Dyaus

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Dyaus
God of Sky and Heaven
Member of the Pancha Bhoota (Five Elements)
Other namesAkasha
DevanagariDyáuṣpitṛ́
AffiliationDeva, Pancha Bhoota
AbodeDyuloka, Sky (ākāśa, आकाश)
MountCow
TextsRigveda
ConsortPrithvi Mata or Mother Earth
OffspringUshas
Greek equivalentZeus
Roman equivalentJupiter

Dyáuṣ Pitṛ́ (Vedic Sanskrit: Dyáuṣpitṛ́, द्यौष्पितृ, literally 'Sky Father') is the chief father deity of the Vedic pantheon, derived from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European god *Dyḗus ph₂tḗr.

Name[edit]

Dyauṣ stems from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) daylight-sky god *Dyēus, and is cognate with the Greek Zeus or the Roman Jove.[1][2]

The name Dyauṣ Pitṛ is cognate with Greek Zeus Patēr, Illyrian Dei-pátrous, or Latin Jupiter (from an earlier *Djous patēr), stemming from the PIE Dyḗus ph₂tḗr ("Father Daylight-sky").[1]

The noun dyaús (when used without the pitā́ 'father') refers to the daylight sky, and occurs frequently in the Rigveda, as an entity. The sky in Vedic writing was described as rising in three tiers, avamá, madhyamá, and uttamá or tṛtī́ya.[3]

Role[edit]

Dyáuṣ Pitṛ́ appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata 'Mother Earth' in the ancient Vedic scriptures of Hinduism.[4]

In the Rigveda, Dyaus Pitr appears in verses 1.89.4, 1.90.7, 1.164.33, 1.191.6, 4.1.10. and 4.17.4[5] He is also referred to under different theonyms: Dyavaprithvi, for example, is a dvandva compound combining 'heaven' and 'earth' as Dyaus Pitr and Prithvi Mata. His daughter, Usha, personifies the dawn.[6]

Dyáuṣ Hymns[edit]

Book 1 Hymn 89 Verse 4

तन नो वातो मयोभु वातु भेषजं तन माता पर्थिवी तत्पिता द्यौ: | तद गरावाणः सोमसुतो मयोभुवस्तदश्विना शर्णुतं धिष्ण्या युवम ||

At this let the Wind blow us a remedy that is joy itself. At this (let) Mother Earth, at this (let) Father Heaven,

at this (let) the soma-pressing stones (be) joy itself. To this, o holy Aśvins, give ear.

Rig Veda, tr. by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Bretteron [2014] [7]

Book 1 Hymn 90 Verse 7

मधु नक्तमुतोषसो मधुमत पार्थिवं रजः |

मधु द्यौरस्तु नः पिता ||

Honey by night and at dawn; honeyed is the earthly realm.

Honey be Father Heaven for us.

Rig Veda, tr. by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Bretteron [2014] [7]

Book 1 Hymn 164 Verse 33

द्यौर्मे पिता जनिता नाभिरत्र बन्धुर्मे माता पर्थिवीमहीयम |

उत्तानयोश्चम्वोर्योनिरन्तरत्रा पिता दुहितुर्गर्भमाधात |

[The Sun:] “My father, my progenitor, is Heaven; here is my navel. My mother, this great Earth, is my relation.

My womb is within the two open cups [=Heaven and Earth]. Here my father placed the child [=the Sun] of his daughter [=Dawn].”

Rig Veda, tr. by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Bretteron [2014] [8]

Book 1 Hymn 191 Verse 6

द्यौर्वः पिता पर्थिवी माता सोमो भरातादितिः सवसा |

अद्र्ष्टा विश्वद्र्ष्टास्तिष्ठतेलयता सु कम ||

(You are) easy to approach like a path leading to good pastures, but difficult to hold onto like an ally gratified by (all those) around.

The unassailable ones who watch over us have taken their stand, unclosing the enclosed (cows).

Rig Veda, tr. by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Bretteron [2014] [8]

Book 4 Hymn 1 Verse 10

स तू नो अग्निर नयतु परजानन्न अछा रत्नं देवभक्तं यद अस्य |

धिया यद विश्वे अम्र्ता अक्र्ण्वन द्यौष पिता जनिता सत्यम उक्षन ||

Let Agni, knowing (the way), lead us to the treasure, which was apportioned to him by the gods.

(The treasure) which all the immortals created with their insight, which Father Heaven as begetter (created)—(that) they sprinkled (so it became) real.

Rig Veda, tr. by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Bretteron [2014] [9]

Book 4 Hymn 17 Verse 4

सुवीरस ते जनिता मन्यत द्यौर् इन्द्रस्य कर्ता सवपस्तमो भूत |

य ईं जजान सवर्यं सुवज्रम अनपच्युतं सदसो न भूम ||

Rich in heroes, Heaven is considered to be your begetter. The best craftsman was the creator of Indra,

who begot him, booming and bearing the good mace, not to be moved, any more than the Earth from its seat.

Rig Veda, tr. by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Bretteron [2014] [9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b West 2007, p. 171.
  2. ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 431.
  3. ^ Rigveda, 5.60.6.
  4. ^ Leeming, David; Fee, Christopher (2016). The Goddess: Myths of the Great Mother. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-538-7.
  5. ^ Sanskrit: Rigveda, Wikisource; translation: Ralph T. H. Griffith Rigveda, Wikisource
  6. ^ Roshen Dalal (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. Entry: "Dyaus"
  7. ^ a b Jamison, Stephanie (2014). The Rigveda –– The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 019068500X.
  8. ^ a b Jamison, Stephanie (2014). The Rigveda- The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 358, 396. ISBN 019068500X.
  9. ^ a b Jamison, Stephanie (2014). The Rigveda –– The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 557, 583.
  • Oberlies, Thomas (1998). Die Religion des Rgveda. Vienna.