He attended the common schools, and learned the carpenter's trade. In November 1808, he married Percy Tiffany (d. 1827), and they had five children, among them Edwin Clark Litchfield (1815–). In 1812, he removed to Delphi. He fought in the War of 1812 and was promoted to Major. He was a Justice of the Peace and Supervisor of Onondaga County. He abandoned carpentry, and became a merchant. He was appointed Postmaster of Delphi on November 28, 1817, and served until June 25, 1821.
He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1819. Litchfield was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the 17th, and as a Crawford Democratic-Republican to the 18th United States Congress, holding office from December 3, 1821, to March 3, 1825. In 1828, he married Mrs. Lucy Bacon, widow of Dr. Enos Bacon, and they had four children.
He was again a member of the State Assembly in 1831, 1832, 1833 and 1844, and was Speaker in 1844. Afterwards he removed to Cazenovia and died there on August 4, 1859. He was buried at the City Cemetery in Delphi Falls.
- United States Congress. "Elisha Litchfield (id: L000346)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- The New England Historical and Genealogical Register published by the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1855; Vol. IX; pages 215f)
- The Nominee of the Second Congressional District in NYT on October 6, 1858
- EDWIN C. LITCHFIELD obit in NYT on July 23, 1885
- Elisha Litchfield at Find a Grave
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 19th congressional district
|New district|| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 23rd congressional district
George R. Davis
| Speaker of the New York State Assembly