Demographics of Texas
Texas is the second-most populous U.S. state, with an estimated July 2019 population of 28.996 million. In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.
|1910 – 2010 census|
The 2010 US Census recorded Texas as having a population of 25.1 million—an increase of 4.3 million since the year 2000, involving an increase in population in all three subcategories of population growth: natural increase (births minus deaths), net immigration, and net migration. Texas passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population, after California. The state also is the most populous state in the South Central United States, and the most populous state in the South.
Texas' population growth between 2000 and 2010 represents the highest population increase, by number of people, for any U.S. state during this time period. The large population increase can somewhat be attributed to Texas' relative insulation from the US housing bubble.
U.S. Census data from 2010 indicate that 7.7% of Texas' population is under 5 years old, 27.3% is under 18, and 10.3% is aged 65 and older. Females make up 50.4% of the population.
Net domestic migration
As of the 2010 US Census, the racial distribution in Texas was as follows: 70.4% of the population of Texas was White American; 11.8% African American; 3.8% Asian American; 0.7% American Indian; 0.1% native Hawaiian or Pacific islander only; 10.5% of the population were of some other race only; and 2.7% were of two or more races. Hispanics (of any race) were 37.6% of the population of the state, while Non-Hispanic Whites composed 45.3%.
According to the 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, the population of Texas was 73.5% White (41.4% Non-Hispanic White and 32.1% Hispanic White), 12.3% Black or African American, 5.0% Asian, 0.5% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.0% Some Other Race, and 2.7% from two or more races. The White population continues to remain the largest racial category as Hispanics in Texas primarily identify as White (81.1%) with others identifying as Some Other Race (14.6%), Multiracial (2.4%), Black (1.0%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (0.7%), Asian (0.2%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.1%). By ethnicity, 39.6% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 60.4% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). If treated as a separate category, Hispanics are the largest minority group in Texas.
English Americans predominate in eastern, central, and northern Texas; German Americans, in central and western Texas. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in parts of northern, eastern and east-central Texas as well as in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas.
As in other Southern states settled largely in the 19th century, the vast majority have European ancestry: Irish, English and German. Texas includes a diverse set of European ancestries, due both to historical patterns of settlement from the Southeastern United States, as well as contemporary dynamics. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels. Many Romanians, Dutch, Germans from Switzerland and Austria, Poles, Russians, Swedes, Norwegians, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, and French immigrated at least in part because of the European revolutions of 1848. This immigration continued until World War I and the 1920s. The influence of these diverse European immigrants survives in the town names, architectural styles, music, and cuisine in Texas.
|2000 (total population)||84.54%||12.09%||1.09%||3.13%||0.16%|
|2000 (Hispanic only)||31.14%||0.42%||0.40%||0.13%||0.06%|
|2005 (total population)||84.14%||12.09%||1.10%||3.62%||0.17%|
|2005 (Hispanic only)||34.16%||0.52%||0.42%||0.15%||0.06%|
|Growth 2000–05 (total population)||9.10%||9.62%||10.56%||27.02%||21.27%|
|Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)||2.59%||8.66%||8.69%||27.07%||17.81%|
|Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)||20.26%||36.40%||13.80%||25.99%||27.72%|
|* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander|
In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English, forming 3,083,323 or 27% of the population. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry.
As of 2010, 37% of Texas residents had Hispanic ancestry; these include recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America, and South America, as well as Tejanos, whose ancestors have lived in Texas as early as the 1700s. Tejanos are the largest ancestry group in southern Duval County and amongst the largest in and around Bexar County, including San Antonio, where over one million Hispanics live. The state has the second largest Hispanic population in the United States, behind California.
Hispanics dominate southern, south-central, and western Texas and form a significant portion of the residents in the cities of Dallas, Houston, and Austin. The Hispanic population contributes to Texas having a younger population than the American average, because Hispanic births have outnumbered non-Hispanic white births since the early 1990s. In 2007, for the first time since the early nineteenth century, Hispanics accounted for more than half of all births (50.2%), while non-Hispanic whites accounted for just 34%.
Texas has one of the largest African-American populations in the country. African Americans are concentrated in northern, eastern and east central Texas as well as the Dallas, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas. African Americans form 24 percent of both the cities of Dallas and Houston, 19% of Fort Worth, 8.1 percent of Austin, and 7.5 percent of San Antonio. They form a majority in sections of eastern San Antonio, southern Dallas, eastern Fort Worth, and southern Houston. A strong labor market between 1995 and 2000 contributed to Texas being one of three states in the South receiving the highest numbers of black college graduates in an increasing New Great Migration.
In recent years, the Asian American population in Texas has grown, especially in west Houston, Fort Bend County southwest of Houston, the western and northern suburbs of Dallas, and Arlington near Fort Worth. Vietnamese Americans, South Asian Americans, Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans make up the largest Asian American groups in Texas. The Gulf Coast also has large numbers of Asian Americans, because the shrimp fishing industry attracted tens of thousands of Vietnamese, Filipinos, and Chinese from the coast of the South China Sea in the late 1970s and 1980s.
As of 2016, there is also an emerging Asian immigrant population in Amarillo consisting primarily of Southeast Asian refugees.
Native American tribes who once lived or resettled inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Coushatta, Hueco, the Karankawa of Galveston, Kiowa, Lipan Apache, Muscogee, Natchez, Quapaw, Seminole, Tonkawa, Wichita, and many others.
Three federally recognized Native American tribes currently are headquartered in Texas:
- Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas in eastern Texas
- Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas in the Rio Grande Valley
- Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of El Paso, Texas.
According to Steve H. Murdock, a demographer with the Hobby Center for the Study of Texas at Rice University and a former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, the White American population is aging, while minority populations remain relatively young. As of 2011, according to Murdock, two out of three children in Texas are not non-Hispanic Whites. Murdock also predicted that, between 2000 and 2040 (assuming that the net migration rate will equal half that of 1990-2000), Hispanic public school enrollment will increase by 213 percent, while non-Hispanic white enrollment will decrease by 15 percent.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
|White:||318,211 (82.1%)||326,480 (81.7%)||327,429 (81.1%)||...||...||...|
|> Non-Hispanic White||136,608 (35.3%)||140,992 (35.3%)||140,553 (34.8%)||134,262 (33.7%)||127,533 (33.4%)||125,549 (33.2%)|
|Black||49,039 (12.7%)||51,274 (12.4%)||53,144 (13.2%)||58,562 (14.2%)||58,642 (14.6%)||48,144 (12.7%)|
|Asian||18,861 (4.9%)||20,844 (5.2%)||21,775 (5.4%)||20,889 (5.2%)||20,385 (5.3%)||19,850 (5.2%)|
|American Indian||1,229 (0.3%)||1,168 (0.3%)||1,270 (0.3%)||782 (0.2%)||664 (0.2%)||721 (0.2%)|
|Pacific Islander||...||...||...||498 (0.1%)||510 (0.1%)||487 (0.1%)|
|Hispanic (of any race)||185,467 (47.9%)||189,462 (47.4%)||191,157 (47.4%)||188,393 (47.3%)||180,216 (47.2%)||179,142 (47.3%)|
|Total Texas||387,340 (100%)||399,766 (100%)||403,618 (100%)||398,047 (100%)||382,050 (100%)||378,624 (100%)|
- Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
The most common American English accent spoken was Texan English, which is a mix of Southern American English and Western American English dialects. Louisiana Creole language is spoken mostly in Southeast Texas. Chicano English is also widely spoken, as well as African American Vernacular English, and General American English.
|Language||Percentage of population|
(as of 2010)
|Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese)||0.56%|
|Korean and Urdu (tied)||0.24%|
|Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba)||0.15%|
As of 2010, 65.80% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 29.21% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75% (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five.
Texas is a part of the strongly socially conservative, Evangelical Protestant Bible Belt. The Dallas-Fort Worth area is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America's largest megachurches, including the Potter's House pastored by T.D Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest church in the nation, Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation.
In 2010, the religious demographics of Texas were: 50 Protestant, (31 Evangelical Protestant, 13% Mainline Protestant, and 6% Black church) 23% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 3 Other Christian, 4 Other Religions, (1% Jew, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist, 0.5% Hindu and 0.5% Other) and 18% are Unaffiliated.
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church (4,673,500); the Southern Baptist Convention (3,721,318); Non-denominational Churches (1,546,542); and the United Methodist Church with (1,035,168). Evangelical Protestant Christian influence has had a strong social, cultural, and political impact in Texas throughout its history, but not all Texans share this view of Christian religious doctrine. Austin, the state capital, is perceived as a more secular and liberal community.
The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas. These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively.
|Largest city in Texas by year|
Three interstate highways—I-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population. Houston and Dallas have been recognized as beta world cities. These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).
In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty. The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias. Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.
Largest cities or towns in Texas
|6||El Paso||El Paso||683,080|
- German Texan
- History of African-Americans in Texas
- History of Mexican-Americans in Texas
- Jewish history in Texas
- History of African Americans in Houston
- History of African Americans in Dallas-Ft. Worth
- History of African Americans in San Antonio
- History of Mexican Americans in Houston
- History of Mexican Americans in Dallas-Fort Worth
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