Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
|United States Senator|
from New York
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 2001
|Preceded by||James Buckley|
|Succeeded by||Hillary Clinton|
|Chair of the Senate Finance Committee|
January 3, 1993 – January 3, 1995
|Preceded by||Lloyd Bentsen|
|Succeeded by||Bob Packwood|
|Chair of the Senate Environment Committee|
September 8, 1992 – January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Quentin Burdick|
|Succeeded by||Max Baucus|
|12th United States Ambassador to the United Nations|
June 30, 1975 – February 2, 1976
|Preceded by||John Scali|
|Succeeded by||Bill Scranton|
|10th United States Ambassador to India|
February 28, 1973 – January 7, 1975
|Preceded by||Kenneth Keating|
|Succeeded by||Bill Saxbe|
|Counselor to the President|
November 5, 1969 – December 31, 1970
|Preceded by||Arthur Burns|
|Succeeded by||Donald Rumsfeld|
|White House Urban Affairs Advisor|
January 23, 1969 – November 4, 1969
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||John Ehrlichman |
|Born||March 16, 1927|
Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.
|Died||March 26, 2003 (aged 76)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Elizabeth Brennan (m. 1955)
|Education||Tufts University (BS, BA, MA, PhD)|
London School of Economics
|Branch/service||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1944–1947|
|Rank||Lieutenant (Junior Grade)|
|Unit||USS Quirinus (ARL-39)|
Daniel Patrick "Pat" Moynihan (March 16, 1927 – March 26, 2003) was an American politician, sociologist, and diplomat. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented New York in the United States Senate and served as an adviser to Republican U.S. President Richard Nixon.
Born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Moynihan moved at a young age to New York City. Following a stint in the navy, he earned a Ph.D. in history from Tufts University. He worked on the staff of New York Governor W. Averell Harriman before joining President John F. Kennedy's administration in 1961. He served as an Assistant Secretary of Labor under Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson, devoting much of his time to the War on Poverty. In 1965, he published the controversial Moynihan Report. Moynihan left the Johnson administration in 1965 and became a professor at Harvard University.
In 1969, he accepted Nixon's offer to serve as an Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and he was elevated to the position of Counselor to the President later that year. He left the administration at the end of 1970, and accepted appointment as United States Ambassador to India in 1973. He accepted President Gerald Ford's appointment to the position of United States Ambassador to the United Nations in 1975, holding that position until 1976, when he won election to the Senate.
Moynihan represented New York in the Senate from 1977 to 2001. He served as Chairman of the Senate Environment Committee from 1992 to 1993 and as Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee from 1993 to 1995. He also led the Moynihan Secrecy Commission, which studied the regulation of classified information. He emerged as a strong critic of President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy and opposed President Bill Clinton's health care plan. He frequently broke with liberal positions, but opposed welfare reform in the 1990s. He also voted against the Defense of Marriage Act, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Congressional authorization for the Gulf War. He is tied with Jacob K. Javits as the longest-serving Senator from the state of New York.
Early life and education
Moynihan was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the son of Margaret Ann (née Phipps), a homemaker, and John Henry Moynihan, a reporter for a daily newspaper in Tulsa. He moved at the age of six with his Irish Catholic family to New York City. Brought up in a poor neighborhood of Hell's Kitchen, he shined shoes, attended various public, private, and parochial schools, and ultimately graduated from Benjamin Franklin High School in East Harlem. He was a parishioner of St. Raphael's Church, Hell's Kitchen, and also cast his first vote in that church. He and his brother, Michael Willard Moynihan, spent most of their childhood summers at their grandfather's farm in Bluffton, Indiana. Moynihan briefly worked as a longshoreman before entering the City College of New York (CCNY), which at that time provided free higher education to city residents.
Following a year at CCNY, Moynihan joined the United States Navy in 1944. He was assigned to the V-12 Navy College Training Program at Middlebury College from 1944 to 1945 and then enrolled as a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps student at Tufts University, where he received an undergraduate degree in naval science in 1946. He completed active service as gunnery officer of the USS Quirinus at the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) in 1947. Moynihan then returned to Tufts, where he completed a second undergraduate degree in sociology cum laude in 1948 and earned an M.A. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1949.
After failing the Foreign Service Officer exam, he continued his doctoral studies at the Fletcher School as a Fulbright fellow at the London School of Economics from 1950 to 1953. During this period, Moynihan struggled with writer's block and began to fashion himself as a "dandy," cultivating "a taste for Savile Row suits, rococo conversational riffs and Churchillian oratory" even as he maintained that "nothing and no one at LSE ever disposed me to be anything but a New York Democrat who had some friends who worked on the docks and drank beer after work."
He ultimately received his Ph.D. in history (with a dissertation on the relationship between the United States and the International Labour Organization) from the Fletcher School in 1961 while serving as an assistant professor of political science and director of a government research project centered around Averell Harriman's papers at Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs.
Political career and return to academia
Moynihan's political career started in the 1950s, when he served as a member of New York Governor Averell Harriman's staff in a variety of positions (including speechwriter and acting secretary to the governor). He met his future wife, Elizabeth (Liz) Brennan, who also worked on Harriman's staff.
This period ended following Harriman's loss to Nelson Rockefeller in the 1958 general election. Moynihan returned to academia, serving as a lecturer for brief periods at Russell Sage College (1957–1958) and the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations (1959) before taking a tenure-track position at Syracuse University (1959–1961). During this period, Moynihan was a delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention as part of John F. Kennedy's delegate pool.
Kennedy and Johnson Administrations; controversy over the War on Poverty
Moynihan first served in the Kennedy administration as special (1961–1962) and executive (1962–1963) assistant to Labor Secretaries Arthur J. Goldberg and W. Willard Wirtz. In 1962, he authored the directive "Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture", which discouraged use of an official style for federal buildings, and has been credited with enabling "a wide ranging set of innovative public building projects" in subsequent decades, including the San Francisco Federal Building and the United States Courthouse in Austin, Texas.
He was then appointed as Assistant Secretary of Labor for Policy, Planning and Research, serving from 1963 to 1965 under Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. In this capacity, he did not have operational responsibilities. He devoted his time to trying to formulate national policy for what would become the War on Poverty. His small staff included Ralph Nader.
They took inspiration from historian Stanley Elkins's Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959). Elkins essentially contended that slavery had made black Americans dependent on the dominant society, and that such dependence still existed a century later after the American Civil War. Moynihan and his staff believed that government must go beyond simply ensuring that members of minority groups have the same rights as the majority and must also "act affirmatively" in order to counter the problem of historic discrimination.
Moynihan's research of Labor Department data demonstrated that even as fewer people were unemployed, more people were joining the welfare rolls. These recipients were families with children but only one parent (almost invariably the mother). The laws at that time permitted such families to receive welfare payments in certain parts of the United States.
Moynihan issued his research in 1965 under the title The Negro Family: The Case For National Action, now commonly known as The Moynihan Report. Moynihan's report fueled a debate over the proper course for government to take with regard to the economic underclass, especially blacks. Critics on the left attacked it as "blaming the victim", a slogan coined by psychologist William Ryan. Some suggested that Moynihan was propagating the views of racists because much of the press coverage of the report focused on the discussion of children being born out of wedlock. Despite Moynihan's warnings, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program included rules for payments only if no "Man [was] in the house." Critics said that the nation was paying poor women to throw their husbands out of the house.
After the 1994 Republican sweep of Congress, Moynihan agreed that correction was needed for a welfare system that possibly encouraged women to raise their children without fathers: "The Republicans are saying we have a hell of a problem, and we do."
Local New York City politics and ongoing academic career
By the 1964 presidential election, Moynihan was recognized as a political ally of Robert F. Kennedy. For this reason he was not favored by then-President Johnson, and he left the Johnson Administration in 1965. He ran for office in the Democratic Party primary for the presidency of the New York City Council, a position now known as the New York City Public Advocate. However, he was defeated by Queens District Attorney Frank D. O'Connor.
During this transitional period, Moynihan maintained an academic affiliation as a fellow at Wesleyan University's Center for Advanced Studies from 1964 to 1967. In 1966, he was appointed to the faculties of Harvard University's Graduate School of Education and Graduate School of Public Administration as a full professor of education and urban politics. After commencing a second extended leave because of his public service in 1973, his faculty line was transferred to the University's Department of Government, where he remained until 1977. From 1966 to 1969, he also held a secondary administrative appointment as director of the Harvard–MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies. With turmoil and riots in the United States, Moynihan, "a national board member of ADA incensed at the radicalism of the current anti-war and Black Power movements", decided to "call for a formal alliance between liberals and conservatives," and wrote that the next administration would have to be able to unite the nation again.
Connecting with President-elect Richard Nixon in 1968, Moynihan joined the Executive Office of the President in January 1969 as Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and executive secretary of the Council of Urban Affairs (later the Urban Affairs Council), a forerunner of the Domestic Policy Council envisaged as an analog to the United States National Security Council. As one of the few people in Nixon's inner circle who had done academic research related to social policies, he was very influential in the early months of the administration. However, his disdain for "traditional budget-conscious positions" (including his proposed Family Assistance Plan, a "negative income tax or guaranteed minimum income" for families that met work requirements or demonstrated that they were seeking work which ultimately stalled in the Senate despite prefiguring the later Supplemental Security Income program) led to frequent clashes (belying their unwavering mutual respect) with Nixon's principal domestic policy advisor, conservative economist and Cabinet-rank Counselor to the President Arthur F. Burns.
Although Moynihan was promoted to Counselor to the President for Urban Affairs with Cabinet rank shortly after Burns was nominated by Nixon to serve as Chair of the Federal Reserve in October 1969, it was concurrently announced that Moynihan would be returning to Harvard (a stipulation of his leave from the University) at the end of 1970. Accordingly, operational oversight of the Urban Affairs Council was given to Moynihan's nominal successor as Domestic Policy Assistant, former White House Counsel John Ehrlichman. This decision was instigated by White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, a close friend of Ehrlichman since college and his main patron in the administration. Haldeman's maneuvering situated Moynihan in a more peripheral context as the administration's "resident thinker" on domestic affairs for the duration of his service.
In 1969, on Nixon's initiative, NATO tried to establish a third civil column, establishing a hub of research and initiatives in the civil area, dealing as well with environmental topics. Moynihan named acid rain and the Greenhouse effect as suitable international challenges to be dealt by NATO. NATO was chosen, since the organization had suitable expertise in the field, as well as experience with international research coordination. The German government was skeptical and saw the initiative as an attempt by the US to regain international terrain after the lost Vietnam War. The topics gained momentum in civil conferences and institutions.
In 1970, Moynihan wrote a memo to President Nixon saying, "The time may have come when the issue of race could benefit from a period of 'benign neglect'. The subject has been too much talked about. The forum has been too much taken over to hysterics, paranoids, and boodlers on all sides. We need a period in which Negro progress continues and racial rhetoric fades." Moynihan regretted that critics misinterpreted his memo as advocating that the government should neglect minorities.
Following the October 1969 reorganization of the White House domestic policy staff, Moynihan was offered the position of United States Ambassador to the United Nations (then held by career Foreign Service Officer Charles Woodruff Yost) by Nixon on November 17, 1969; after initially accepting the president's offer, he decided to remain in Washington when the Family Assistance Plan stalled in the Senate Finance Committee. On November 24, 1970, he refused a second offer from Nixon due to potential familial strain and ongoing financial problems; depression stemming from the repudiation of the Family Assistance Plan by liberal Democrats; and the inability to effect change due to static policy directives in what amounted to a tertiary role behind Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Henry Kissinger and United States Secretary of State William P. Rogers. Instead, he commuted from Harvard as a part-time member of the United States delegation during the ambassadorship of George H.W. Bush.
In 1973, Moynihan (who was circumspect toward the administration's "tilt" to Pakistan) accepted Nixon's offer to serve as United States Ambassador to India, where he would remain until 1975. The relationship between the two countries was at a low point following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Ambassador Moynihan was alarmed that two great democracies were cast as antagonists, and set out to fix things. He proposed that part of the burdensome debt be written off, part used to pay for US embassy expenses in India, and the remaining converted into Indian rupees to fund an Indo-US cultural and educational exchange program that lasted for a quarter century. On February 18, 1974, he presented to the Government of India a check for 16,640,000,000 rupees, then equivalent to $2,046,700,000, which was the greatest amount paid by a single check in the history of banking. The "Rupee Deal" is logged in the Guinness Book of World Records for the world's largest check, written by Ambassador Moynihan to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
In June 1975, Moynihan accepted his third offer to serve as United States Ambassador to the United Nations, a position (including a rotation as President of the United Nations Security Council) that he would only hold until February 1976. Under President Gerald Ford, Ambassador Moynihan took a hardline anti-communist stance, in line with the agenda of the White House at the time. He was also a strong supporter of Israel, condemning UN Resolution 3379, which declared Zionism to be a form of racism. Moynihan's wife Liz later recalled being approached in the UN galleries by Permanent PLO Observer to the UN Zehdi Terzi during the controversy. He made a remark of which she later did not remember the exact phrasing, but rendered it approximately as 'you must have mixed feelings about remembering events in New Delhi', which she and biographer Gil Troy interpreted as a threatening reference to a failed assassination plan against her husband two years earlier. But the American public responded enthusiastically to his moral outrage over the resolution; his condemnation of the "Zionism is Racism" resolution brought him celebrity status and helped him win a US Senate seat a year later. In his book, Moynihan's Moment, Gil Troy posits that Moynihan's 1975 UN speech opposing the resolution was the key moment of his political career.
Perhaps the most controversial action of Moynihan's career was his response, as Ambassador to the UN, to the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975. Gerald Ford considered Indonesia, then under a military dictatorship, a key ally against Communism, which was influential in East Timor. Moynihan ensured that the UN Security Council took no action against the larger nation's annexation of a small country. The Indonesian invasion caused the deaths of 100,000–200,000 Timorese through violence, illness, and hunger. In his memoir, Moynihan wrote:
The United States wished things to turn out as they did, and worked to bring this about. The Department of State desired that the United Nations prove utterly ineffective in whatever measures it undertook. This task was given to me, and I carried it forward with no inconsiderable success.
Moynihan's thinking began to change during his tenure at the UN. In his 1993 book on nationalism, Pandaemonium, he wrote that as time progressed, he began to view the Soviet Union in less ideological terms. He regarded it less as an expansionist, imperialist Marxist state, and more as a weak realist state in decline. He believed it was most motivated by self-preservation. This view would influence his thinking in subsequent years, when he became an outspoken proponent of the then-unpopular view that the Soviet Union was a failed state headed for implosion.
Nevertheless, Moynihan's tenure at the UN marked the beginnings of a more bellicose, neoconservative American foreign policy that turned away from Kissinger's unabashedly covert, détente-driven realpolitik. Although it was never substantiated, Moynihan initially believed that Kissinger directed Ivor Richard, Baron Richard (then British Ambassador to the United Nations) to publicly denounce his actions as "Wyatt Earp" diplomacy. Demoralized, Moynihan resigned from what he would subsequently characterize as an "abbreviated posting" in February 1976. In Pandaemonium, Moynihan expounded upon this decision, maintaining that he was "something of an embarrassment to my own government, and fairly soon left before I was fired."
Career in the Senate
In November 1976, Moynihan was elected to the U.S. Senate from the State of New York, defeating U.S. Representative Bella Abzug, former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark, New York City Council President Paul O'Dwyer and businessman Abraham Hirschfeld in the Democratic primary, and Conservative Party incumbent James L. Buckley in the general election. Shortly after election, Moynihan analyzed the State of New York's budget to determine whether it was paying out more in federal taxes than it received in spending. Finding that it was, he produced a yearly report known as the Fisc (from the French). Moynihan's strong support for Israel while UN Ambassador inspired support for him among the state's large Jewish population.
In an August 7, 1978 speech to the Senate, following the jailing of M. A. Farber, Moynihan stated the possibility of Congress having to become involved with securing press freedom and that the Senate should be aware of the issue's seriousness.
Moynihan's strong advocacy for New York's interests in the Senate, buttressed by the Fisc reports and recalling his strong advocacy for US positions in the UN, did at least on one occasion allow his advocacy to escalate into a physical attack. Senator Kit Bond, nearing retirement in 2010, recalled with some embarrassment in a conversation on civility in political discourse that Moynihan had once "slugged [Bond] on the Senate floor after Bond denounced an earmark Moynihan had slipped into a highway appropriations bill. Some months later Moynihan apologized, and the two occasionally would relax in Moynihan's office after a long day to discuss their shared interest in urban renewal over a glass of port."
Moynihan continued to be interested in foreign policy as a Senator, sitting on the Select Committee on Intelligence. His strongly anti-Soviet views became far more moderate, as he emerged as a critic of the Ronald Reagan Administration's hawkish Cold War policies, such as support for the Contras in Nicaragua. Moynihan argued there was no active Soviet-backed conspiracy in Latin America, or anywhere. He suggested the Soviets were suffering from massive internal problems, such as rising ethnic nationalism and a collapsing economy. In a December 21, 1986, editorial in The New York Times, Moynihan predicted the replacement on the world stage of Communist expansion with ethnic conflicts. He criticized the Reagan Administration's "consuming obsession with the expansion of Communism – which is not in fact going on." In a September 8, 1990, letter to Erwin Griswold, Moynihan wrote: "I have one purpose left in life; or at least in the Senate. It is to try to sort out what would be involved in reconstituting the American government in the aftermath of the cold war. Huge changes took place, some of which we hardly notice." In 1981 he and fellow Irish-American politicians Senator Ted Kennedy and Speaker of the House Tip O'Neill co-founded the Friends of Ireland, a bi-partisan organization of Senators and Representatives who opposed the ongoing sectarian violence and aimed to promote peace and reconciliation in Northern Ireland.
Moynihan introduced Section 1706 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which cost certain professionals (like computer programmers, engineers, draftspersons, and designers) who depended on intermediary agencies (consulting firms) a self-employed tax status option, but other professionals (like accountants and lawyers) continued to enjoy Section 530 exemptions from payroll taxes. This change in the tax code was expected to offset the tax revenue losses of other legislation that Moynihan proposed to change the law of foreign taxes of Americans working abroad. Joseph Stack, who flew his airplane into a building housing IRS offices on February 18, 2010, posted a suicide note that, among many factors, mentioned the Section 1706 change to the Internal Revenue Code.
As a key Environment and Public Works Committee member, Moynihan gave vital support and guidance to William K. Reilly, who served under President George H.W. Bush as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
In the mid-1990s, Moynihan was one of the Democrats to support the ban on the procedure known as partial-birth abortion. He said of the procedure: "I think this is just too close to infanticide. A child has been born and it has exited the uterus. What on Earth is this procedure?" Earlier in his career in the Senate, Moynihan had expressed his annoyance with the adamantly pro-choice interest groups petitioning him and others on the issue. He challenged them saying, "you women are ruining the Democratic Party with your insistence on abortion."
Moynihan broke with orthodox liberal positions of his party on numerous occasions. As chairman of the Senate Finance Committee in the 1990s, he strongly opposed President Bill Clinton's proposal to expand health care coverage to all Americans. Seeking to focus the debate over health insurance on the financing of health care, Moynihan garnered controversy by stating that "there is no health care crisis in this country."
On other issues though, he was much more progressive. He voted against the death penalty; the flag desecration amendment; the balanced budget amendment, the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act; the Defense of Marriage Act; the Communications Decency Act; and the North American Free Trade Agreement. He was critical of proposals to replace the progressive income tax with a flat tax. Moynihan also voted against authorization of the Gulf War. Despite his earlier writings on the negative effects of the welfare state, he ended by voting against welfare reform in 1996, a bill that removed unemployment benefits. He was sharply critical of the bill and certain Democrats who crossed party lines to support it.
Moynihan was a popular public speaker with a distinctly patrician style. He had some peculiar mannerisms of speech, in the form of slight stuttering and drawn-out vowels for emphasis. Linguist Geoffrey Nunberg compared his speaking style to that of William F. Buckley, Jr.
Commission on Government Secrecy
In the post-Cold War era, the 103rd Congress enacted legislation directing an inquiry into the uses of government secrecy. Moynihan chaired the commission, which studied and made recommendations on the "culture of secrecy" that pervaded the United States government and its intelligence community for 80 years, beginning with the Espionage Act of 1917, and made recommendations on the statutory regulation of classified information.
The commission's findings and recommendations were presented to the President in 1997. As part of the effort, Moynihan secured release from the Federal Bureau of Investigation of its classified Venona file. This file documents the FBI's joint counterintelligence investigation, with the United States Signals Intelligence Service, into Soviet espionage within the United States. Much of the information had been collected and classified as secret information for over 50 years.
After release of the information, Moynihan authored Secrecy: The American Experience where he discussed the impact government secrecy has had on the domestic politics of America for the past half century, and how myths and suspicion created an unnecessary partisan chasm.
Career as scholar
As a public intellectual, Moynihan published articles on urban ethnic politics and on the problems of the poor in cities of the Northeast in numerous publications, including Commentary and The Public Interest.
Moynihan coined the term "professionalization of reform," by which the government bureaucracy thinks up problems for government to solve rather than simply responding to problems identified elsewhere.
In 1983, he was awarded the Hubert H. Humphrey Award given by the American Political Science Association "in recognition of notable public service by a political scientist." He wrote 19 books, leading his personal friend, columnist and former professor George F. Will, to remark that Moynihan "wrote more books than most senators have read." After retiring from the Senate, he rejoined the faculty of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, where he began his academic career in 1959.
Moynihan's scholarly accomplishments led Michael Barone, writing in The Almanac of American Politics to describe the senator as "the nation's best thinker among politicians since Lincoln and its best politician among thinkers since Jefferson." Moynihan's 1993 article, "Defining Deviancy Down", was notably controversial.
- Beyond the Melting Pot, an influential study of American ethnicity, which he co-authored with Nathan Glazer (1963)
- The Negro Family: The Case For National Action, known as the Moynihan Report (1965)
- Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding: Community Action in the War on Poverty (1969) ISBN 0-02-922000-9
- Violent Crimes (1970) ISBN 0-8076-6053-1
- Coping: Essays on the Practice of Government (1973) ISBN 0-394-48324-3
- The Politics of a Guaranteed Income: The Nixon Administration and the Family Assistance Plan (1973) ISBN 0-394-46354-4.
- Business and Society in Change (1975) OCLC 1440432
- A Dangerous Place coauthor Suzanne Garment, (1978) ISBN 0-316-58699-4
- Best Editorial Cartoons of the Year, 1980 (1980) ISBN 1-56554-516-8
- Family and Nation: The Godkin Lectures (1986) ISBN 0-15-630140-7
- Came the Revolution (1988)
- On the Law of Nations (1990) ISBN 0-674-63576-0
- Pandaemonium: Ethnicity in International Politics (1994) ISBN 0-19-827946-9
- Miles to Go: A Personal History of Social Policy (1996) ISBN 0-674-57441-9
- Secrecy: The American Experience (1998) ISBN 0-300-08079-4
- Future of the Family (2003) ISBN 0-87154-628-0
Awards and honors
- The 5th Annual Heinz Award in Public Policy (1999)
- Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Tufts, his alma mater.
- 1989 Honor Award from the National Building Museum
- In 1989, Moynihan received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
- On August 9, 2000, he was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Clinton.
- In 1994 the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Moynihan its Lone Sailor Award for his naval service and subsequent government service.
Death and posthumous honors
In 2003, Moynihan died at the age of 76 after complications (infection) suffered from an emergency appendectomy about a month earlier. He was survived by his wife of 48 years, Elizabeth Brennan Moynihan; three grown children, Timothy Patrick Moynihan, Maura Russell Moynihan and John McCloskey Moynihan; and two grandchildren, Michael Avedon and Zora Olea.
Moynihan was honored posthumously:
- In 2004, Michael Bloomberg, the Mayor of New York City, announced plans for an expanded and renovated Penn Station. A new Amtrak and Long Island Rail Road concourse will be built in the James Farley Post Office building, a block from the current facility. The new facility would be named "Moynihan Station" (later "Moynihan Train Hall") in Moynihan's honor. Moynihan had long championed the project, which will be a replica of the original Penn Station; he had shined shoes in the original station as a boy during the Great Depression. During his latter years in the Senate, Moynihan had to secure federal approvals and financing for the project.
- In 2005, the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs of Syracuse University renamed its Global Affairs Institute as the Moynihan Institute of Global Affairs.
- The federal district courthouse in Manhattan's Foley Square was named in his honor.
- "I don't think there's any point in being Irish if you don't know that the world is going to break your heart eventually. I guess that we thought we had a little more time."
– Reacting to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, November 1963
- "No one is innocent after the experience of governing. But not everyone is guilty."
– The Politics of a Guaranteed Income, 1973
- "Secrecy is for losers. For people who do not know how important the information really is."
– Secrecy: The American Experience, 1998
- The quote also adds, "The Soviet Union realized this too late. Openness is now a singular, and singularly American, advantage."
- "The issue of race could benefit from a period of benign neglect."
– Memo to President Richard Nixon
- "Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not his own facts."
– Column in January 18, 1983 Washington Post. Based on an earlier quote by James R. Schlesinger.
- (In response to the question: "Why should I work if I am going to just end up emptying slop jars?") "That's a complaint you hear mostly from people who don't empty slop jars. This country has a lot of people who do exactly that for a living. And they do it well. It's not pleasant work, but it's a living. And it has to be done. Somebody has to go around and empty all those bed pans. And it's perfectly honorable work. There's nothing the matter with doing it. Indeed, there is a lot that is right about doing it, as any hospital patient will tell you."
- "Food growing is the first thing you do when you come down out of the trees. The question is, how come the United States can grow food and you can't?"
– speaking to Third World countries about global famine
- "The central conservative truth is that it is culture, not politics, that determines the success of a society. The central liberal truth is that politics can change a culture and save it from itself."
- "Truman left the Presidency thinking that Whittaker Chambers, Elizabeth Bentley were nuts, crackpots, scoundrels, and I think you could say that a fissure began in American political life that's never really closed. It reverberates, and I can say more about it. But in the main, American liberalism—Arthur Schlesinger, one of the conspicuous examples—got it wrong. We were on the side of the people who denied this, and a president who could have changed his rhetoric, explained it, told the American people, didn't know the facts, they were secret, and they were kept from him."
– Secrecy: The American Experience, October 1998
- Chuck Schumer will join them when he completes the term to which he was elected in 2016.
- H.W. Wilson Company (1986). Current Biography Yearbook. 47. H. W. Wilson Company. ISSN 0084-9499. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Gonzales, J.L. (1991). The lives of ethnic Americans. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. ISBN 9780840364876. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Clines, Francis X. (March 15, 2004). "Opinion | The City Life; Recalling a Complicated Man". The New York Times.
- NYC Organ History Website (Accessed January 24, 2011)
- "Daniel Patrick Moynihan". nixonlibrary.gov. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Troy, G. (2013). Moynihan's Moment: America's Fight Against Zionism as Racism. OUP USA. p. 44. ISBN 9780199920303. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "The United States and the International Labor Organization, 1889–1934 – ProQuest". Retrieved January 26, 2017 – via ProQuest.
- "Marquis Biographies Online". search.marquiswhoswho.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Dullea, Georgia (October 27, 1976). "Elizabeth Moynihan Leaves the Sidelines for an Active Role in Senate Race". New York Times.
- Pacheco, Antonio (February 4, 2020). "New executive order could make classical architecture "the preferred and default style" for America's public buildings". Archinect. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "U.S. Department of Labor – History – The Negro Family – The Case for National Action (Moynihan's War on Poverty report)". dol.gov. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- The National Review; March 27, 2003
- See William Ryan, Blaming the Victim, Random House, 1971
- Graebner, William. "The End of Liberalism: Narrating Welfare's Decline, from the Moynihan Report (1965) to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (1996)", Journal of Policy History, Vol. 14, Number 2, 2002, pp. 170–190
- "Man-in-the-House Rule". TheFreeDictionary.com.
- Lacayo, Richard (December 19, 1994). "Down on the Downtrodden". Time Magazine. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- Rothbard, Murray N.. Confessions of a Right-Wing Liberal, Ludwig von Mises Institute
- "When Nixon Listened to Liberal Moynihan – Bloomberg View". bloomberg.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Hess, S. (2014). The Professor and the President: Daniel Patrick Moynihan in the Nixon White House. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 9780815726166. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Friedman, L.; Levantrosser, W.F.; Hofstra University (1991). Richard M. Nixon: Politician, President, Administrator. Greenwood Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780313276538. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Die Frühgeschichte der globalen Umweltkrise und die Formierung der deutschen Umweltpolitik(1950–1973) (Early history of the environmental crisis and the setup of German environmental policy 1950–1973), Kai F. Hünemörder, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004 ISBN 3-515-08188-7
- "1579: Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927–2003)". Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations. Bartleby. 1989.
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- Moynihan, D.; Weisman, S. (2010). Daniel Patrick Moynihan: A Portrait in Letters of an American Visionary. PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781586489205. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- An American Original, Vanity Fair, October 2010
- America can learn from India, India Today, November 6, 2010
- Daniel Moynihan, WRMEA.
- Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
- Troy, Gil, Moynihan's Moment: America's Fight Against Zionism as Racism (2012), New York: Oxford University Press, page 55, ISBN 978-0-19-992030-3
- Moynihan's Moment, page 6
- With Words We Govern Men, Suzanne Garment, Jewish Review of Books, Winter 2013
- "Chega! The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
- Conflict-Related Deaths In Timor-Leste: 1974–1999 Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor
- A Dangerous Place, Little Brown, 1980, p. 247
- Pandaemonium: Ethnicity in International Politics, Oxford University Press 1993, page 153
- Moynihan's Moment, p. 159
- "The History of the Fisc"[permanent dead link], on the Fisc Report website. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Alan H. Levy (2013). The Political Life of Bella Abzug, 1920–1976: Political Passions, Women's Rights, and Congressional Battles. Lexington Books. p. 252. ISBN 9780739181652.
- "Moynihan Sees Need For Bill to Guarantee Freedom of the Press". The New York Times. August 8, 1978.
- "Uncivil society: Jim Leach '64 leads an effort to restore respectful discourse to our national life, but it's tough going", by Mark F. Bernstein, Princeton Alumni Weekly, June 2, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Kauffman, Bill. The Other Eisenhowers, The American Conservative
- "New Tax Law threatens high-tech consultants" by Karla Jennings, The New York Times, February 22, 1987 (p. 11 in paper). Link retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Newsday, February 22, 2010, p. A19; "Simmering for decades, engineer's grudge explodes" by Allen G. Breed, The Associated Press via Newsday, February 21, 2010. Subscription only access. Link retrieved June 17, 2010.
- "Tax Law Was Cited in Software Engineer's Suicide Note" by David Kay Johnston, The New York Times, February 18, 2010. In this article, the Moynihan action is labeled "a favor to IBM", but that was not mentioned in the contemporaneous 2/22/87 Times article cited immediately above. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- EPA Alumni Association: EPA Administrator William K. Reilly notes the valuable relationship he had with Senator Moynihan. Reflections on US Environmental Policy: An Interview with William K. Reilly Video, Transcript (see pages 3,7).
- Human Life Review, Summer 2003, page 13.
- Chapter4: Too close to infanticide GB link at Google Books
- S.J.Res. 14, 106th Congress, 2nd Session, Record Vote Number: 48
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- "Secrecy: The American Experience". Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- The Public Interest, volume 1, Issue 1 1965
- Barone, Michael; Grant Ujifusa (1999). The Almanac of American Politics 2000. Washington D.C.: National Journal. pp. 1090–1091. ISBN 0-8129-3194-7.
Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the nation's best thinker among politicians since Lincoln and its best politician among thinkers since Jefferson, now approaches the end of a long career in public office.
- The American Scholar, vol. 62, no. 1, winter 1993, pp. 17–3
- "Defining Deviancy". www2.sunysuffolk.edu. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "The Big Apple: "Defining deviancy down" (Daniel Patrick Moynihan)". barrypopik.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "The Heinz Awards :: Daniel Patrick Moynihan". heinzawards.net. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Award: Daniel Patrick Moynihan, National Building Museum
- "Jefferson Awards FoundationNational – Jefferson Awards Foundation". jeffersonawards.org. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "American Spaces – Connecting YOU with U.S. #124; Washington File – Transcript: Clinton Remarks at Medal of Freedom Awards". usinfo.org. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Daniel Patrick Moynihan Is Dead; Senator From Academia Was 76" March 27, 2003
- Lemann, Nicholas (2000) The Promised Land . Includes Bill Clinton's statements when awarding Moynihan the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2000, and statements by Senators on the occasion of his death in 2003.
- United States Congress. "Daniel Patrick Moynihan (id: M001054)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
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- "New Penn Station | The Municipal Art Society's Campaign for a Grand Moynihan Station". newpennstation.org. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Moynihan Commission Report". fas.org. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Pat Moynihan, R.I.P. – George Will Tribute Column". townhall.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Moynihan Institute of Global Affairs". maxwell.syr.edu. Archived from the original on February 21, 2006. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
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- "A Real Saint Patrick's Day Seisiún". March 17, 2015.
- "About the Daniel P. Moynihan Papers (Manuscript Reading Room, Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov.
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- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- O'Toole, Garson. "People Are Entitled To Their Own Opinions But Not To Their Own Facts". Quote Investigator. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- In Their Own Words. U.S. News & World Report. May 26 – June 2, 2008.
- Frances Moore Lappe and Joseph Collins. Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity Chapter 12: Why Can't People Feed Themselves?
- Moynihan, Daniel (October 21, 1998). "Secrecy: The American Experience". City University of New York Graduate School: C-SPAN. 44:34 to 45:40 minute mark. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- Geary, Daniel. Beyond Civil Rights: The Moynihan Report and Its Legacy (University of Pennsylvania Press; 2015)
- Hess, Stephen. The Professor and the President: Daniel Patrick Moynihan in the Nixon White House (2014) excerpt
- Hodgson, Godfrey. The Gentleman From New York: Daniel Patrick Moynihan – A Biography (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 2000) 480 pages.
- Hower, Joseph E. "" The Sparrows and the Horses": Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the Family Assistance Plan, and the Liberal Critique of Government Workers, 1955–1977." Journal of Policy History 28.2 (2016): 256-289. online
- Rowe, Daniel. "The Politics of Protest: Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Great Society Liberalism and the Vocal Minority, 1965-1968." PS, Political Science & Politics 50.2 (2017): 388+.
- Weiner, Greg. American Burke: The Uncommon Liberalism of Daniel Patrick Moynihan (University Press of Kansas; 2015) 189 pages;
- Wilson, William Julius. "The Moynihan Report and research on the black community." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 621.1 (2009): 34-46.
- Robert A. Katzmann, ed. Daniel Patrick Moynihan: The Intellectual in Public Life (Johns Hopkins; 2004)
- Steven R. Weisman, ed. Daniel Patrick Moynihan: A Portrait in Letters of an American Visionary (PublicAffairs; 2010) 705 pages; primary sources
- Moynihan, Daniel Patrick. The Negro family: The case for national action(US Government Printing Office, 1965) online.
- Rainwater, Lee, William L. Yancey, and Daniel Patrick Moynihan. Moynihan report and the politics of controversy; a Trans-action social science and public policy report (1967).
- About the Daniel P. Moynihan Papers (Manuscript Reading Room, Library of Congress)
- Daniel Patrick Moynihan Archives at UNZ.org; articles by Moynihan
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Daniel Patrick Moynihan.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Daniel Patrick Moynihan|
- A film clip "The Open Mind – Taking a Stand for American Beliefs (September 27, 2007)" is available at the Internet Archive
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Ambassador Moynihan's 1975 Address to the United Nations General Assembly
|New office|| White House Urban Affairs Advisor
as White House Domestic Affairs Advisor
| Counselor to the President
Served alongside: Bryce Harlow
| United States Ambassador to India
| United States Ambassador to the United Nations
|Party political offices|
| Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
1976, 1982, 1988, 1994
| U.S. Senator (Class 1) from New York
Served alongside: Jack Javits, Al D'Amato, Chuck Schumer
| Chair of the Senate Environment Committee
| Chair of the Senate Finance Committee