Dubica, Bosnia-Herzegovina

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Kozarska Dubica

Козарска Дубица
Highlights of Kozarska Dubica
Highlights of Kozarska Dubica
Coat of arms of Kozarska Dubica
Coat of arms
Location of Dubica within Republika Srpska
Location of Dubica within Republika Srpska
Coordinates: 45°11′N 16°48′E / 45.183°N 16.800°E / 45.183; 16.800Coordinates: 45°11′N 16°48′E / 45.183°N 16.800°E / 45.183; 16.800
CountryBosnia and Herzegovina
EntityRepublika Srpska
Government
 • MayorRadenko Reljić (SNSD)
 • Municipality499.01 km2 (192.67 sq mi)
Elevation
104 m (341 ft)
Population
(2013 census)
 • Town
11,566
 • Municipality
21,542
 • Municipality density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s)52

Kozarska Dubica (Serbian Cyrillic: Козарска Дубица), formerly known as Bosanska Dubica (Serbian Cyrillic: Босанска Дубица), is a town and municipality located in northern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, the town has 11,566, while the municipality has 21,542 inhabitants.

It is situated in the eastern part of Bosanska Krajina region. The municipality of Hrvatska Dubica lies to the north, in Croatia. Kozarska Dubica is situated 26 kilometres (16 miles) from the ZagrebBelgrade highway. The town and its suburbs border Croatia to the north, the town of Gradiška to the east, the town of Kostajnica to the west, and the town of Prijedor to the south. The land area of Kozarska Dubica is 499 square kilometres (193 sq mi).

Name[edit]

The town was originally known as "Bosanska Dubica" (Босанска Дубица in Serbian Cyrillic, literally "Bosnian Dubica") but was renamed "Kozarska Dubica" (Козарска Дубица in Serbian Cyrillic) by the authorities of Republika Srpska following the Bosnian War, which was part of a broad political resolution to remove all Bosnian prefixes.[1] This included towns like Gradiška (Bosanska Gradiška) and Novi Grad (Bosanski Novi).

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Kozarska Dubica was built in 930.[citation needed] However, the first mentioning of the town dates from 1197.[citation needed] Babonići-Vodički were in charge of the town until the 12th century. Kozarska Dubica became an important fort during the Ottoman Empire due to its geographic positioning. It became a vital and important border crossing for many years. The last Austrian-Turkish war was the so-called Dubica War (1788–91) and was fought in this area. During the war in Kozarska Dubica in the 1780s, the town, which was described at the time as having only a few houses and a mosque, was completely razed. The town fell under Ottoman occupation in 1538. Kozarska Dubica encountered many different rulers during the Ottoman Empire and the later Austro-Hungarian Empire.

From 1929 to 1941, Kozarska Dubica was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. According to Serb historian Dragoje Lukic, as many as 14,287 residents (or 53% of the pre-war population), predominantly Serbs, were killed by the Ustashe and Germans during World War II, more than anywhere else on the territory of Yugoslavia.[2][better source needed] During the 1970s, Kozarska Dubica experienced a great improvement in its economy. During the 1980s there was a boom in construction and renovation which was halted by the outbreak of yet another war.

The Serbian Orthodox Moštanica Monastery (Manastir Moštanica) appears on the coat of arms of Kozarska Dubica.

Bosnian War[edit]

During the Bosnian War (1992–95), the entire traditional Bosniak population of town (more than 6,000) were expelled from their homes with many civilians killed, while proximate numbers of Serbs from Croatia were settled in Kozarska Dubica, often in Bosniak homes, who themselves now reside outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This happened mostly at the beginning of the war, during the period July–September 1992, when all three of the town's mosques—Gradska Džamija, Čaršijska Džamija and Puhalska Džamija—were completely destroyed.[3] The main town's mosque ,Gradska Džamija (literally Town's Mosque), was rebuilt in 2003, and its Harem courtyard declared a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[3] The bridge between Kozarska Dubica and Hrvatska Dubica was destroyed on the Croatian side. During the war the city was under siege by the Croatian Army during a failed operation called Operacija Una 95. On September 18, 1995, the Croatian army made a descent across the Una River and took control of some parts of Kozarska Dubica. The next day, on September 19, Serb units from other parts of the front line forced the Croat army to retreat back over the river, with Serb planes from the Banja Luka airport attacked in the vicinity of the villages Živaja and Šaš in Croatia.[4] 54 Serb civilians were killed by the regular Croatian army during a failed invasion from Croatia.

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the town of Kozarska Dubica, the municipality includes the following settlements:

Demographics[edit]

Municipality of Kozarska Dubica marked blue
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
197130,384—    
199131,606+0.20%
201321,524−1.73%

According to the 2013 census results, the municipality has 21,524 inhabitants.[5]

Ethnic groups[edit]

The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population
1971
Population
1991[6]
Population
2013[6]
Serbs 23,989 21,728 18,670
Bosniaks/Muslims 5,114 6,440 2,168
Croats 717 488 273
Others 564 2,950 413
Total 30,384 31,606 21,524

Economy[edit]

Border with Croatia

Situated in the valley of the rivers, the municipality of Kozarska Dubica has more than 316.09 square kilometres (122.04 sq mi) of arable land, to which agriculture is an important development factor. Agricultural production is focused on land cultivation, cattle breeding, raising of industrial crops, and recently the development of fruit and wine growing. The climate of Kozarska Dubica is conducive to the cultivation of different kinds of vegetables.

Most of the economy comes from the livestock. The largest milk production company is Mlijekoprodukt located near the town of Kozarska Dubica. It continues its tradition of growing fruits in the area. Kozarska Dubica also has an important construction company, IGP "UNA", which was established in 1962. Prior to the war there was a sugar factory operating as well.

Economic preview

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[7]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 147
Mining and quarrying 2
Manufacturing 1,329
Distribution of power, gas, steam and air-conditioning 83
Distribution of water and water waste management 98
Construction 168
Wholesale and retail, repair 833
Transportation and storage 101
Hotels and restaurants 200
Information and communication 45
Finance and insurance 49
Real estate activities 10
Professional, scientific and technical activities 47
Administrative and support services 4
Public administration and defence 208
Education 280
Healthcare and social work 222
Art, entertainment and recreation 22
Other service activities 57
Total 3,905

Culture[edit]

A view from nearby Krivdiča hill.

Every year outside Bosnia and Herzegovina, the annual Bosansko Dubičko Veče is held. It is a celebration that brings together displaced Bosnians of all ethnicities from Kozarska Dubica. Celebrations in the United States are held in Chicago and St. Louis, Illinois. In Chicago it is always held on the Saturday before Memorial Day and hosted at the Rumija Cultural Center. Sydney, Australia, also holds the same celebration in order to gather people of Kozarska Dubica from different Australian and New Zealand areas. Work continues on creating a congress that would meet once every two years, in order to help young children born outside of Kozarska Dubica to retain the heritage and cultural traditions. These celebrations typically attract many Bosniaks; however, many Croats and Serbs also come to show their respect towards their heritage and the town of Kozarska Dubica, and to reunite with former neighbors.

Tourism[edit]

Una River with beach and bar boat Sveti Nikola in background.

Hunting is a traditional sport of the municipality of Kozarska Dubica. One hunting organization is called Jele (Deer) The area used for hunting is around 500 square kilometres (193 sq mi). Hunting is extravagant in Kozarska Dubica because of its two big mountains, Kozara and Prosara, with the hunting area filled with rich forests. Hunting ranges from deer to smaller animals such as wild ducks. Every April an international dog hunting competition occurs in Kozarska Dubica.

Spa Mlječanica is the center for physiatrics, rehabilitation, and health in Kozarska Dubica, located on the northwest slopes of Kozara. A modern, specialized institution for physical medicine and rehabilitation, it provides ideal conditions for a successful rest and recovery for its clients.

Fishing is a highly important industry in Kozarska Dubica. Because of its location right on the Una River, fishing has developed into a long time tradition, drawing people from different areas. Also, the Sava River is located not far from Kozarska Dubica at Jasenovac, where the Una enters the Sava.

Sports[edit]

Kozarska Dubica has an old tradition in sports that dates back to the early 20th century. In the 1930s, Kozarska Dubica established a football club named SK Una. After World War II, Kozarska Dubica had an upsurge of different sport organizations. In 1962 the handball club Borac was established. On February 11, 1973, the basketball club BK Una was created. In 1982 the Karate Club Knešpolje was founded. Even today the different sports remain an important part of Kozarska Dubica. There are both male and female teams for handball. Also there are a couple of karate clubs and chess clubs.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mitja Velikonja (2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. p. 259.
  2. ^ "VI BILANS ZLOČINA NAD DJECOM KOZARE". Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Harem Gradske džamije u Bosanskoj Dubici, proglašava se nacionalnim spomenikom Bosne i Hercegovine". old.kons.gov.ba (in Bosnian). Komisija za očuvanje nacionalnih spomenika. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  4. ^ Eduard Šoštarić (14 August 2006). "Otvorena istraga zbog akcije 'Una'" [Inquiry into the Operation Una commenced] (in Croatian). Nacional (weekly). Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  5. ^ "Preliminary results of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). bhas.ba. Sarajevo: Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 5 November 2013. p. 9. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Popis 2013 u BiH – Foča". statistika.ba (in Bosnian). Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Cities and Municipalities of Republika Srpska 2017" (PDF). rzs.rs.ba (in Serbian). December 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2018.

External links[edit]