s has allowed it to seep into the Japanese culture.
Cyberpunk anime and manga draw upon a futuristic vision which has elements in common with Western science fiction and therefore have received wide international acceptance outside Japan. "The conceptualization involved in cyberpunk is more of forging ahead, looking at the new global culture. It is a culture that does not exist right now, so the Japanese concept of a cyberpunk future, seems just as valid as a Western one, especially as Western cyberpunk often incorporates many Japanese elements." William Gibson is now a frequent visitor to Japan, and he came to see that many of his visions of Japan have become a reality:
Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk. The Japanese themselves knew it and delighted in it. I remember my first glimpse of Shibuya, when one of the young Tokyo journalists who had taken me there, his face drenched with the light of a thousand media-suns—all that towering, animated crawl of commercial information—said, "You see? You see? It is Blade Runner town." And it was. It so evidently was.
Cyberpunk themes have appeared in many anime and manga, including the ground-breaking Appleseed, Ghost in the Shell, Ergo Proxy, Megazone 23, Neo Tokyo, Goku Midnight Eye, Cyber City Oedo 808, Bubblegum Crisis, A.D. Police: Dead End City, Angel Cop, Extra, Blame!, Armitage III, Texhnolyze, Neon Genesis Evangelion and Psycho-Pass.
Akira (1982 manga) and its 1988 anime film adaptation have influenced numerous works in animation, comics, film, music, television and video games. Akira has been cited as a major influence on Hollywood films such as The Matrix, Chronicle, Looper, Midnight Special, and Inception, as well as cyberpunk-influenced video games such as Hideo Kojima's Snatcher and Metal Gear Solid, Valve's Half-Life series and Dontnod Entertainment's Remember Me. Akira has also influenced the work of musicians such as Kanye West, who paid homage to Akira in the "Stronger" music video, and Lupe Fiasco, whose album Tetsuo & Youth is named after Tetsuo Shima. The popular bike from the film, Kaneda's Motorbike, appears in Steven Spielberg's film Ready Player One, and CD Projekt's video game Cyberpunk 2077.
Ghost in the Shell (1995) influenced a number of prominent filmmakers, most notably the Wachowskis in The Matrix (1999) and its sequels. The Matrix series took several concepts from the film, including the Matrix digital rain, which was inspired by the opening credits of Ghost in the Shell, and the way characters access the Matrix through holes in the back of their necks. Other parallels have been drawn to James Cameron's Avatar, Steven Spielberg's A.I. Artificial Intelligence, and Jonathan Mostow's Surrogates. James Cameron cited Ghost in the Shell as a source of inspiration, citing it as an influence on Avatar.
The original video animation Megazone 23 (1985) has a number of similarities to The Matrix. Battle Angel Alita (1990) has had a notable influence on filmmaker James Cameron, who was planning to adapt it into a film since 2000. It was an influence on his TV series Dark Angel, and he is the producer of the 2018 film adaptation Alita: Battle Angel.
There are many cyberpunk video games. Popular series include Final Fantasy VII and its spin-offs and remake, the Megami Tensei series, Kojima's Snatcher and Metal Gear series, Deus Ex series, Syndicate series, and System Shock and its sequel. Other games, like Blade Runner, Ghost in the Shell, and the Matrix series, are based upon genre movies, or role-playing games (for instance the various Shadowrun games).
Several RPGs called Cyberpunk exist: Cyberpunk, Cyberpunk 2020 and Cyberpunk v3, by R. Talsorian Games, and GURPS Cyberpunk, published by Steve Jackson Games as a module of the GURPS family of RPGs. Cyberpunk 2020 was designed with the settings of William Gibson's writings in mind, and to some extent with his approval, unlike the approach taken by FASA in producing the transgenre Shadowrun game. Both are set in the near future, in a world where cybernetics are prominent. In addition, Iron Crown Enterprises released an RPG named Cyberspace, which was out of print for several years until recently being re-released in online PDF form. CD Projekt Red is currently developing Cyberpunk 2077, a cyberpunk first-person open world Role-playing video game (RPG) based on the tabletop RPG Cyberpunk 2020. In 1990, in a convergence of cyberpunk art and reality, the United States Secret Service raided Steve Jackson Games's headquarters and confiscated all their computers. Officials denied that the target had been the GURPS Cyberpunk sourcebook, but Jackson would later write that he and his colleagues "were never able to secure the return of the complete manuscript; [...] The Secret Service at first flatly refused to return anything – then agreed to let us copy files, but when we got to their office, restricted us to one set of out-of-date files – then agreed to make copies for us, but said "tomorrow" every day from March 4 to March 26. On March 26 we received a set of disks which purported to be our files, but the material was late, incomplete and well-nigh useless." Steve Jackson Games won a lawsuit against the Secret Service, aided by the new Electronic Frontier Foundation. This event has achieved a sort of notoriety, which has extended to the book itself as well. All published editions of GURPS Cyberpunk have a tagline on the front cover, which reads "The book that was seized by the U.S. Secret Service!" Inside, the book provides a summary of the raid and its aftermath.
Cyberpunk has also inspired several tabletop, miniature and board games such as Necromunda by Games Workshop. Netrunner is a collectible card game introduced in 1996, based on the Cyberpunk 2020 role-playing game. Tokyo NOVA, debuting in 1993, is a cyberpunk role-playing game that uses playing cards instead of dice.
Invariably the origin of cyberpunk music lies in the synthesizer-heavy scores of cyberpunk films such as Escape from New York (1981) and Blade Runner (1982). Some musicians and acts have been classified as cyberpunk due to their aesthetic style and musical content. Often dealing with dystopian visions of the future or biomechanical themes, some fit more squarely in the category than others. Bands whose music has been classified as cyberpunk include Psydoll, Front Line Assembly, Clock DVA, Angelspit and Sigue Sigue Sputnik.
Some musicians not normally associated with cyberpunk have at times been inspired to create concept albums exploring such themes. Albums such as Gary Numan's Replicas, The Pleasure Principle and Telekon were heavily inspired by the works of Philip K. Dick. Kraftwerk's The Man-Machine and Computer World albums both explored the theme of humanity becoming dependent on technology. Nine Inch Nails' concept album Year Zero also fits into this category. Fear Factory concept albums are heavily based upon future dystopia, cybernetics, clash between man and machines, virtual worlds. Billy Idol's Cyberpunk drew heavily from cyberpunk literature and the cyberdelic counter culture in its creation. 1. Outside, a cyberpunk narrative fueled concept album by David Bowie, was warmly met by critics upon its release in 1995. Many musicians have also taken inspiration from specific cyberpunk works or authors, including Sonic Youth, whose albums Sister and Daydream Nation take influence from the works of Philip K. Dick and William Gibson respectively. Madonna's 2001 Drowned World Tour opened with a cyberpunk section, where costumes, asethetics and stage props were used to accentuate the dystopian nature of the theatrical concert.
Vaporwave and synthwave are also influenced by cyberpunk. The former has been interpreted as a dystopian critique of capitalism in the vein of cyberpunk and the latter as a nostalgic retrofuturistic revival of aspects of cyberpunk's origins.
Art and architecture
Media related to Cyberpunk cityscapes at Wikimedia Commons
Society and counterculture
Several subcultures have been inspired by cyberpunk fiction. These include the cyberdelic counter culture of the late 1980s and early 90s. Cyberdelic, whose adherents referred to themselves as "cyberpunks", attempted to blend the psychedelic art and drug movement with the technology of cyberculture. Early adherents included Timothy Leary, Mark Frauenfelder and R. U. Sirius. The movement largely faded following the dot-com bubble implosion of 2000.
Cybergoth is a fashion and dance subculture which draws its inspiration from cyberpunk fiction, as well as rave and Gothic subcultures. In addition, a distinct cyberpunk fashion of its own has emerged in recent years[when?] which rejects the raver and goth influences of cybergoth, and draws inspiration from urban street fashion, "post apocalypse", functional clothing, high tech sports wear, tactical uniform and multifunction. This fashion goes by names like "tech wear", "goth ninja" or "tech ninja".
The Kowloon Walled City in Hong Kong (demolished in 1994) is often referenced as the model cyberpunk/dystopian slum as, given its poor living conditions at the time coupled with the city's political, physical, and economic isolation has caused many in academia to be fascinated by the ingenuity of its spawning.
As a wider variety of writers began to work with cyberpunk concepts, new subgenres of science fiction emerged, some of which could be considered as playing off the cyberpunk label, others which could be considered as legitimate explorations into newer territory. These focused on technology and its social effects in different ways. One prominent subgenre is "steampunk," which is set in an alternate history Victorian era that combines anachronistic technology with cyberpunk's bleak film noir world view. The term was originally coined around 1987 as a joke to describe some of the novels of Tim Powers, James P. Blaylock, and K.W. Jeter, but by the time Gibson and Sterling entered the subgenre with their collaborative novel The Difference Engine the term was being used earnestly as well.
Another subgenre is "biopunk" (cyberpunk themes dominated by biotechnology) from the early 1990s, a derivative style building on biotechnology rather than informational technology. In these stories, people are changed in some way not by mechanical means, but by genetic manipulation. Paul Di Filippo is seen as the most prominent biopunk writer, including his half-serious ribofunk. Bruce Sterling's Shaper/Mechanist cycle is also seen as a major influence. In addition, some people consider works such as Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age to be postcyberpunk.
Registered trademark status
Within the European Union, the "Cyberpunk" trademark is owned by two parties: CD Projekt SA for "games and online gaming services" (particularly for the video game adaptation of the former) and by Sony Music for use outside games.
- Sterling, Bruce. Preface. Burning Chrome, by William Gibson, Harper Collins, 1986, p. xiv.
- Thomas Michaud, "Science fiction and politics: Cyberpunk science fiction as political philosophy", pp. 65–77 in Hassler, Donald M. (2008). New Boundaries in Political Science Fiction. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-736-8. See pp. 75–76.
- "Bibliography for GURPS Cyberpunk". sjgames.com. Steve Jackson Games. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
The world of the British Judge Dredd is quintessentially cyberpunk...
- "CTheory.net". CTheory.net. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
- "DVD Verdict Review – New Rose Hotel". Dvdverdict.com. 2000-01-10. Archived from the original on 2008-12-28. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
- "'New Rose Hotel': Corporate Intrigue, Steamy Seduction". Nytimes.com. 1999-10-01. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
- Person, Lawrence (October 8, 1999). "Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto". Slashdot. Originally published in Nova Express, issue 16 (1998).
- Graham, Stephen (2004). The Cybercities Reader. Routledge. p. 389. ISBN 0-415-27956-9.
- Gibson, William from Burning Chrome published in 1981
- Gillis, Stacy (2005). The Matrix Trilogy:Cyberpunk Reloaded. Wallflower Press. p. 75. ISBN 1-904764-32-0.
- Murphy, Graham; Schmeink, Lars (2017). Cyberpunk and Visual Culture. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781351665155.
- Landon, Brooks (2014). Science Fiction After 1900: From the Steam Man to the Stars. New York: Routledge. p. 164. ISBN 978-0415938884.
- Gillis, Stacy (2005). The Matrix Trilogy: Cyberpunk Reloaded. London: Wallflower Press. p. 3. ISBN 1904764339.
- ‘NEW WORLDS': ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL SCI-FI MAGAZINES RETURNS THIS FALL
Ballard’s think-pieces on the intrusion of technology and media — "The Atrocity Exhibition", "Notes Towards a Mental Breakdown", "The Assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy Considered as a Downhill Motor Race" (collected with others as The Atrocity Exhibition with illustrations by Phoebe Gloeckner) — paved the way for cyberpunk. Brian Aldiss practically populated his own subgenre with quirky epics like Acid Head War, a messianic tale of freestyle narrative set in a post-war Europe in which hallucinogenic drugs had affected entire populations, and Report on Probability A, an experimental story about the observations of three characters named G, S, and C.
- Cyberpunk, Steampunk and Wizardry: Science Fiction Since 1980 Chapter 4. The New Wave
- "Ballardian » 'Unblinking, clinical': From Ballard to cyberpunk". www.Ballardian.com. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "The Early Life of the Word "Cyberpunk" - Neon Dystopia". NeonDystopia.com. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Dozois, Gardner (30 December 1984). "Science Fiction in the Eighties". Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.
- "Postmodern Metanarratives: Blade Runner and Literature in the Age of Image" (PDF). AthabascaU.ca. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Jesse (27 January 2013). "Speculiction...: Review of "Mirrorshades: The Cyberpunk Anthology" Edited by Bruce Sterling". Speculiction.Blogspot.com. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Bethke crashes the cyberpunk system - October 8, 1997". wc.arizona.edu. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015.
- "The Cyberpunk Movement – Cyberpunk authors". Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute. Archived from the original on 2009-07-20. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
- Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-7486-1799-X.
- Chaplin, Julia (17 June 2007). "Hidden Tokyo". The New York Times.
- Gibson, William (30 April 2001). "The Future Perfect". Time. Time International.
- James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-521-01657-6.
- Campbell, Neil (2000). The Cultures of the New American West. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 1-57958-288-5.
- Seed, David (2005). Publishing. Blackwell. p. 220. ISBN 1-4051-1218-2.
- "Cyberpunk 2021".
- Gibson, William (August 1984). Neuromancer. Ace Books. p. 69. ISBN 0-441-56956-0.
- Redmond, Sean (2004). Liquid Metal: The Science Fiction Film Reader. Wallflower Press. pp. 101–112.
- Sahr Johnny, "Cybercity - Sahr Johnny's Shanghai Dream" That's Shanghai, October 2005; quoted online by .
- Wheale, Nigel (1995), The Postmodern Arts: An Introductory Reader, Routledge, p. 107, ISBN 978-0-415-07776-7, retrieved July 27, 2011
- Taylor, Todd W. (1998). Literacy Theory in the Age of the Internet. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-231-11331-5.
- FAQ file Archived 2005-08-27 at the Wayback Machine (from the alt.cyberpunk Usenet group)
- Brin, David The Transparent Society, Basic Books, 1998 Book link
- Clarke, Arthur C. "The Last Question," Science Fiction Quarterly, 1956
- Flanagan, Mary; Booth, Austin (2002). Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0262062275.
- Lavigne, Carlen (2013). Cyberpunk Women, Feminism and Science Fiction: A Critical Study. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. p. 51. ISBN 9780786466535.
- Bethke, Bruce. "Cyberpunk" Amazing Science Fiction Stories, Vol. 57, No. 4; November 1983 Link
- John Shirley. Two Cyberpunks: Sterling and Rucker 1999 Link Archived 2008-12-31 at the Wayback Machine
- Blue, Violet. Wetware: Cyberpunk Erotica (First ed.). Digita Publications. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- "Jargon File definition".
- Brians, Paul. "Study Guide for William Gibson: Neuromancer (1984)" Washington State University
- James, Edward. Science Fiction in the 20th Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 1994. p. 197
- Eiss, Harry Edwin (2014-03-25). Electric sheep slouching towards Bethlehem: speculative fiction in a post modern world. ISBN 9781443856362. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Cavallaro, Dani (January 2000). Cyberpunk & Cyberculture: Science Fiction and the Work of William Gibson. p. 13. ISBN 9780485006070. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Brian Stonehill, "Pynchon's Prophecies of Cyberspace." Delivered at the first international conference on Pynchon, the University of Warwick, England, November 1994.
- Booker, M. Keith (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War:American Science Fiction and the Roots of Postmodernism, 1946–1964. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 60. ISBN 0-313-31873-5.
- Grebowicz, Margret (2007). SciFi in the Mind's Eye: Reading Science Through Science Fiction. Open Court Publishing Company. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-8126-9630-1.
- David Brin, Review of The Matrix Archived 2008-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
- Jameson, Fredric (1991). Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (PDF). Duke University Press. p. 419. ISBN 1617230022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-02.
- Yoo, Paula. "Cyberpunk - In Print -- Hacker Generation Gets Plugged Into New Magazine", Seattle Times. Seattle, Wash.: Feb 18, 1993. pg. G.3
- Kerman, Judith (1997). Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. Popular Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-87972-510-9.
- Gibson, William (2006-07-21). "Burst City Trailer". Archived from the original on 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- "What is cyberpunk?". Polygon. August 30, 2018.
- Player, Mark (13 May 2011). "Post-Human Nightmares – The World of Japanese Cyberpunk Cinema". Midnight Eye. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- Ruh, Brian (2000), "Liberating Cels: Forms of the Female in Japanese Cyberpunk Animation Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine." AnimeResearch.com December 2000.
- "How 'Akira' Has Influenced All Your Favourite TV, Film and Music". VICE. September 21, 2016.
- "'Akira' Is Frequently Cited as Influential. Why Is That?". Film School Rejects. April 3, 2017.
- "200 Things That Rocked Our World: Bullet Time". Empire. EMAP (200): 136. February 2006.
- Woerner, Meredith (2 February 2012). "Chronicle captures every teen's fantasy of fighting back, say film's creators". io9. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Rian Johnson Talks Working with Joseph Gordon-Levitt on LOOPER, Hollywood's Lack of Originality, Future Projects and More". Collider. 2012-09-25.
- Hopper, Ben (February 20, 2001). "Great Games Snatcher". GameCritics.com. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- "Half-Life tiene varias referencias a Akira". MeriStation (in Spanish). Diario AS. August 29, 2018.
- "The most impressive PC mods ever made". TechRadar. June 14, 2018.
- "FEATURE: "Life is Strange" Interview and Hands-on Impressions". Crunchyroll. January 28, 2015.
- "Lupe Fiasco's 'Tetsuo & Youth' Avoiding Politics – Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. 2013-10-25. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- Francisco, Eric. "'Ready Player One' Anime Easter Eggs Include Gundam, Voltron and Much More". inverse.com.
- "Cyberpunk 2077 devs "will be significantly more open"". PCGamesN. June 12, 2018.
- Joel Silver, interviewed in "Making The Matrix" featurette on The Matrix DVD.
- Rose, Steve (19 October 2009). "Hollywood is haunted by Ghost in the Shell". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Rose, Steve (October 19, 2009), "Hollywood is haunted by Ghost in the Shell", The Guardian, archived from the original on March 8, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
- Schrodt, Paul (1 April 2017). "How the original 'Ghost in the Shell' changed sci-fi and the way we think about the future". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "Megazone 23 - Retroactive Influence". A.D. Vision. Archived from the original on 2005-02-04. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- "Live-Action "Alita: Battle Angel" Finally Shows Its Hand". Crunchyroll. December 8, 2017.
- Webster, Andrew (9 April 2020). "Redesigning Midgar, Final Fantasy VII Remake's gritty cyberpunk metropolis". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- "Everything we know about Cyberpunk 2077". pcgamer. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
- Fillari, Alessandro (2018-06-14). "E3 2018: Here's Why Cyberpunk 2077 Had To Be A First-Person Game". GameSpot. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
- "Cyberpunk 2077 is CD Projekt Red's Next Game". IGN.com. 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2012-11-05.
- "SJ Games Raided", Jackson, Steve, Steve Jackson Games website, Friday, 19 April 1990
- Romandetta, Julie (1993-06-25). "Cyber Sound: Old Fashioned Rock Gets a Future Shock from New Technology". Boston Herald. Boston, Mass. United States.
- SHELLZINE (December 26, 2019). "Cyberpunk Music: Origins and Evolution". shellzine.net. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- Ham, Robert. "Exo - Gatekeeper". AllMusic. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Ward, Christian (January 29, 2014). "Vaporwave: Soundtrack to Austerity". Stylus.com. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- Suzuki, David (2003). Good News for a Change:How Everyday People Are Helping the Planet. Greystone Books. p. 332. ISBN 1-55054-926-X.
- "A New Look at Kowloon Walled City, the Internet's Favorite Cyberpunk Slum". 2014-04-03.
- Michael Berry, "Wacko Victorian Fantasy Follows 'Cyberpunk' Mold," The San Francisco Chronicle, 25 June 1987; quoted online by Wordspy.
- McHale, Brian (1991). "POSTcyberMODERNpunkISM." in Larry McCaffery, ed., Storming the Reality Studio: A Casebook of Cyberpunk and Postmodern Science Fiction. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, pp. 308–323
- CYBERPUNK - Trademark Details - Justia
- CYBERPUNK - European Union Intellectual Property Office
- Frank, Allegra (6 April 2017). "The Witcher studio assuages concerns over 'Cyberpunk' trademark". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- Cyberpunk on The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
- The Cyberpunk Directory—Comprehensive directory of cyberpunk resources
- Cyberpunk Media Archive Archive of cyberpunk media
- The Cyberpunk Project—A project dedicated toward maintaining a cyberpunk database, library, and other information
- cyberpunks.com A website dedicated to cyberpunk themed news and media