East Kutubuan languages

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East Kutubuan
East Kutubu
New Guinea
Linguistic classificationPapuan Gulf ?
East Kutubuan languages.svg
Map: The East Kutubuan languages of New Guinea
  The East Kutubuan languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages

The East Kutubuan languages are a small family of Trans–New Guinea languages (TNG) in the classification of Malcolm Ross. There are just two languages,

Fiwaga and Foi,

which are not close to the West Kutubuan languages. These were linked in a "Kutubuan" family by Franklin and Voorhoeve in 1973, but there is some debate over whether they are closer to each other than to other Kikorian languages. Although East Kutubuan has proto-TNG vocabulary, Ross considers its inclusion in TNG to be questionable.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "East Kutubu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.