Dardania (Roman province)
Dardania (//; Ancient Greek: Δαρδανία; Latin: Dardania) was a Roman province in the Central Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337). It was named after the tribe of the Dardani who inhabited the region in classical antiquity prior to the Roman conquest.
Dardania is named after the Dardani, a tribe that lived in the region and formed the Kingdom of Dardania in the 4th century BC. The eastern parts of the region were at the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone. In archaeological research, Illyrian names are predominant in western Dardania (present-day Kosovo), while Thracian names are mostly found in eastern Dardania (present-day south-eastern Serbia). Thracian names are absent in western Dardania; some Illyrian names appear in the eastern parts. The correspondence of Illyrian names - including those of the ruling elite - in Dardania with those of the southern Illyrians suggests a "thracianization" of parts of Dardania. Celts were present in Dardania in 279 BC.
In 179 BC, the Bastarnae conquered the Dardani, who later in 174 pushed them out, in a war which proved catastrophic, with a few years later, in 170 BC, the Macedonians defeating the Dardani. Macedonia and Illyria became Roman protectorates in 168 BC. The Scordisci, a tribe of Celtic origin, most likely subdued the Dardani in the mid-2nd century BC, after which there is for a long time no mention of the Dardani. In 97 BC the Dardani are mentioned again, defeated by the Macedonian Roman army. Dardanian slaves or freedmen at the time of the Roman conquest were clearly of Paleo-Balkan origin, according to their personal names, noted as being mostly of the "Central-Dalmatian type". Dardania was Romanized early on.
After the Roman conquest, the pre-Roman Dardania eventually was organized into the Moesia province. During the reign of Domitian (81–96), in 86, Moesia was subdivided into Upper and Lower Moesia (Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior). The old name of Dardania was used for a new province part of Moesia Superior. Ptolemy (100–170) calls Dardania a special district of Moesia Superior.
The Diocese of Moesia was a diocese established by Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305). During his reign, the diocese included 11 provinces, one of which was Dardania. Dardania and Moesia Prima were established by dividing them from Moesia Superior, probably under Diocletian. During or likely after emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337), Dacia Mediterranea was created out of parts of Dardania and Thrace. The two new dioceses, Moesia and Dacia, were grouped into the new praetorian prefecture of Illyricum in the second half of the 4th century, which essentially covered the same area as the earlier Diocese of Moesia.
In 535, emperor Justinian I (527-565) created the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima as a regional primacy with ecclesiastical jurisdiction over all provinces of the Diocese of Dacia, including the province of Dardania.
Cities and towns
The main centres of Roman Dardania were Scupi (Skopje), Naissus (Niš) and Ulpiana (Lipljan). At the time of Moesia Superior, the towns in Dardania included Scupi, Naissus, Ulpiana, Therranda, Vicianum, Vindenis, Velanis, Dardapara, Quemedava and Damastion.
The Romans occupied Naissos (Latin: Naissus) in the period of the "Dardanian War" (75–73 BC), and set up a legionary camp. The city (called refugia and vici in pre-Roman relation), because of its strategic position (Thracians were based to the south) developed as an important garrison and market town of Moesia Superior. The Romans also founded a mining town named municipium Dardanicum.
The area remained part of the Eastern Roman, Byzantine Empire, after the Eastern–Western Roman split in the 5th century. Procopius (500–560) used the old Roman provinces to describe the geography of the Balkans. According to Buildings of Justinian IV, there were 8 new and 61 restored fortifications in Dardania. Dardania was a region in which Justinian's restoration process was predominant. In 518 an earthquake devastated Dardania, followed by famine that killed much of the population and weakened the Empire's defences. According to Florin Curta, a small number of Slavs (Sclaveni and Antes) migrated to the Balkans in the 6th century.
- Kingdom of Dardania
- Archaeology of Kosovo
- Illyricum (Roman province)
- Roman heritage in Kosovo
- Wilkes 1992, p. 85
Whether the Dardanians were an Illyrian or a Thracian people has been much debated and one view suggests that the area was originally populated with Thracians who then exposed to direct contact with Illyrians over a long period. [..] The meaning of this state of affairs has been variously interpreted, ranging from notions of Thracianization' (in part) of an existing Illyrian population to the precise opposite. In favour of the latter may be the close correspondence of Illyrian names in Dardania with those of the southern 'real' lllyrians to their west, including the names of Dardanian rulers, Longarus, Bato, Monunius and Etuta, and those on later epitaphs, Epicadus, Scerviaedus, Tuta, Times and Cinna.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 9.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 10.
- Papazoglu 1978, p. 173.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 12.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 15.
- Papazoglu 1978, p. 224.
- Papazoglu 1978, p. 245.
- Starinar. 45–47. Arheološki institut. 1995. p. 33.
- Balkanoloski institut (2008). Balcanica. 38. SANU. p. 30.
- Wilkes 1992, p. 210.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 69.
- Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 547.
- Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 548.
- Harnack 1998, p. 371.
- Harnack 1998, p. 80.
- Turlej 2016, p. 47-86.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 299.
- Syme 1999, p. 207.
- Petrović 2007.
- Wilkes 1992, p. 258.
- Mócsy 2014, p. 350.
- Curta 2001, p. 156.
- Bulić 2013, p. 209.
- Curta 2001, pp. 84–92.
- Bulić, Dejan (2013). "The Fortifications of the Late Antiquity and the Early Byzantine Period on the Later Territory of the South-Slavic Principalities, and their re-occupation". The World of the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas, Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD). Belgrade: The Institute for History. pp. 137–234.
- Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Cvjetićanin, Tatjana (2006). Late Roman Glazed Pottery: Glazed Pottery from Moesia Prima, Dacia Ripensis, Dacia Mediterranea and Dardania. Belgrade: National Museum.
- Harnack, Adolf (1998). The Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries. 1–2. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57910-002-5.
- Mócsy, András (2014) . Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. New York: Routledge.
- Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in pre-Roman Times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Amsterdam: Hakkert.
- Petrović, Vladimir P. (2007). "Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania: Historical and Geographical Considerations" (PDF). Balcanica. Balkanološki institut SANU (37): 7–23.
- Петровић, Владимир П. (2007). Дарданија у римским итинерарима: Градови и насеља (PDF). Београд: Балканолошки институт САНУ.
- Popović, Radomir V. (1996). Le Christianisme sur le sol de l'Illyricum oriental jusqu'à l'arrivée des Slaves. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies.
- Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-7936-2.
- Syme, Ronald (1999) . The Provincial at Rome: And, Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14. University of Exeter Press. ISBN 978-0-85989-632-0.
- Turlej, Stanisław (2016). Justiniana Prima: An Underestimated Aspect of Justinian’s Church Policy. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press.
- Wilkes, J. J. (1992). The Illyrians. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19807-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dardania (Roman Empire).|