East Strickland languages

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East Strickland
Strickland River
Geographic
distribution
Strickland River region, Western Province and South Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationPapuan Gulf ?
  • Strickland
    • East Strickland
Glottologeast2433
East Strickland languages.svg
Map: The East Strickland languages of New Guinea
  The East Strickland languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The East Strickland or Strickland River languages are a family of Papuan languages.

Languages[edit]

The East Strickland languages actually form a language continuum.[1] Shaw (1986) recognizes six languages, which are:[2][3]

Gobasi, Odoodee and Samo, but especially Gobasi, are also known as "Nomad".

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are:

sg du pl
1 *na, *ã *o-li, *a-la *oi
2 *nõ *nĩ-le *nĩ
3 *yõ *i-le *yã, *di

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

The following basic vocabulary words are from McElhanon & Voorhoeve (1970),[4] Shaw (1973),[5] and Shaw (1986),[6] as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[7]

gloss Fembe Gobasi (Oibae dialect) Gobasi (Bibo dialect) Gobasi (Honibo dialect) Gobasi Konai Kubo Odoodee (Hesif dialect) Odoodee (Kalamo dialect) Samo
head widua; wɔdiɔ ulugib ukib; ulukib uligib ulʌkib wudio odiu; wodio; wodiyo uľugi wiligi ukibi; ulagibi; ulʌgibi
hair wigiduae; wɔdiɔ tɔwɔ orɔwɔ otowa; tawa utoʌ; utowa o dɔsɔ wudio towe tɔwɛ; wodio toi; wodiyo toi uľu tu wudu otowa; tawa; ulʌgibi
ear du dulu dul; duːr dulu dulo kʌhẽ du; duwëw dulu dulu duli; duːri
eye d̲iho; gihã hiɔ hĩãwã; hio̧w hiɔ; hiyo hiɔ̃ dihɔ diəhã; diho̧; dihō hɔwɔ̃ hɔ̃wɔ̃ hĩãwã; hĩɔwɔ; hi̧yowo
nose go; migiyao mi mina; mini mi̧ni; mĩni mina mɔkwã mi mɔdu mudu mini; mi̧ni; mĩnĩ
tooth maeow; meyɔ mɔɛ mo̧i moi; mɔi mɔi mẽ mɔ̃yə̃; moyo; mɔyɔ mei mɛ̃ mɔ̃yə̃; moyo̧; mɔ̃yɔ̃
tongue e; i ilɪ il(i); iri ili ili i i; iː i i mȩnema̧ni; mẽnɛmãnĩ; meremai
leg abogo; ɔbɔgɔ̃ hɔm homo hom; hɔm hɔma ɔbɔgɔ̃ obogo; ɔbɔgɔ hɔmɔ hɔmɔ̃ homo; hɔmɔ̃
louse ou; ɔ̃u ɔm om om om ɔ̃u o̧u̧; oū ɔu õu o̧u̧; õu; õw
dog sɔ; sou sɔf sof; sɔf sof; sɔf sɔf so; sɔ sɔfo; sofu; sɔfu
pig wai bɔɛ bɔi bɔi wai ʔo be bɔyɔ
bird siu; siyɔ sikɪ sigo si sigɔ siɔ siu; siyu ɔsigɔ sɔʔ sigo; sigɔ
egg sioho; siyɔ hɔ si kɔlɔ holo hol; si hɔl wigɔ hɔlɔ siɔ hɔ hoo; siu ho sɔʔ hɔ sɔʔ hɔ holo; sigɔ hɔlɔ
blood iyou; ɔyɔ sʌh so̧ho̧u sahau sõho kafi ayo sãwɔ̃ kegãye ayo; ayu
bone dio; diɔ kiːp kib; kiːb; kibi kib kib diɔ dio; diu; diyo ki ki kibi
skin golo; kɔ̃fɔ̃ya kɔrɔᵽ kiari; sib kolof; kɔlɔf kɔlɔf kɔlɔ kolo; kɔlɔ; kɔrɔ kulɔ kɔlɔ kolofu; kɔlɔfu; kɔrɔfu; sibi
breast bu tɔ̃ː tol; tor bu tɔnu bu bu tɔ̃ to bu
tree habe; hebẽ hɔmɔlɔ homu homol; hɔmɔl hɔmɔ̃n hʌbe home; hɔme hɔmɔ hɔmɔ hɔmãnẽ; home
man o; or ɔs os os os ɔ o ɔľu ɔlɔga oso; ouson
woman dobas̲ie; sʌbɔ sãi uliɔ uliya uliʌ; uliya uliʌ sʌsai sobo; sɔbɔ subɔ sɔbɔ sobo; sɔbɔ
sun aso; ʌsɔ̃ ɔ̃s a̧s; ãs o̧s; õːs õs ʌsɔ ãsã; o̧so̧; ōsō ɔsugɔ osigɔ̃ ãsã; oso̧; ɔ̃sɔ̃
moon ʌgwa; oguao ɔgɔ aib ɔgwʌ; ogwa ogɔ ʌgwɔ ogwʌ; ogwa a nɔ̃ligɔ ogwʌ; ogwa
water hoi; hwɔ̃e hɔu hãu; ho̧u̧ hãũ; ho̧u̧ hwẽi hũi; hũĩ; hwi̧; hwī hɔ̃wɔ̃ hɔ̃wɔ̃ hõ; ho̧u̧; hũ
fire dou; dɔu dɔlu dau; dolu dolu; dɔlu dɔbu dou dou; dɔu; dow dɔu dɔu dolo; dɔlɔ; dɔrɔ
stone yaw; yɔu yo yo yo yo yo; yɔ yo yo
road, path ori ai ari
name hũ; husolo hu̧ti; hũti hũni hũ; hu̧ti; hũti hũ; hu̧ti; hũti
eat nale; nɔlu nɔwal na- nowal; nɔwal nɔwalaga nɔlu na; naiɔ; naiyo nelaːbugɔ nãye na; na̧la; nãla
one dano; sisãfe helɛ dob helehai hele tano tano; tanɔ hɔmakɔna dihɔ̃ helenu; helenũ
two balo; sisãma bena behino̧w bẽnabugu; bȩnabugu bihinɔ̃n bʌnɔu beaũ; beya̧u̧ wɔlugu hɔma kɔna bȩnau; bẽnãu

Evolution[edit]

Supposed East Strickland reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[1]

Samo language:

  • (da)subu ‘ashes’ < *sumbu
  • si- ‘burn’ < *nj(a,e,i)-
  • na- ‘eat’ < *na-
  • magara ‘mouth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • korofu ‘skin’ < *(ŋg,k)a(n,t)apu
  • mere(ma) ‘tongue’ < *me(l,n)e
  • mini ‘nose’ < *mundu

Bibo language:

  • (da)suf ‘ashes’ < *sumbu

Agala language:

  • fulu(ma) ali ‘to fly’ < *pululu-

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  2. ^ Shaw, Daniel. 1986. The Bosavi language family. In Papers in New Guinea Linguistics 24, 45-76. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. (Papers in New Guinea linguistics No. 24, 45-76).
  3. ^ (NewGuineaWorld)
  4. ^ McElhanon, K.A. and Voorhoeve, C.L. The Trans-New Guinea Phylum: Explorations in deep-level genetic relationships. B-16, vi + 112 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1970. doi:10.15144/PL-B16
  5. ^ Shaw, R.D. "A Tentative Classification of the Languages of the Mt Bosavi Region". In Franklin, K. editor, The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea. C-26:187-215. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1973. doi:10.15144/PL-C26.187
  6. ^ Shaw, R.D. "The Bosavi language family". In Laycock, D., Seiler, W., Bruce, L., Chlenov, M., Shaw, R.D., Holzknecht, S., Scott, G., Nekitel, O., Wurm, S.A., Goldman, L. and Fingleton, J. editors, Papers in New Guinea Linguistics No. 24. A-70:45-76. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1986. doi:10.15144/PL-A70.45
  7. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.