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In sociology and political studies, diversity is the degree of differences in identifying features among the members of a purposefully defined group, such as any group differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender, religion, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical health, genetic attributes, personality, behavior or attractiveness.
When measuring human diversity, a diversity index exemplifies the likelihood that two randomly selected residents have different ethnicities. If all residents are of the same ethnic group it's zero by definition. If half are from one group and half from another, it is .50. The diversity index does not take into account the willingness of individuals to cooperate with those of other ethnicities. 
International human rights
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities affirms to "respect difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as human diversity and humanity" for protection of human rights of persons with disabilities.
Political creeds which support the idea that diversity is valuable and desirable hold that recognizing and promoting these diverse cultures may aid communication between people of different backgrounds and lifestyles, leading to greater knowledge, understanding, and peaceful coexistence. For example, "Respect for Diversity" is one of the six principles of the Global Greens Charter, a manifesto subscribed to by Green parties from all over the world. In contrast to diversity, some political creeds promote cultural assimilation as the process to lead to these ends.
Use in American academia
This use of diversity in this sense also extends to American academia, where in an attempt to create a "diverse student body" typically supports the recruitment of students from historically excluded populations, such as students of African-American or Latino background as well as women in such historically underrepresented fields as the sciences.
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- Affirmative action
- Cultural diversity
- Gender diversity
- Identity politics
- Individual and group rights
- Racial segregation
- Respect diversity
- Sexual diversity
- Workplace diversity
- Heterodox Academy (viewpoint diversity in academy)
- "Mapping L.A..," Los Angeles Times website
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Article 3 "General Principles", (c)