Easter egg (media)
While the term Easter egg has been used to mean a hidden object for some time, in reference to an Easter egg hunt, it has come to be more commonly used to mean a message, image, or feature hidden in a video game, movie, or other, usually electronic, medium. The term used in this manner was coined around 1979 by Steve Wright, the then Director of Software Development in the Atari Consumer Division, to describe a hidden message in the Atari video game Adventure.
The use of the term "Easter egg" to describe secret features in video games originates from the 1979 video game Adventure for the Atari 2600 game console, programmed by employee Warren Robinett. At the time, Atari did not include programmers' names in the game credits, fearing that competitors would attempt to steal their employees. Robinett, who disagreed with his supervisor over this lack of acknowledgment, secretly programmed the message "Created by Warren Robinett" to appear only if a player moved their avatar over a specific pixel (dubbed the "Gray Dot") during a certain part of the game and entered a previously "forbidden" part of the map where the message would be found. When Robinett left Atari, he did not inform the company of the acknowledgment that he included in the game. Shortly after his departure, the "Gray Dot" and his message were discovered by a player. Atari's management initially wanted to remove the message and release the game again until this was deemed too costly. Instead, Steve Wright, the Director of Software Development in the Atari Consumer Division, suggested that they keep the message and, in fact, encourage the inclusion of such messages in future games, describing them as Easter eggs for consumers to find.
In video games
While Robinett's message in Adventure led to the use of the phrase Easter egg, Easter eggs were included in previous video games. The first text adventure game, Colossal Cave Adventure (1976), from which Adventure was fashioned, included several secret words. One of these was "xyzzy", a command which enabled the player to move between two points in the game world. In 2004, an Easter egg displaying programmer Bradley Reid-Selth's surname was found in Video Whizball (1978), a game for the Fairchild Channel F system. According to research by Ed Fries, the first known Easter egg in an arcade game was in Starship 1 (1977), programmed by Ron Milner. By triggering the cabinet's controls in the right order, the player could get the message "Hi Ron!" to appear on the screen. Fries described it as "the earliest arcade game yet known that clearly meets the definition of an Easter egg". The existence of this Easter egg wasn't published until 2017, leading Fries to suggest that, as more than one hundred arcade games predate Starship 1, earlier Easter eggs may still be undiscovered. Fries noted that some Atari arcade cabinets were resold under the Kee Games label and included changes to the hardware that would make the game appear different from the Atari version. Anti-Aircraft II (1975) included a means to modify the circuit board to make the airplanes in the game appear as alien UFOs. Fries surmised that this feature may have been intended for a Kee Games release. For this reason, and because it required a hardware modification, Fries questioned whether it met the definition of an Easter egg.
Since Adventure, there has been a long history of video game developers placing Easter eggs in their games.:19 Most Easter eggs are intentional - an attempt to communicate with the player or a way of getting even with management for a slight. Easter eggs in video games have taken a variety of forms, from purely ornamental screens to aesthetic enhancements that change some element of the game during play. The Easter egg included in the original Age of Empires (1997) is an example of the latter; catapult projectiles are changed from stones to cows.:19
More elaborate Easter eggs include secret levels and developers' rooms - fully functional, hidden areas of the game. Developers' rooms often include inside jokes from the fandom or development team and differ from a debug room in that they are specifically intended for the player to find. Some games even include hidden minigames as Easter eggs. In the LucasArts game Day of the Tentacle (1993), the original Maniac Mansion (1987) game can be played in its full version by using a home computer in a character's room. The Amiga and Atari ST ports of the 1988 game Dynamite Düx include an Easter egg for a sexually graphic alternative intro that requires the player to edit the game's code in a hex editor.
Other Easter eggs originated unintentionally. The Konami Code, a type of cheat code, became an intentional Easter egg in most games, but originated from Konami's Gradius (1985) for the Nintendo Entertainment System. The programmer, Kazuhisa Hashimoto, created the code as a means to rapidly debug the game by giving the player's avatar additional health and powers to easily traverse the game. These types of codes are normally removed from the game before it is shipped but, in the case of Gradius, Hashimoto forgot to remove it and the code was soon discovered by players. Its popularity inspired Konami to reuse the code and purposely retain it for many of its future games as an Easter egg.
Technical issues may also create unintentional Easter eggs. Jon Burton, founder of Traveller's Tales, announced that many seemingly apparent Easter eggs in their Sega Genesis games came about as a result of introducing programming tricks to get around some of the difficulty they had in getting Sega's strict certification for their games, catching any exceptions during execution to bring the game back to a usable state as to pass certification. For example, hitting the side of the Sonic 3D Blast (1996) cartridge while it was slotted in the console would bring the game back to the Level Select screen, which Burton explained was the default exception handling for any unidentified processor error, such as when connectivity between the cartridge and the console's microprocessor was temporarily lost.
In computer software, Easter eggs are secret responses that occur as a result of an undocumented set of commands. The results can vary from a simple printed message or image to a page of programmer credits or a small video game hidden inside an otherwise serious piece of software.
In the TOPS-10 operating system (for the DEC PDP-10 computer), the
make command is used to invoke the TECO editor to create a file. If given the file name argument
love, so that the command reads
make love, it will pause and respond
not war? before creating the file. This same behavior occurred on the RSTS/E operating system, where TECO will provide this response. Other Unix operating systems respond to "
why" with "
why not" (a reference to The Prisoner in Berkeley Unix, 1977).
Some versions of the DEC OpenVMS operating system have concealed exit status codes, including a reference to the Monty Python Dirty Hungarian Phrasebook skit; "
exit %xb70" returns the message "%SYSTEM-W-FISH, my hovercraft is full of eels" while "
exit %x34b4" returns a reference to an early Internet meme: "%SYSTEM-F-GAMEOVER, All your base are belong to us".
Many personal computers have much more elaborate eggs hidden in ROM, including lists of the developers' names, political exhortations, snatches of music, or images of the entire development team. Easter eggs in the 1997 version of Microsoft Office include a hidden flight simulator in Microsoft Excel and a pinball game in Microsoft Word. Since 2002, Microsoft does not allow any hidden or undocumented code as part of its trustworthy computing initiative.
An Easter egg is found on all Microsoft Windows operating systems before XP. In the 3D Text screen saver, entering the text "volcano" would display the names of all the volcanoes in the United States. Microsoft removed this Easter egg in XP but added others. Microsoft Excel 95 contained a hidden action game similar to Doom (1993) called The Hall of Tortured Souls.
The Google search engine famously contains many Easter eggs, given to the user in response to certain search queries. For example, Google Maps once responded to a request for directions from New York City to Tokyo by telling the user to kayak across the Pacific Ocean.
The first Easter egg to appear after his death was in a 2012 update to the Mac App Store for OS X Mountain Lion, in which downloaded apps were temporarily timestamped as "January 24, 1984", the date of the sales launch of the original Macintosh.
While computer-related Easter eggs are often found in software, occasionally they exist in hardware or firmware of certain devices. On some home computers the BIOS ROM contains Easter eggs. Notable examples include some errant 1993 AMI BIOS that on November 13, 1993, proceeded to play "Happy Birthday" via the PC speaker repeatedly instead of booting, as well as several early Apple Macintosh models that had pictures of the development team in the ROM. These Mac Easter eggs were well-publicized in the Macintosh press at the time along with the means to access them, and were later recovered by an NYC Resistor team, a hacker collective, through elaborate reverse engineering. Similarly, the Radio Shack Color Computer 3's ROM contains code which displays what looks like three Microware developers on a Ctrl+Alt+Reset keypress sequence—a hard reset which discards any information currently in RAM.
Several oscilloscopes contain Easter eggs. One example is the HP 54600B, known to have a Tetris (1984) clone, and the HP 54622D contains an imitation of the Asteroids (1979) game named Rocks. Another is the Tektronix 1755A Vector and Waveform Monitor which displays swimming fish when Remote>Software version is selected on the CONFIG menu.
In the second and third hardware revision of the Minolta Dynax/Maxxum/Alpha 9 SLR camera, including all SSM/ADI upgraded cameras, an undocumented button sequence can be utilized to reconfigure the camera to behave like the Dynax/Maxxum/Alpha 9Ti and subsequently invoke support for the limited model's extra functions also in the black model.
The Commodore Amiga 1000 computer includes the signatures of the design and development team embossed on the inside of the case, including Jay Miner and the paw print of his dog, Mitchy. The Commodore Amiga models 500, 600, and 1200 each feature Easter eggs in the form of song titles by The B-52's as white printing on the motherboards. The 500 says "B52/Rock Lobster", the 600 says "June Bug", and the 1200 says "Channel Z". The Amiga OS software contains hidden messages.
Many integrated circuit (chip) designers have included hidden graphics elements termed chip art, including images, phrases, developer initials, logos, and more. This artwork, like the rest of the chip, is reproduced in each copy by lithography and etching. These are visible only when the chip package is opened and examined under magnification. The 1984 CVAX microchip implementation of the MicroVAX CPU contained in its etchings the Russian phrase in the Cyrillic alphabet "VAX: When you care enough to steal the very best", placed there because, "knowing that some CVAXs would end up in the USSR, the team wanted the Russians to know that we were thinking of them".
- In a reprint of classic Captain America comics, a production artist drew a penis on Bucky Barnes.
- In 2000, Al Milgrom inserted a message into Universe X: Spidey #1 insulting his previous boss, Marvel Editor in Chief Bob Harras, following Harras' termination from Marvel Comics. On Page 28, panel 3, the spines of books on a bookshelf in the background read, "HARRAS HA HA, HE'S GONE, GOOD RIDDANCE TO BAD RUBBISH HE WAS A NASTY S.O.B." The message was spotted after the book was printed but before it went on sale; the copies that were printed for consumers were destroyed. However, 4,000 preview copies were distributed to retailers as part of a "First Look" deal, and these are today considered rare collectors' items. Milgrom was "apparently fired and allegedly (and quietly) re-hired several weeks later".
- Ethan Van Sciver hid the word "sex" in the background of nearly every page of New X-Men #118 (November 2001). Van Sciver subsequently stated that he hid the word throughout the book because he was annoyed with Marvel at the time for reasons he cannot remember, and thought it would be fun to engage in some mischief with his work.
- Indonesian artist Ardian Syaf is known to engage in the practice of hiding Easter egg references to political figures in the backgrounds of his artwork. In Batgirl (vol. 4) #9 (July 2012), Syaf included a storefront sign that referenced the President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo, although the text that accompanies the image of Widodo is covered by a caption. In April 2017, he caused an outcry by placing Easter egg references to the November 2016 Jakarta protests into the pages of X-Men Gold #1, which were perceived by readers to be anti-Semitic and anti-Christian. Though Syaf acknowledged the political nature of the messages, he stated that they were not intended to express any anti-Semitic nor anti-Christian sentiment on his part. In response to these Easter eggs, Marvel terminated their contract with Syaf.
Easter eggs are found on films, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs, often as deleted scenes or bonus features. Klinger states that their presence is "another signifier of artistry in the world of DVD supplements." According to American film critics James Berardinelli and Roger Ebert, most DVDs do not contain them and most examples are "inconsequential", but a very few, such as the one found on the Memento DVD release, are "worth the effort to seek out".
Unlike DVDs and computer games, broadcast radio and television programs contain no executable code. Easter eggs may still appear in the content itself, such as a hidden Mickey in a Disney film or a real telephone number instead of a 555 fictitious telephone number.[original research?] A 2014 Super Bowl advertisement was leaked online in which a lady gives a man a real telephone number, which the advertiser had hidden as a marketing ploy; the first caller to the number received a pair of tickets to the game. The 1980s animated series She-Ra: Princess of Power featured a character called Loo-Kee who typically appeared once per episode, hidden in a single screenshot. At the end of the episode, the screenshot would be shown again and Loo-Kee would challenge viewers to locate him before revealing his hiding place.
More recent broadcast media, where viewers have access to high-resolution digital copies or streaming services, may include further Easter eggs that can only be found by freezing the show at certain points. In the anthology series Black Mirror, the producers have included Easter eggs that reference past episodes, or tie into future episodes, as a means of loosely tying together all episodes into a single Black Mirror universe.
Security author Michel E. Kabay discussed security concerns of Easter eggs in 2000, saying that, while software quality assurance requires that all code be tested, it is not known whether Easter eggs are. He said that, as they tend to be held as programming secrets from the rest of the product testing process, a "logic bomb" could also bypass testing. Kabay asserts that this undermined the Trusted Computing Base, a paradigm of trustworthy hardware and software in place since the 1980s, and is of concern wherever personal or confidential information is stored, as this may then be vulnerable to damage or manipulation. Microsoft created some of the largest and most elaborate Easter eggs, such as those in Microsoft Office. In 2005, Larry Osterman of Microsoft acknowledged Microsoft Easter eggs, and his involvement in development of one, but described them as "irresponsible", and wrote that the company's Operating System division "has a 'no Easter Eggs' policy" as part of its Trustworthy Computing initiative.
In 2006, Douglas W. Jones said that while "some Easter eggs may be intentional tools used to detect illegal copying, others are clearly examples of unauthorized functionality that has slipped through the quality-control tests at the vendor". While hidden Easter eggs themselves are harmless, it may be possible for malware to be hidden in similar ways in voting machines or other computers.
Netscape Navigator contributor Jamie Zawinski stated in an interview in 1998 that harmless Easter eggs impose a negligible burden on shipped software, and serve the important purpose of helping productivity by keeping programmers happy.
Contemporary works about Easter eggs
Easter eggs have become more widely known to the general public and are referenced in contemporary artworks.
- In the Doctor Who episode "Blink", the existence of video Easter eggs across seventeen DVDs leads to solving the protagonists' dilemma.
- In Ernest Cline's novel Ready Player One and its film adaptation, the protagonists are competing with others to find various Easter eggs within a large virtual reality environment. The final challenge includes identifying and reaching the Easter egg from the Atari Adventure game.
- Hidden track
- List of Easter eggs in Microsoft products
- List of filmmaker's signatures
- List of Google Easter eggs
- Magic string
- The Book of Mozilla
- Undocumented feature
- "Zwei Kaninchen und ein Igel" ("Two rabbits and a hedgehog") by Carl Oswald Rostosky.
- Wolf, Mark J.P. (2012). Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. p. 177. ISBN 9780313379369.
- "Play Atari Adventure". IGN. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Baker, Chris (13 March 2015). "How One Man Invented the Console Adventure Game". WIRED. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Salen, Katie; Zimmerman, Eric (2005). The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 690–713. ISBN 0262195364. OCLC 58919795.
- "Letter to Atari" (PDF). 2600 Connections. Wayback Machine. August 4, 1980. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Pogue, David (August 8, 2019). "The Secret History of 'Easter Eggs'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
- Jerz, Dennis G. (2007). "Somewhere Nearby is Colossal Cave: Examining Will Crowther's Original "Adventure" in Code and in Kentucky". Digital Humanities Quarterly. The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations. 1 (2). Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Machkovech, Sam (22 March 2017). "The arcade world's first Easter egg discovered after fraught journey". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- Fries, Ed (24 March 2017). "The Hunt For The First Arcade Game Easter Egg". Kotaku. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- Consalvo, Mia (2007). Cheating: Gaining Advantage in Videogames. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262033657.
- Björk, Staffan; Holopainen, Jussi (2005). Patterns In Game Design (1st ed.). Hingham, Massachusetts: Charles River Media. p. 235. ISBN 9781584503545. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "Optical Information Systems Update/library & Information Center Applications". CD-ROM World. Meckler Publishing. 9 (1–5). February 1994. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
The best Easter egg of all is the entire Maniac Mansion game, which appears on a computer in Doctor Fred's mansion. Users can play the original game in its entirety.
- "Dynamite Dux » Codetapper's Amiga Site". Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- Garmon, Jay (5 March 2007). "Geek Trivia: The cheat goes on". TechRepublic. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- Orland, Kyle (4 October 2017). "How hitting a game cartridge unlocks gaming's weirdest Easter egg". Ars Technica. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Wagstaff, Keith (21 December 2011). "Google Maps Easter Egg: 'One Does Not Simply Walk Into Mordor'". Time. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Montfort, Nick; Bogost, Ian (2009). Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780262012577. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "OpenVMS Undocumented Features". PARSEC Group. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Anonymous (19 July 1999). "Excel Easter Egg - Excel 97 Flight to Credits". The Easter Egg Archive. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Arima, Kevin (20 July 2009). "Word (Microsoft) Easter Egg - Pinball in Word 97". The Easter Egg Archive. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Larry Osterman (October 21, 2005). "Why no Easter Eggs?". Larry Osterman's WebLog. MSDN Blogs. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- Grant, Rickford with; Bull, Phil (2010). Ubuntu for Non-Geeks: A Pain-Free, Get-Things-Done Guide (4th ed.). San Francisco: No Starch. p. 168. ISBN 9781593272579. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "apt/apt - Git repository for apt". anonscm.debian.org. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
- "apt/apt - Git repository for apt". anonscm.debian.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Hoye, David (13 March 2003). "'Easter egg' hunts can turn up surprises". Newsbank. The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 4 November 2017.(subscription required)
- Gaskell, John (19 July 1999). "Excel Easter Egg - Excel 95 Hall of Tortured Souls". The Easter Egg Archive. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- Firth, Niall (29 October 2010). "How do I get to China? Jet ski! Google Maps joke gives users unorthodox instructions for crossing the Pacific". Daily Mail. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- Diaz, Jesus (26 July 2012). "The Easter Eggs Are Back in OS X—And This One Is Insanely Great". Gizmodo. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Happy Birthday Description". F-Secure Labs. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Kendig, Brain (1994). "Macintosh/Newton Easter Egg List". Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- hudson (21 August 2012). "Ghosts in the ROM". NYC Resistor. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Tirosh, Udi (22 August 2012). "Photographs Of Apple Team Found In 25 Years Old Macintosh SE". DIY Photography. Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "The World of 68' Micros, The - Vol. 5 Number 6". 5 (6). FARNA Systems. May 1998: 5. Retrieved 4 November 2017. Cite journal requires
- kcbhiw (24 July 2001). "HP 54600B Oscilloscope Easter Egg - Tetris Within Oscilloscope". The Easter Egg Archive. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- TonyK (24 April 2002). "HP 54622D Easter Egg - HP Asteroids". The Easter Egg Archive. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Pavel (8 April 2000). "Tektronix 1751 Digital Video Osciloscope / Vectorscope Easter Egg - Fishes Swimming on Screen". The Easter Egg Archive. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Paul E. Miller (June 1976). "How To Use The HP-45 Calculator As a Stopwatch Or Elapsed-time Indicator". Popular Electronics.
- Corrigan, Patricia (2007). Bringing Science to Life: A Guide from the Saint Louis Science. St. Louis, Missouri: Reedy Press. p. 69. ISBN 9781933370163.
- "(title needed)". Compute!. Small System Service. 12 (6–9). 1990.
- Petersen, Julie K. (2002). The Telecommunications Illustrated Dictionary (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 293. ISBN 9780849311734. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Hyman, Michael (1995). PC Roadkill. Foster City, California: Programmers Press. p. c. ISBN 9781568843483. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Bob Supnik (February 24, 2008). "CVAX". Computer Simulation and History. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- "Steal The Best". Molecular Expressions: The Silicon Zoo. July 7, 1999. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Cronin, Brian (1 July 2011). "Comic Book Easter Eggs Archive!". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Johnston, Rich (8 April 2017). "Marvel Artist Ardian Syaf Hid Antisemitic And Anti-Christian Messages In This Week's X-Men Comic". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- McCallum, Diana (4 February 2011). "6 Comic Book Easter Eggs That Stuck It to The Man". Cracked.com. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Universe X Spidey 1 Harras Slander Variant". Recalled Comics. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Cronin, Brian (19 July 2011). "Comic Book Easter Eggs - New "Se"X-Men #118 Edition!". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Gail Simone (w), Ardian Syaf (p), Vicente Cifuentes (i). "In the Line of Fire" Batgirl v4, 9 (July 2012), DC Comics
- Lovett, Jamie (8 April 2017). "Marvel Releases Statement On Controversial X-Men Gold Art". ComicBook.com. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Buni Yani Questioned Again in Cyber Harassment Case". Jakarta Globe. January 2017. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Brown, Tracy (11 April 2017). "Today in Entertainment: Inside Disney's Pandora; Fyre Fest's apology; and 'Hamilton' ticket details". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Saltzman, Marc (2002). DVD Confidential: Hundreds of Hidden Easter Eggs Revealed. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 978-0072226638.
- Bennett, James; Brown, Tom (2008). "The DVD Cinephile: Viewing Heritages and Home Film Cultures". Film and television after DVD. New York: Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 9780415962414. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Berardinelli, James; Ebert, Roger (2005). "Appendix: Easter Eggs, Extended Editions, and Director's Cuts". Reel Views 2: The Ultimate Guide to the Best 1,000 Modern Movies on DVD and Video, Volume 2 (1st U.S ed.). Boston: Justin, Charles & Co. p. 577. ISBN 9781932112405. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Merda, Chad (January 30, 2014). "Easter egg in Old Spice Super Bowl ad yields two tickets to curious fan". Chicago Sun-Times. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- Bricken, Rob (May 25, 2015). "Every She-Ra: Princess Of Power Figure, Ranked". io9. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- DePiano, Hillary (2006). The She-Ra Collector's Inventory: an Unofficial Illustrated Guide to All Princess of Power Toys and Accessories. Priced Nostalgia Press. p. 33. ISBN 9781411631281. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- Strause, Jackie (7 September 2017). "'Black Mirror' Bosses on "San Junipero" Sequel and an Unpredictable Season 4". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Kabay, M.E. (27 March 2000). "Easter eggs and the Trusted Computing Base". Network World. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Schultz, Greg (29 August 2010). "Take a look back at Microsoft Word Easter Eggs". ZDNet. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
Microsoft's developers hid multiple Easter Eggs in Word 95/97/2000.
- Neuman, Peter G. (10 November 2006). "A Conversation with Douglas W. Jones and Peter G. Neumann". Queue. 5 (9). Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Spolsky, Joel (2004). Joel on Software. Berkeley, California: Apress. p. 280. ISBN 9781590593899. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Wilkins, Alasdiar (April 13, 2014). "Doctor Who: "Blink"/"Utopia"". The A.V. Club. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
- Gach, Ethan (March 30, 2018). "The Real-Life Atari Secret That Inspired Ready Player One". Kotaku. Retrieved August 5, 2019.