Duke of Manchester

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Dukedom of Manchester
Coronet of a British Duke.svg
Coat of arms of the Duke of Manchester.svg
Quarterly, 1st & 4th: Argent, 3 fusils conjoined in fess gules, a bordure sable (Montagu); 2nd & 3rd: Or an eagle displayed vert beaked and membered gules (Monthermer).
Creation date13 April 1719
MonarchKing George I
PeeragePeerage of Great Britain
First holderCharles Montagu, 4th Earl of Manchester
Present holderAlexander Montagu, 13th Duke
Subsidiary titles
  • Earl of Manchester
  • Viscount Mandeville
  • Baron Montagu of Kimbolton
Former seat(s)

Duke of Manchester is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain, and the current senior title of the House of Montagu. It was created in 1719 for the politician Charles Montagu, 4th Earl of Manchester. Manchester Parish in Jamaica was named after the 5th Duke, while its capital Mandeville was named after his son and heir. The current Duke is Alexander Montagu, 13th Duke of Manchester, a British citizen who lives in the United States, who succeeded to the peerage in 2002[1] following the death of his father Angus Montagu, 12th Duke of Manchester, the last of the dukes to hold a seat in the House of Lords. As with other British dukes the full formal style of the Dukes of Manchester is "The Most High, Noble and Potent Prince His Grace."

History[edit]

Their ancestor was Richard Ladde, grandfather of the Lord Chief Justice Sir Edward, who changed his name to Montagu around 1447. His descendants claimed a connection with the older house of Montagu or Montacute, Barons Montagu or Montacute and Earls of Salisbury, but there is no sound evidence that the two families were related. A case has been made out for the possibility that the Ladde alias came from a division among coheirs about 1420 of the remaining small inheritance of a line of Montagus at Spratton and Little Creton, also in Northamptonshire.[2]

The judge Sir Edward Montagu's grandson, Edward Montagu, was raised to the peerage as 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton. He is the ancestor of the Dukes of Montagu. His brother, Sir Henry Montagu (c. 1563–1642), who served as Lord Chief Justice as well as Lord High Treasurer and Lord Privy Seal, was in 1620 raised to the Peerage of England as Viscount Mandeville, with the additional title Baron Montagu of Kimbolton, of Kimbolton in the County of Huntingdon. In 1626, he was made Earl of Manchester, of Manchester in the County of Lancaster.[3] It is sometimes said, erroneously, that the title refers to Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire, and that the word "God" was deliberately excluded from the title on the basis that the grantee thought it would be blasphemous for him to be known as "Lord Godmanchester".[4] However, the form of the creation makes it clear that the title refers to what is now the city of Manchester (at the time a town in Lancashire, formally known as the County of Lancaster).

His son, the 2nd Earl, was a prominent Parliamentary General during the Civil War, but later supported the restoration of Charles II. His son, the 3rd Earl, represented Huntingdonshire in the House of Commons. His son was the 4th Earl, who in 1719 was created Duke of Manchester.

Charles, 1st Duke of Manchester, was succeeded by his eldest son. The 2nd Duke notably served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in the administration of Sir Robert Walpole. He was childless, and on his death, the titles passed to his younger brother, the 3rd Duke. He had earlier represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament. He was succeeded by his son, the 4th Duke. He was Ambassador to France and served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household. His son, the 5th Duke, was Governor of Jamaica between 1827 and 1830 also held office as Postmaster General. He was succeeded by his son, the 6th Duke. He represented Huntingdon in the House of Commons as a Tory.

His eldest son, the 7th Duke, was Conservative Member of Parliament for Bewdley and Huntingdonshire. His son, the 8th Duke, briefly represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the 9th Duke. He sat on the Liberal benches in the House of Lords and served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in the Liberal administration of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. In the twentieth century, mismanagement and profligacy resulted in the wholesale depletion of the Dukedom's estates. Generational instability caused further damage to the family's honour: both the 11th, 12th and 13th Dukes had a criminal record.[5]

Angus Montagu, 12th Duke of Manchester was the last of the dukes to serve in the House of Lords, until the adoption of the House of Lords Act 1999.

Alexander Montagu, the oldest son of the 12th Duke, succeeded his father as the 13th Duke in July 2002; a British and Australian citizen who lives in the United States, he had been known by the courtesy title of the heir apparent, Viscount Mandeville, since his father's succession to the peerage in 1985.[1][6][7] He has not taken the required action to be included on the Roll of the Peerage, which was created two years after his succession in 2004; while this doesn't change his status as a duke itself, which is legally established by the letters patent, inclusion in the roll is since 2004 a requirement to have his title included in his passport. Under the provisions of the 2004 royal warrant he may register with the roll at any time.[8]

Seats[edit]

Kimbolton Castle in 1880, the former seat of the Dukes of Manchester

The principal estate of the Dukes of Manchester was Kimbolton Castle. It was sold, together with 50 acres of parkland, by the 10th Duke in 1951, and is now a private school. A remaining 3,250 acres of the estate were sold by his eldest son and heir in 1975. The other family seat was Tandragee Castle, in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. It was sold in 1955, and the remaining estate in 1975, and is now the headquarters of Tayto (NI) Ltd.[5]

Arms[edit]

Coat of arms of the Duke of Manchester
Achievement of the Duke of Manchester.svg
Coronet
A Coronet of a Duke
Crest
A Griffin's Head couped wings expanded Or
Helm
The helm of a Peer
Escutcheon
Quarterly, 1st & 4th: Argent, 3 fusils conjoined in fess gules (Montagu); 2nd & 3rd: Or an eagle displayed vert beaked and membered gules (Monthermer)
Supporters
Dexter: an heraldic Antelope Or armed tufted and hoofed Argent; Sinister: a Griffin Or
Motto
Disponendo Me, Non Mutando Me (By disposing of me, not by changing me)
Symbolism
The fusils (diamonds) in the Montagu arms were originally intended to represent a range of mountains, as the name comes from the old French mont agu meaning "pointed hill".[9][10] The arms represent a claim to be a cadet of the medieval Montagu (Montacute) family, Earls of Salisbury, for which there is no proof.

The arms of the Duke of Manchester have the following blazon: Quarterly, 1st & 4th: Argent, 3 fusils conjoined in fess gules (Montagu); 2nd & 3rd: Or an eagle displayed vert beaked and membered gules (Monthermer).[11] The fusils or diamond shapes in the Montagu arms were originally intended to represent a range of mountains,[12] as the name comes from the old French mont agu meaning "pointed hill".[13] The arms represent a claim to be a cadet of the medieval Montagu (Montacute) family, earls of Salisbury, for which there is no proof (see above origins).

Montagu arms unquartered
Montagu arms unquartered of Barons Montagu/Montacute
Monthermar arms
Monthermar arms, "Or, an eagle displayed vert beaked and membered gules."
Montacute Arms
Arms of Montague/Montacute, Earls of Salisbury
Montagu Arms
Arms of Montagu, dukes of Manchester, dukes of Montagu, and earls of Sandwich and Halifax, claiming to be cadets of the medieval Montagus.
Arms of the Montagu family

Titles and styles[edit]

The Duke of Manchester holds the subsidiary titles Earl of Manchester, Viscount Mandeville, and Baron Montagu of Kimbolton.

The Duke of Manchester is styled Your Grace (spoken style) or His Grace (reference style), alternatively Sir.

The heir apparent to the Dukedom takes the courtesy title Viscount Mandeville, and the heir apparent's heir apparent, when such exists, is styled Lord Kimbolton.[14]

Burial place[edit]

Many members of the Montagu family (Earls and Dukes of Manchester) are buried at St Andrew's Church, Kimbolton, Cambridgeshire (historically in Huntingdonshire). Several Montagu monuments still exist in the South Chapel, while the Montagu vault (extended in 1853) is located beneath the North Chapel.[15] The 12th Duke of Manchester was cremated at Bedford Crematorium in 2002.

Viscount Mandeville (1620)[edit]

Created by James I of England
# Name Life span Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Henry Montagu c. 1563 – 1642 1620–1642 (1) Catherine Spencer
(2) Anne Halliday, née Wincot
(3) Margaret Crouch
Baron Montagu of Kimbolton

Earls of Manchester (1626)[edit]

Created by Charles I of England
# Name Life span Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Henry Montagu c. 1563 – 1642 1626–1642 (1) Catherine Spencer
(2) Anne Halliday, née Wincot
(3) Margaret Crouch
Viscount Mandeville
Baron Montagu of Kimbolton
2 Edward Montagu 1602–1671 1642–1671 (2) Lady Anne Rich Son of the preceding
3 Robert Montagu 1634–1683 1671–1683 Anne Yelverton Son of the preceding
4 Charles Montagu c. 1662 – 1722 1683–1722 Dodington Greville Son of the preceding

Dukes of Manchester (1719)[edit]

Sidney, 11th Duke of Manchester, and his wife, Andrea, Duchess of Manchester, by Allan Warren
Louise Montagu, wife of the 7th Duke
Created by George I of Great Britain
# Name Life span Period Spouse Notes Other titles
1 Charles Montagu c. 1662 – 1722 1719–1722 Dodington Greville Earl of Manchester,
Viscount Mandeville,
Baron Montagu of Kimbolton
2 William Montagu 1700–1739 1722–1739 Lady Isabella Montagu Son of the preceding
3 Robert Montagu 1710–1762 1739–1762 Harriet Dunch Brother of the preceding
4 George Montagu 1737–1788 1762–1788 Elizabeth Dashwood Son of the preceding
5 William Montagu 1771–1843 1788–1843 Lady Susan Gordon Son of the preceding
6 George Montagu 1799–1855 1843–1855 (1) Millicent Sparrow
(2) Harriet Sydney Dobbs
Son of the preceding
7 William Montagu 1823–1890 1855–1890 Countess Louisa of Alten Son of the preceding
8 George Montagu 1853–1892 1890–1892 Consuelo Yznaga Son of the preceding
9 William Montagu 1877–1947 1892–1947 (1) Helena Zimmerman
(2) Kathleen Dawes
Son of the preceding
10 Alexander Montagu 1902–1977 1947–1977 (1) Nell Vere Stead
(2) Elizabeth Fullerton
Son of the preceding
11 Sidney Montagu 1929–1985 1977–1985 (1) Adrienne Valerie Christie
(2) Andrea Joss
Son of the preceding
12 Angus Montagu 1938–2002 1985–2002 (1) Mary Eveleen McClure
(2) Diane Pauline Plimsaul
(3) Anne-Louise Taylor
(4) Biba Jennians
Brother of the preceding
13 Alexander Montagu[a] b. 1962 2002–present (1) Marion Stoner
(2) Wendy Dawn Buford
(3) Laura Smith
Son of the preceding
  1. ^ The 13th Duke of Manchester succeeded to the peerage in 2002,[1] but does not appear on the Roll of the Peerage, which was established in 2004. He is not entitled to use the title in official documents until he takes the required action to be included in the roll.[8]

Family tree[edit]

Montagu family tree: Viscounts Mandeville, Earls and Dukes of Manchester
Sir Edward Montagu, L.C.J.
(c. 1485 – 1557)
Sir Edward Montagu
(c. 1530 – 1602)
Barons Montagu of Boughton, 1621Viscount Mandeville, 1620
Earl of Manchester, 1626
Earls of Sandwich
Edward, 1st Baron Montagu
of Boughton

(c. 1562 – 1644)
Sir Henry Montagu
1st Viscount Mandeville
1st Earl of Manchester

(c. 1563 – 1642)
Earls of Halifax
Edward, 2nd Baron Montagu
of Boughton

(1616–1684)
Edward Montagu
2nd Earl of Manchester

(1602–1671)
Duke of Montagu, 1705
Ralph Montagu
1st Duke of Montagu

(1638–1709)
Robert Montagu
3rd Earl of Manchester

(1634–1683)
Duke of Manchester, 1719
John Montagu
2nd Duke of Montagu

(1690–1749)
Charles Edward Montagu
4th Earl of Manchester
1st Duke of Manchester

(c. 1662–1722)
Lady Isabella Montagu
(d.1786)
William Montagu
2nd Duke of Manchester

(1700–1739)
Robert Montagu
3rd Duke of Manchester

(c.1710–1762)
George Montagu
4th Duke of Manchester

(1737–1788)
George Montagu
Viscount Mandeville
(1763–1772)
William Montagu
5th Duke of Manchester

(1771–1843)
George Montagu
6th Duke of Manchester

(1799–1855)
William Drogo Montagu
7th Duke of Manchester

(1823–1890)
George Victor Drogo Montagu
8th Duke of Manchester

(1853–1892)
William Angus Drogo Montagu
9th Duke of Manchester

(1877–1947)
Alexander George Francis Drogo Montagu
10th Duke of Manchester

(1902–1977)
Sidney Arthur Robin George Drogo Montagu
11th Duke of Manchester

(1929–1985)
Angus Charles Drogo Montagu
12th Duke of Manchester

(1938–2002)
Alexander Charles David Drogo Montagu
13th Duke of Manchester

(b. 1962)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Duke of Manchester to remain in Las Vegas jail". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  2. ^ Wagner, Anthony (1960). English Genealogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780712667241. The explanation of a fifteenth century yeoman's Norman name might sometimes be female descent from a knightly house through a coheir. The Montagus of Boughton, Northhamptonshire, who acquired a barony in 1621, an earldom in 1689, the dukedom of Montagu in 1705, and in their younger branches the earldom of Manchester in 1626, the dukedom of Manchester in 1719, and the earldom of Sandwich in 1660, descended from Richard Montagu alias Ladde, a yeoman or husbandman, living in 1471 at Hanging Houghton, Northamptonshire, where the Laddes had been tenants since the fourteenth century. Alias names, in some respect the forerunners of modern compound (or double-barreled) name, were common in the Middle Ages. In the earliest times, when surnames were new, an alias may just mean indecision between equally attractive alternatives. Later they sometimes indicate bastardy (one name perhaps being the father's and one the mother's), but in most cases probably mark inheritance through an heiress whose name was thus perpetuated. A good case has been made out for the possibility that the Ladde alias came from a division among coheirs about 1420 of the remaining small inheritance of a line of Montagus at Spratton and Little Creton, also in Northamptonshire. This line was of knightly origin and probably a branch of the baronial Montagus (Earls of Salisbury from 1337), whose almost certain ancestor Dru de Montagud was a tenant-in-chief in 1086. Other yeoman Montagus are found in Buckinghamshire from 1354 when Roger Montagu appears as a witness to a quitclaim of land in Great Kimble, notably in Halton where a family of Montagu alias Elot held land from about 1440 to 1610. A line of Montagus found in Waddesdon from about 1540 may have branched from these. These in the eighteenth century were shepherds and drovers and one set up in Aylesbury as a wheelwright and another as a tailor. Another line, also possibly branched from Halton, is found at Boveney and Dorney in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This produced Richard Montagu, Bishop of Chichester (1628–38) and Norwich (1638–41), and Peter Montagu, who settled in Virginia.
  3. ^ Masters, Brian (2001). The Dukes: The Origins, Ennoblement and History of Twenty-Six Families. London: Random House. p. 336. ISBN 9780712667241.
  4. ^ Brooke, Christopher (1985). A History of Gonville and Caius College. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 127. ISBN 9780851154237.
  5. ^ a b Scriven, Marcus (2009). Splendor and Squalor: The Disgrace And Disintegration of Three Aristocratic Dynasties. London: Atlantic Books. pp. 137–225. ISBN 9781843541240.
  6. ^ "Australian man with British title to stay jailed in Vegas". Associated Press. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  7. ^ "The bigamist Duke and his three wives". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Roll of the Peerage". College of Arms. Retrieved 23 January 2020. Under the terms of the Royal Warrant of 1 June 2004 any person who succeeds to a Peerage must prove his or her succession and be placed on the Roll, otherwise that person may not be legally recognised as a Peer in official documents.
  9. ^ Boutell, Charles (1914). The Handbook to English Heraldry. London: Reeves & Turner. p. 16. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  10. ^ "Last name: Montague". The Internet Surname Database. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  11. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, Montagu of Beaulieu (original form of), p.788
  12. ^ Boutell, Charles (1914). The Handbook to English Heraldry. London: Reeves & Turner. p. 16. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  13. ^ "Last name: Montague". The Internet Surname Database. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  14. ^ "Courtesy Titles". Cracroft's Peerage. Retrieved 10 June 2016.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Guided Tour of St Andrew's Church, Kimbolton, access date 27 July 2015

Further reading[edit]