Duho languages

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Duho
(proposed)
Geographic
distribution
Northwestern Amazon
Linguistic classificationProposed as one of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions

Duho is a proposed language family of South America, uniting two proposed genetic groupings, Hodi–Saliban[1] and Ticuna–Yuri. This language stock was proposed by Marcelo Jolkesky (2016), based on his previous but now disclaimed Macro-Daha stock which had also included the Andoque–Urequena languages.[2]

Zamponi (2017) concludes that the similarities between Saliban and Hodɨ appear to be due to contact, but that a distant genealogical relationship between Betoi and Sáliban is plausible though not demonstrated. He does not address Ticuna–Yuri.

Prehistory[edit]

Jolkesky (2016) suggests that the homeland of Proto-Duho was in the Serranía de Chiribiquete.[3]:590

Language contact[edit]

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with Chibchan languages due to contact, which may point to the earlier presence of Chibchan speakers in the Orinoco basin.[3]:325

Classification[edit]

Internal classification of the Duho language family by Jolkesky (2016):[3]

Duho

Pronouns[edit]

Jolkesky's Duho languages have shared forms in for "I", *kʷ for "you" and *t for "we", which are found in all languages.

language I thou he she we they
Ticuna ʧò- ku- dĩ- ɡĩ- /i- tò- ta-́
Yuri tshuu wikú di - too -
Saliba ʧ- ũku, kʷ- Ø-, i-, -di x-, -x t- h-
Piaroa ʧ(u)- (u)ku, kʷ- Ø-, -de hʷ-, -h t(u)- tʰ(a)-
Wirö ʧ(V)- ɯkʷɯ, kʷ(V)- Ø- h(V)-, -h d(V)-, -dɯtʰɯ tʰ(V)-
Hodi ʰtæ ʰkæ - ʰtai hai
Betoi r(u)- uhu, h(u)- Ø-, -ri Ø- r-, -nuto ?

Lexicon[edit]

Several basic words in Duho languages appear to be related. The following examples are given:

language tree mouth head hair path eat spirit offspring breast who what
Ticuna dãi àː èrú ʧi bã̀ ɡõ̀ː ã́ẽ̀ dẽ´ biĩ´ tèẽ́ tàː
Yuri noi i à gerühó ii -mó - - o nné - - -
Saliba - aha iʤu - maa(-na) ikua õãĩ nẽ(-ẽ) omixe ã-diha ã-daha
Piaroa dawi æ u(-ju) -ʦˀe mæ(-næ) ku ãẽ ĩtʰĩ ami di dæhe
Wirö towi a u; -ʤu -ˀʤe ma(-na) ku(-õ) - ĩtʰĩ omu ti tahi
Hodi ʰtawɯ a ʰtu - ma(-na); -ma ʰku-õ ãwẽ(-no) ĩni me(e) - -

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rosés Labrada, J. E. 2015. Is Jodï a Sáliban Language? In: Workshop on historical relationships among languages of the Americas. Leiden, 2-5th September 2015, Universiteit Leiden.
  2. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo. 2009. Macro-Daha: reconstrução de um tronco lingüístico do noroeste amazônico. ROSAE - I Congresso Internacional de Lingüística Histórica, 26-29 July 2009.
  3. ^ a b c Jolkesky, M. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Brasilia: UnB. PhD Dissertation.